Introduction to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Report
Spokane Smart Justice Symposium
Kevin Camp CDP, CCDC III, NCACI
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
 Rational Emotive Behavioral
Therapy
 Moral Reconation Therapy
(MRT)
Uses:
 Treating anti-social
personality disorders
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Moral Reconation Therapy
MRT® Focuses On Eight Treatment Issues:
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2.
3.
4.
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Confrontation of beliefs & behaviors
Assessment of current relationships
Reinforcement of positive behavior
Positive identity formation
Enhancement of self-concept
Decrease in pleasure-seeking
Development of frustration tolerance
Higher stages of moral reasoning
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MRT® Treatment Programs
1.
2.
3.
4.
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6.
7.
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11.
12.
MRT® includes a number of cognitive-behavioral
treatments, including: Substance abuse
Relapse prevention
DWI/DUI offenses
Criminal thinking
Domestic violence
Juvenile Programs
Anger Management
Relapse Prevention
Job Readiness
Family Support
Life Skills
Parenting
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Benefits of MRT-based
Programming
o MRT is easy to implement.
o MRT is designed and developed to target issues specific to an offender
population.
o MRT is designed to address issues of a treatment resistant population.
o MRT has shown to reduce the recidivism rate of offenders by between
30% and 50% for periods up to 20 years after release.
o MRT improves offender compliance to rules in an institution or while
under supervision in the community.
o MRT is delivered in open-ended groups, which allows for maximizing
resources.
o MRT easily meshes and blends with other types of programming
including self-help groups, education, counseling and behaviorally
oriented programs.
o MRT will increase offenders’ moral reasoning, decrease dropout rates,
increase sense of purpose and reduce antisocial thinking and behavior.
o When implemented in a variety of criminal justice settings, MRT
provides a continuum of care.
o The cost of implementing MRT saves $11.48 for every dollar spent
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Rational-Emotive
Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
Frustrated with the inefficiency of
psychoanalysis, Albert Ellis, Ph.D.
based his therapeutic approach
on the philosophy of Epictetus,
who believed that people are
influenced by their perceptions.
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Rational-Emotive
Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
Ellis believed that thoughts fall
along a continuum from
rationality to irrationality. For
him, emotional problems are
rooted in irrational demands that
people place on themselves.
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Rational-Emotive
Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
What are examples of irrational
“demands” or thoughts ?
must = I must be liked by others.
should = People should be nice.
ought = I ought to perform well.
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ABCD Model of REBT
A = activating event (what
happened; could be an event, a
thought or an image)
B = belief (s) about the event
C = consequence (emotional
and/or behavioral response)
D = dispute (of the belief)
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ABCD Model of REBT
Key Construct
The activating event does not
cause the consequence. Rather, it
is one’s beliefs about the
activating event which produce
one’s emotional and/or
behavioral response to it.
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ABCD Model of REBT
Key Construct
The goal of REBT is to break the
cycle of irrationality by disputing
the person’s beliefs with rational
thoughts, leading to healthier
emotional and/or behavioral
consequences.
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Excerpted from Ellis, A. (2007). Emotional disturbance and its treatment in a nutshell. Retrieved November 8,
2010, from http://www.rebt.org/professional/download-rebt-cbt-pamphlets.html
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
Aaron Beck, M.D. moved away
from psychoanalysis because its
effectiveness could not be
demonstrated in experimental
studies. Beck sought a scientific
approach to psychotherapy.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
Beck applied an informationprocessing model to emotional
disturbance and asserted that
cognitions (thoughts), emotions,
behaviors, and physiological
responses all interact together.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
For Beck, cognitions affect
emotions and actions; emotions
affect actions and cognitions;
actions affect cognitions and
emotions. This cycle is circular
and self-reinforcing.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
cognitions
actions
emotions
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
Beck’s experiments revealed
patterns of thinking, which he
called “automatic thoughts”,
“distorted thinking”, “faulty
assumptions”, and “cognitive
schemata”.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
Beck classified 11 types of
cognitive distortions. More
importantly, Beck’s work gave rise
to evidence-based psychotherapy.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
What is “evidence-based”
psychotherapy? Scientifically, it
means that psychological theories
are supported by experimental
data (e.g., evidence). In CBT, it
has dual meanings.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
1. CBT therapists ask clients to
test their cognitive distortions by
collecting data about their
thoughts and to identify the
evidence which contradicts their
distorted thinking patterns.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
2. Experimental studies of clients
treated in CBT demonstrate the
validity of cognitive distortions as
a concept and the reliability of
treating clients by disputing the
distortions with data (evidence).
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT)
Beck’s scientific approach to
psychotherapy was revolutionary
in the mid-20th century. Studies
of CBT continue to demonstrate
its efficacy in treating a range of
psychological disorders.
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References
Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F. & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of
depression. New York: Guilford Press.
Burns, D.D. (1980). Feeling good: The new mood therapy. New York:
William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Ellis, A. (2007). Emotional disturbance and its treatment in a nutshell.
Retrieved November 8, 2010, from
http://www.rebt.org/professional/download-rebt-cbt-pamphlets.html
Padesky, C.A., & Beck, A.T. (2003). Science and philosophy: Comparison of
cognitive therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy. Journal of
Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, Vol 17(3), 211-224. New
York: Springer Publishing. Retrieved November 5, 2010, from
http://www.padesky.com/clinicalcorner/pubs.htm.
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