Supporting, Accommodating and Scaffolding the Common

Report
Supporting, Accommodating, &
Scaffolding Instruction
in the Common Core
Presented by:
Northwestern Illinois Association
for Paraprofessional Training
Sheri White
[email protected]
www.thenia.org
presenter
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Peg Rozhon
Northwestern Illinois Association
3626 E. State St.
Rockford, IL 61108
(815)964-0937, ext. 36
Fax: (815)964-2210
[email protected]
objectives
• 1) To become familiar with Common Core standards and its
relationship to ILS (Illinois State Standards) and CCRS
(College and Career Readiness Standards)
• 2) To understand your role with respect to common core
expectations: DLM (Dynamic Learning Maps, EE (Essential
Elements), supported instruction
• 3) To gain awareness of best practice to meet common core
standard expectations
–
–
–
–
–
Process over content
Increasing difficulty/rigor of assignments and activities
Development of student vocabulary
Development of critical thinking skills
Independent performance
Ground Rules
•
•
•
•
Seminar schedule
Breaks
Cell phones
Group etiquette
(side conversations are discourteous and disruptive to those
around you and to the speaker, please play nice!)
• Participation guidelines
– “call back” signal
– Remember: You only get what you give
Common Core State
Standards
•
•
•
•
•
Fewer, clearer and higher
College and Careers Readiness
Rigorous content and applications
Evidence-based
International benchmarking
So what does it all mean?
Fewer, clearer, higher
College and career readiness
Rigorous content and applications
Evidence based
International benchmarking
Learning for ALL!
But what does it mean
for kids with
significant
disabilities?
Common Core Essential
Elements
• Specific statements of the content
and skills
• Linked to the CCSS
• Provide links between the CCSS and
grade specific expectations
More importantly, the CCEE
focus on more reasonable
expectations for students
with significant
disabilities.
Let’s review the CCSS
K-12 standards
• Grade-specific end-of-year
expectations
• Developmentally appropriate,
cumulative progression of skills and
understandings
BACKWARDS PROGRESSION OF A COMMON CORE STANDARD –English and Language Arts
CCSS Grade-level Standards English/ Language Arts
STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE (RL)
COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR STANDARDS FOR READING: R.CCR.1 Read closely to determine what the text
says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
High School (11-12) Key Ideas and Details: RL.11-12.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says
explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
High School (9-10) Key Ideas and Details: RL.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says
explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
GRADE 8/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.8.1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as
well as inferences drawn from the text.
GRADE 7/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.7.1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the text.
GRADE 6/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn
from the text.
GRADE 5/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing
inferences from the text.
GRADE 4/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when
drawing inferences from the text.
GRADE 3/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as
the basis for the answers.
GRADE 2/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate
understanding of key details in a text.
GRADE 1/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.1.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
GRADE K/ Key Ideas and Details: RL.K.1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
BACKWARDS PROGRESSION OF A COMMON CORE STANDARD –Mathematics
CCSS Grade-level Standards Math
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
High School/ cluster –The Real Number System: N-RN.1. Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational1 exponents2 follows from
extending the properties of integer3 exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals4 in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define
81/3 to be the cubed root of 8 because we want (81/3)3 = 8(1/3)3 to hold so 81/3)3 must equal 8.
GRADE 8/ cluster – The Number System: 8.NS.1 Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; the rational numbers
are those with decimal expansions that terminate in 0s or eventually repeat. Know that other numbers are called irrational.
GRADE 7/ cluster – The Number System: 7.NS.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract
rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.
GRADE 6/ cluster – The Number System: 6.NS.1 Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of
fractions by fractions, e.g. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
GRADE 5/ cluster –Number and Operations in Base Ten: 5.NBT.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place
represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
GRADE 4/ cluster –Number and Operations in Base Ten: 4.NBT.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place
represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right.
GRADE 3/ cluster –Number and Operations in Base Ten: 3.NBT.1 Use place value and understanding to round whole numbers to the
nearest 10 or 100
GRADE 2/ cluster –Number and Operations in Base Ten: 2.NBT.1 Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent
amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones. Understand that 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens – called a “hundred.” The numbers 100, 200, 300,
400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one , two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones)
GRADE 1/ cluster –Number and Operations in Base Ten: 1.NBT.1 Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range,
read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written number.
GRADE K/ cluster –Number and Operations in Base Ten: K.NBT.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and
some further ones, e.g. by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8);
understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
1
A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers, X/Y where Y is not zero.
The exponent of a number shows you how many times the number is to be used in a multiplication.
3
Integers are natural numbers which includes all whole(not decimal or fraction) numbers from negative infinity to positive infinity including zero.
4
A radical is a symbol √, which is used to indicate square roots
2
scaffolding
Each of the
standards has
been scaffolded
in that they build
upon one and
another.
Illinois State Standards
• CCSS do relate to the current ISS
• ISS are still present in areas other than
Mathematics and English/Language Arts
• ISS in Eng/LA and Math tied to CCSS
• Other areas include: Foreign Languages,
Social Emotional Learning, NGSS* Science,
Social Science, Physical Development &
Health, Fine Arts
*Next Generation Science
Standards
College & Career Readiness
Standards (CCR)
• Agricultural Education,
• Business, Marketing and Computer
Education,
• Family and Consumer Sciences,
Health Science Technology,
• and Technology and Engineering
Education (Industrial).
HANDOUTS
ARE
YOU
READY?
Career and
Technical
Education in
Illinois Fact
Sheet
Myths about CCSS
• MYTH: Common core lowers the bar for everyone
• FACT: The Standards were informed by the best
in the country, the highest international
standards, and evidence and expertise about
educational outcomes. The unfortunate truth is
that even in our highest performing states,
graduation rates are not 100%, unemployment is
high and need for remedial college courses is
present!
DON’T BE FOOLED BY THE WORD “common”!
Table Activity
Clementine’s Weight Loss Program
Instructions
1. Find handout in packet:
Clementine’s Weight Loss
Program
2. Select the following for
your table:
recorder
reporter
time keeper
materials go-for
3. Review exercise with me
4. Send go-for to get chart
paper and marker
5. 10 minutes to complete
exercise
6. Have go-for tape your
table’s response on the wall
7. Questions?
Let’s take a tour!
• Grab some post-its
• Get up and take a look at the group
reports on Clementine
• If you are curious about anything on
a report, write your question and
stick it on the report
Dynamic Learning Maps
Essential Elements
• Specific statements of knowledge &
skills related to the CCSS;
• Bridge between the expectations
outlined in the CCSS and the
expectations of students with the
most significant cognitive disabilities.
DLM are highly
connected
representations of how
academic skills are
acquired
CCSS IDENTIFY THE
LEARNING TARGETS
Dynamic Learning
Maps clarify how to
get there
Third grade English Language Arts Standards: Writing 1
CCSS2 Grade-level Standards
Text type and purposes
W.3.1.Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point
of view with reasons.
W.3.1.a. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state
an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists
reasons.
W.3.1.b. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
W.3.1.c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g. because,
therefore, since, for example to connect opinion and reasons.
W.3.1.d. Provide a concluding statement or section.
1
2
DLM Essential Elements
E.E. W.3.1. Write opinions about topics or text.
E.E. W.3.1.a. Select a text and write an opinion about it.
E.E. W.3.1.b. Write one reason to support an opinion about a text.
E.E. W.3.1. c. Not applicable
E.E. W.3.1.d. Not applicable
Writing can use standard writing instruments, computers, or alternative writing tools
CCSE stands for COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS
Essential Elements for High School
CCSS1 Grade-level Standards
DLM Essential Elements
CLUSTER: Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
N-RN.1. Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational3
E.E.N-RN.1 Determine the value of a quantity that is squared or cubed
2
exponents4 follows from extending the properties of integer5
6
exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in
1/3
terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 8 to be the
cubed root of 8 because we want (81/3)3 = 8(1/3)3 to hold so 81/3)3
must equal 8.
N-RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational
exponents using the properties of exponents.
Not applicable
CLUSTER: Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
N-RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers Not applicable
is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational7
number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational
number and an irrational number is irrational.
1
CCSE stands for COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS
Each of the math standards has been clustered to reflect a set of related concepts.
A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers, X/Y where Y is not zero.
4
The exponent of a number shows you how many times the number is to be used in a multiplication.
5
Integers are natural numbers which includes all whole(not decimal or fraction) numbers from negative infinity to positive infinity including zero.
6
A radical is a symbol √, which is used to indicate square roots
7
An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as a simple fraction - the decimal goes on forever without repeating. (example: π pi)
2
3
Dynamic Learning Maps
• Alternate assessment for students
with disabilities
• Sequenced learning targets
• Dynamic in that the system
recognizes that learning is not the
same for everyone
A Useful Comparison
Let’s take a trip to Coney Island, NY
How long will the trip take?
At your table discuss this question; if you need
clarifying information, record it on a post-it note
and have your go-fer from Carol’s Weight Loss
Activity bring them to me.
Answers
•
•
•
•
•
•
17 hours and 45 minutes
12 hours and 42 minutes
21 hours and 14 minutes
264 hours
89 hours
37 minutes
How is the dynamic learning
maps assessment different
from the ILA?
• It is an ongoing assessment
• It starts at the student’s present
level of performance
• It is both formative and summative
Remember Clementine?
Retrieve your table report; review any
post its; address them as needed
Prepare Your Table reports for
Clementine
Report 
Formative assessment
Summative assessment
How is the dynamic learning
maps assessment different
from the ILA?
The assessment will incorporate
instructionally relevant item types
that are similar to what students
actually do during instruction.
Skills Assessed
• Tested Subject-Specific Skills.
These skills include things like
knowing a vocabulary word or being
able to solve a multiplication problem.
Skills Assessed
• Related Precursor Academic Skills. These
are the underlying skills necessary to
master the tested skill. For example, to
solve a multiplication problem, a student
first needs to understand what numbers
are, be able to order numbers, etc. For
each grade-level skill that is tested, there
are numerous precursor skills.
Skills Assessed
• Communication Skills. These are skills that
allow students to communicate their
answers. Communication skills are not
limited to speech, but include a variety of
things like pointing or nodding.
• Attention Skills. Before a student can
show knowledge of a particular subject,
the student must first be able to focus on
the task or item presented.
Skills Assessed
• Attention Skills. Before a student
can show knowledge of a particular
subject, the student must first be
able to focus on the task or item
presented.
• By mapping these and other types of
skills, learning maps allow students to
show what they do know rather than
simply cataloging what they don’t
know.
Another key
difference:
Participation guidelines
Dynamic Learning Maps™ Participation Guidelines
Participation in the Dynamic Learning Maps Alternate Assessment requires a yes answer to each of the following questions. Each state participating in the
Dynamic Learning Maps will determine whether its IEP teams must select alternate assessment as the appropriate option for all subjects or whether teams
may decide a student’s participation separately for each subject.
Participation Criterion
1. The student has a
significant cognitive
disability
2. The student is primarily
being instructed (or
taught) using the DLM
Essential Elements as
content standards
Participation Criterion Descriptors
Review of student records indicate a disability or
multiple disabilities that significantly impact
intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.
*Adaptive behavior is defined as essential for
someone to live independently and to function safely
in daily life.
Goals and instruction listed in the IEP for this
student are linked to the enrolled grade level DLM
Essential Elements and address knowledge and
skills that are appropriate and challenging for this
student.
The student
3. The student requires
a. requires extensive, repeated, individualized
extensive direct
individualized
instruction and support that is not of a
instruction and
temporary or transient nature and
substantial supports to
b. uses substantially adapted materials and
achieve measureable
individualized methods of accessing
gains in the grade-and
information in alternative ways to acquire,
age-appropriate
maintain, generalize, demonstrate and
curriculum.
transfer skills across multiple settings.
Agree (Yes) or
Disagree (No)?
Provide documentation
for each
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
The following are not allowable (or acceptable) considerations for determining participation in the Dynamic Learning Maps Alternate Assessment.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
A disability category or label
Poor attendance or extended absences
Native language/social/cultural or economic difference
Expected poor performance on the general education assessment
Academic and other services student receives
Educational environment or instructional setting
Percent of time receiving special education
English Language Learner (ELL) status
Low reading level/achievement level
Anticipated student’s disruptive behavior
Impact of student scores on accountability system
Administrator decision
Anticipated emotional duress
Need for accommodations (e.g., assistive technology/AAC) to participate in assessment process
Not officially accepted
at this time
Tied to Present Levels of
Performance
As the students take assessments, the
tasks and items are determined
based upon performance on the
previous task or item. This gives a
clearer picture of a student’s present
level of performance.
What do instructional
assistants need to change
with respect to their daily
interactions with students
in order to help them
achieve the best possible
outcomes?
Essential Elements for High School
CCSS1 Grade-level Standards
DLM Essential Elements
CLUSTER: Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
N-RN.1. Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational3
E.E.N-RN.1 Determine the value of a quantity that is squared or cubed
2
4
5
exponents follows from extending the properties of integer
6
exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in
1/3
terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 8 to be the
cubed root of 8 because we want (81/3)3 = 8(1/3)3 to hold so 81/3)3
must equal 8.
N-RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational
exponents using the properties of exponents.
Not applicable
CLUSTER: Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
N-RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers Not applicable
is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational7
number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational
number and an irrational number is irrational.
1
CCSE stands for COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS
Each of the math standards has been clustered to reflect a set of related concepts.
3
A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers, X/Y where Y is not zero.
4
The exponent of a number shows you how many times the number is to be used in a multiplication.
5
Integers are natural numbers which includes all whole(not decimal or fraction) numbers from negative infinity to positive infinity including zero.
6
A radical is a symbol √, which is used to indicate square roots
7
An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as a simple fraction - the decimal goes on forever without repeating. (example: π pi)
2
UN PACK THE
STATEMENT
Underline the verbs
determine, squared, cubed
Circle the nouns
value, quantity
Figure out the skills
needed
Start with the verb determine –
What skills do you need to determine
something?
Look at the nouns:
quantity
value
What skills do you need to determine
quantity? Value?
Figure out the skills
needed
Look at the other verbs:
squared
cubed
What skills are needed to determine
the value of a squared number? A
cubed number?
Table Activity
• Unpack the statements at your table.
• Use the worksheet to report your
results.
do functional
activity with
assistance (e.g.,
playing with a
word puzzle with
assistance)
Curriculum Ladder
do a different, parallel activity
(e.g., learning a computer
program with a spell check)
do a similar activity but with adapted materials
(e.g., using a computer spelling program)
do a similar activity but with adapted expectations (e.g., using
words that are functional to the learners’ environment)
do the same activity but with adapted expectations and materials (e.g., matching
words to pictures)
do the same activity but with adapted expectations (e.g., fewer words)
can work at the same level as peers
You cannot think of
standards as a discrete
set of skills
Useful Technique
Look at all of the skills across grade
levels and within the clusters of the
standards.
BACKWARDS PROGRESSION OF STANDARDS
The real number system: CCSS compared to DLM Essential Learning Standards
CCSS
DLM Essential Learning
High School/ cluster –The Real
Number System: N-RN.1. Explain how
EE-N-RN.1. Determine the value of a
quantity that is squared or cubed
the definition of the meaning of rational
exponents follows from extending the
properties of integer exponents to those
values, allowing for a notation for radicals in
terms of rational exponents. For example, we
define 81/3 to be the cubed root of 8 because
1/3 3 = (1/3)3
1/3)3
we want (8 ) 8
to hold so 8
must
equal 8.
GRADE 8/ cluster – The Number
System: 8.NS.1 Understand informally that
every number has a decimal expansion; the
rational numbers are those with decimal
expansions that terminate in 0s or eventually
repeat. Know that other numbers are called
irrational.
GRADE 7/ cluster – The Number
System: 7.NS.1 Apply and extend previous
understandings of addition and subtraction to
add and subtract rational numbers; represent
addition and subtraction on a horizontal or
vertical number line diagram.
GRADE 6/ cluster – The Number
System: 6.NS.1 Interpret and compute
EE-8.NS.1. Subtract fractions with like
denominators (halves¸ thirds,
fourths, and tenths) with
minuends less than or equal to
one.
EE-7.NS.1. Add fractions with like
denominators (halves¸ thirds, fourths,
and tenths) with sums less than or
equal to one.
EE-6.NS.1. Compare the relationships
between two unit fractions.
E.E.-5.NBT.1 Compare numbers up to
99 using base ten models.
Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit
in one place represents 10 times as much as it
represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of
what it represents in the place to its left.
GRADE 4/ cluster –Number and
Operations in Base Ten: 4.NBT.1
E.E.-4.NBT.1 Not Applicable – see
E.E.-5.NBT.1
Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit
in one place represents ten times what it
represents in the place to its right.
GRADE 3/ cluster –Number and
Operations in Base Ten: 3.NBT.1 Use
place value and understanding to round whole
numbers to the nearest 10 or 100
Understand that the three digits of a three-digit
number represent amounts of hundreds, tens,
and ones. Understand that 100 can be thought
of as a bundle of ten tens – called a “hundred.”
The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600,
700, 800, 900 refer to one , two, three, four,
five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0
tens and 0 ones)
GRADE 1/ cluster –Number and
Operations in Base Ten: 1.NBT.1
quotients of fractions, and solve word problems
involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g.
by using visual fraction models and equations
to represent the problem.
GRADE 5/ cluster –Number and
Operations in Base Ten: 5.NBT.1
GRADE 2/ cluster –Number and
Operations in Base Ten: 2.NBT.1
E.E.-3.NBT.1 Use decade numbers (10, 20,
30) as benchmarks to demonstrate
understanding of place value for numbers 0-30.
Count to 120, starting at any number less than
120. In this range, read and write numerals and
represent a number of objects with a written
number.
E.E.-2.NBT.1 Represent numbers up to
30 with sets of tens and ones using
objects in columns or arrays.
E.E.-1.NBT.1 a. Count by ones to 30.
E.E.-1.NBT.1 b. Count as many as 10
objects and represent the quantity with
the corresponding numeral.
GRADE K/ cluster –Number and
E.E.-K.NBT.1 Not applicable – See
Operations in Base Ten: K.NBT.1
EE1.NBT.4 (Compose numbers less
Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to
than or equal to five in more than one
19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g. by way.) and EE.1.NBT.6. (Decompose
using objects or drawings, and record each
numbers less than or equal to 5 in
composition or decomposition by a drawing or
more than one way.)
equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that
these numbers are composed of ten ones and
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or
nine ones.
2
+
3
=
5
Compose and
decompose
the number 5
Bundles to show 10
and 14
Array: an
arrangement
of rows and
columns to
represent a
number
1/2
1/4
1/6
Unit
fractions:
Fractions
with 1 in the
denominator
Third grade English Language Arts Standards: Writing 1
CCSS2 Grade-level Standards
Text type and purposes
W.3.1.Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point
of view with reasons.
W.3.1.a. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state
an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists
reasons.
W.3.1.b. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
W.3.1.c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g. because,
therefore, since, for example to connect opinion and reasons.
W.3.1.d. Provide a concluding statement or section.
1
2
DLM Essential Elements
E.E. W.3.1. Write opinions about topics or text.
E.E. W.3.1.a. Select a text and write an opinion about it.
E.E. W.3.1.b. Write one reason to support an opinion about a text.
E.E. W.3.1. c. Not applicable
E.E. W.3.1.d. Not applicable
Writing can use standard writing instruments, computers, or alternative writing tools
CCSE stands for COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS
Group work
Planning for Success
Instructions
1. Find handouts in packet: Planning for Success
2. Select the following for your table:
recorder
reporter
time keeper
materials go-for
3. Review exercise with me: Use the standard at your table
along with your “unpacked” standard worksheets; create a plan
for either Avery (odd numbered tables) or Bonnie (even
numbered tables)
4. Send go-for to get any clarification you need.
5. Complete the Planning for Success worksheet.
6. 10 minutes to complete exercise
7. Questions?
Measuring progress
TARGET
GENERALIZATION
INDEPENDENCE
COMPLEXITY/DIFFICULTY
CONSISTENCY
Reflection
• What was easy?
• What was challenging?
• What ideas do you have about
planning?
• What support do you think you will
need from your lead teacher?
target
• Ready aim fire
and
• Ready fire aim
generalization
Students must be able to perform the
instruction across a variety of
environments.
independence
For instruction to be successful,
students must be able to do it when
we are not there!
LEAST RESTRICTIVE
PROMPT
• Critical to the new assessments
• Promote independent functioning
• Continuum of supports!
consistency
One has to be able to perform
successfully across all environments,
all the time, and with the same
proficiency ALL THE TIME!
For Review
• State
Standards
CCSS
ILS
CCR
DLM EE
• Your Role
Reinforce
instruction
Formative
assessment
Vocabulary
• Best Practice
Process over
content
Increasing
difficulty
Critical
thinking
Independence
Thank you!

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