Citing & Referencing in APA Style

Report
CITING AND REFERENCING
IN APA STYLE
Center for Professional Communication
Academic Misconduct
All forms of academic misconduct are prohibited by the Student Code of Conduct. Academic misconduct is an
A-level offense and is defined by the student code of conduct as Dishonesty or Deception in fulfilling academic
requirements. It includes, but is not limited to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
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cheating
plagiarism
un-permitted collaboration
forged attendance (when attendance is required)
fabrication (e.g., use of invented information or falsification of research or other findings)
using advantages not approved by the instructor (e.g., unauthorized review of a copy of an exam
ahead of time)
knowingly permitting another student to plagiarize or cheat from one's work
submitting the same assignment in different courses without consent of the instructor.
Note: An instructor may impose a grade penalty for academic misconduct and/or file a judicial referral.
If you are unsure about a question of academic misconduct, consult your instructor or the director of
Judiciaries. If you are found to be involved in academic misconduct, your instructor has the option of lowering
your grade or giving you an F grade on the project or in the course, and/or referring you to Judiciaries.
Possible sanctions through Judiciaries are suspension, expulsion, or any sanction not less than a reprimand.
(University Judiciaries, 2011)
What is Plagiarism

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: to “plagiarize
 To
steal and pass off (the ideas and words of another)
as one’s own
 To use (another’s production) without crediting the
source
 To commit literary theft
 To present as new and original an idea or product
derived from an existing source
Plagiarism

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

Turning in someone else’s work as your own
Copying words or ideas from someone else without
giving credit
Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
Giving incorrect information about the source of a
quotation
Plagiarism



Changing words but copying the sentence structure
of a source without giving credit
Copying so many words or ideas from a source that
is makes up the majority of your work, whether you
give credit or not
Using your own work from previous classes (without
faculty consent or citing yourself)
Crediting Sources
“A critical part of the writing process is helping
readers place your contributions in context by
citing the researchers who influenced you” (APA,
2010, p. 169).
When to Cite




Work that directly influenced your work
Credit ideas of others you build off of
All facts and figures that are not common
knowledge
Direct quotations and paraphrased material
Basic Citation Styles
Parenthetical
format,
subsequent
citations in text
Type of citation
First citation in
text
Subsequent
citations in text
Parenthetical
format, first
citation in text
One work by one
author
Walker (2007)
Walker (2007)
(Walker, 2007)
(Walker, 2007)
One work by two
authors
Walker and Allen
(2004)
Walker and Allen
(2004)
(Walker & Allen,
2004)
(Walker & Allen,
2004)
One work by
three authors
Bradley, Ramirez,
and Soo (1999)
Bradley et al.
(1999)
(Bradley, Ramirez,
& Soo, 1999)
(Bradley et al.,
1999)
One work by four
authors
Bradley, Ramirez,
Soo, and Walsh
(2006)
Bradley et al.
(2006)
(Bradley, Ramirez,
Soo, & Walsh,
2006)
(Bradley et al.,
2006)
Basic Citation Styles
Parenthetical
format,
subsequent
citations in text
Type of citation
First citation in
text
Subsequent
citations in text
Parenthetical
format, first
citation in text
One work by five
authors
Walker, Allen,
Bradley, Ramirez,
and Soo (2008)
Walker et al.
(2008)
(Walker, Allen,
Bradley, Ramirez,
& Soo, 2008)
(Bradley et al.,
2008)
One work by six
authors
Wasserstein et al.
(2005)
Wasserstein et al.
(2005)
(Wasserstein et
al. 2005)
(Wasserstein et
al. 2005)
Groups ( readily
identified through
abbreviation) as
authors
National Institute
of Mental Health
(NIMH, 2003)
NIMH (2003)
(National Institute
of Mental Health
[NIMH], 2003)
(NIMH, 2003)
Groups (no
abbreviation) as
authors
University of
Pittsburgh (2005)
University of
Pittsburgh (2005)
(University of
Pittsburgh, 2005)
(University of
Pittsburgh, 2005)
Samples of APA Citations

Author mentioned in your text (in-text citation)
author
year
 Wilson
(1994) has described in detail his fascination
with insects.

Author cited in parentheses (parenthetical citation)
 The
army retreated from Boston is disarray, making the
rebels realize that they had achieved a great victory
(McCullough, 2001).
author
comma year
Samples of APA Citations

Author quoted
quotation
 Memories
are “built around a small collection of
dominating images” (Wilson, 1994, p. 5).
quotation
author
comma
year
comma
page number
Direct Quotation In Text
Interpreting these results, Robbins et al., (2003)
suggests that the “therapists in dropout cases may
have inadvertently validated parental negativity
about the adolescent without adequately responding
to the adolescent’s needs or concerns” (p. 541),
contributing to an overall climate of negativity.
Direct Quotation Parenthetical
Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles
in palliative care, whereby “medial needs are met by
those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs
may be addressed by anyone of the team” (Csikai &
Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).
Direction Quotation – Lengthy
This is the paragraph leading to the direct quote that is over 40 words. Others have
contradicted this view:
Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members.
Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people
gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.
In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the
group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections
with those around this is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell,
1997, pp. 111-112)
The paper continues as normal after the large direct quote.
Samples of APA Citations

A work with more than one author
author
year
 Kanazawa
and Still (2000) in their analysis of a large
set of data showed that the statistical likelihood of
being divorced increased if one was male and a
secondary school teacher or college professor.
 Analysis of a large set of data showed that the
statistical likelihood of being divorced increased if one
was male and a secondary school teacher or college
professor (Kanazawa & Still, 2000).
ampersand
first author
second author comma
year
Samples of APA Citations

Author’s work cited in another source
 The
words we use simple appear, as Britton says, “at
the point of utterance” (as cited in Smith, 1982,
p. 108).
page
number
indication that you are
referring to a citation in
the work
author of
source you
used
comma
year
Work Cited in Another Source
“In the United States, the American Cancer Society
(2007) estimated that about 1 million cases of
NMSC and 59,940 cases of melanoma would be
diagnosed in 2007, with melanoma resulting in
8,110 deaths” (Miller et al., 2009, p. 209).
Samples of APA Citations

More than one work in one citation

Criticisms of large-scale educational testing abound (Crouse &
Trusheim, 1988; Nairn, 1978, 1980; Sacks, 2003).
Author(s)
separate sources with a semi-colon
comma
year
Samples of APA Citations

Corporation, government agency, or organization
as author
A
survey by the College Entrance Examination Board
(CEEB) showed that 43% of total enrollment in higher
education was in two-year public institutions. Full-time
enrollment was different, with only 24% enrolled in
two-year public schools (CEEB, 2002).
Abbreviated
author
comma
year
Samples of APA Citations

No author names
 Use
the complete title if it is short, with capital letters
for major words. Within parentheses, you can shorten
the title.
Reference List
The reference list at the end of a work provides
the information necessary to identify and
retrieve each source. Include only the sources
that you used in the research and preparation of
the work.
References
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What to list (only those items cited in paper)
Format (alphabetical by author’s last name, hanging
indenture, double spaced)
Conventions of the list
Date
Periods
Capitals
Italics
Page numbers
**Refer to example references posted in forum**

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