GEA Convenience-Food Technologies

Report
Defrosting Technology
Process Expo, Chicago IL, November 2011
Henrik Thrysoe
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA - Defrosting
A controlled process for fast thawing of meat by means of low
pressure steam and indirect heating to reduce defrosting time while
improving food safety, logistics, shelf life and increasing yield.
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Defrosting Application Drivers
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Food Safety
Raw material availability and on-time delivery performance
Costs savings
Yield gains
Environmental (sewage)
Consistency in raw material quality
Labor involvement
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Defrosting/Tempering Solutions in the Market
1)
2)
3)
4)
Defrosting in open vats with running water.
• Long defrosting time.
• Loss of meat juice (2 – 8% yield loss).
• Food safety issues.
• Drain / sewer issues.
Defrosting cabinets with hot air fans.
• Long defrosting time.
• Loss of meat juice (3 – 6 % yield loss).
• Uneven defrosting temperatures.
• Low guarantee of food safety.
Microwave tunnels with radio frequency waves.
• Only suitable for tempering (max. -10 C).
• Difficult to defrost uniformly (above 00 C) - product heat spots.
• Loss of meat juice (yield loss).
Steam & Indirect heating defrosting.
• Short, automatically controlled process.
• High food safety and traceability.
• Low cost of ownership (no yield loss, low operating costs).
• High end product quality (bacteria killing process).
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Many Challenges with existing process
1)
Defrosting rooms / cabinets with hot air fans.
• Double handling
• Spacers
• Labor heavy
• Pallet hot surface – cold centers
• Protein drip on floor
• Rewrapping to prevent meat falling on floor
• Microbial issues
• 48 hours to 72 hours process time
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting Process
Part 1:
Steam Step
Part 2:
Tempering Step
Part 3:
Massage Step
Steam supply
Heating
Cooling
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Vacuum impact on steam temperature
91 º F
212 º F
= 1.00 bar
= 0.05 bar
(0 % vacuum)
( 95 % vacuum)
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Energy content of cold dry steam
Water steam table
Pressure
Temperature
t
(°C)
Specific volume
Liquid
Steam
v’
v’’
(dm/kg)
m³/kg
Specific enthalpy
Liquid
Steam
h’
h’’
(kJ/kg)
(kJ/kg)
Evaporation
heat
r=h’’-h’
(kJ/kg)
p
(bar)
p
%vacuum
0.05
95
32.90
1.0052
28.190
137.77
2561.6
2423.8
0.06
94
36.18
1.0064
23.740
151.50
2567.5
2416.0
0.07
93
39.03
1.0074
20.530
163.38
2572.6
2409.2
0.08
92
41.53
1.0084
18.100
173.86
2577.1
2403.2
1.00
0
99.63
1.0434
1.694
417.51
2675.4
2257.9
1.10
102.32
1.0455
1.549
428.84
2679.6
Shows the amount of energy in steam at certain pressure compared with water
2250.8
Water at 100 oC / 212 o F contains
418 kJ/kg energy
Steam at 100 oC / 212 o F contains
2.675 kJ/kg energy
Steam at 33 oC contains
2.562 kJ/kg energy
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Safety Working Process Zone
37,5o C
98 F
65
mbar
12,8o C
33o C
90 F
13,6o C
Product temperature development during process
= Possible steam
temperature
variation
= Possible steam
pressure variation
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
50
mbar
= Product temperature
peaks during process
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
PLC based defrosting - Total Process Control
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Temperatures During Defrosting Process
The graphs show that the product surface temperatures not to exceed 55° F
/ 12,7°C during the defrosting process, which is well below temperatures
where there may be a risk of heat (protein) denaturation and of starting
bacterial growth (above 800 F/280C).
The entire process is under 50 mb vacuum (no / micro oxygen atmosphere)
End product temperature typically: 33°F / +0.5 C to 37°F / 2.7°C
Riblets defrosting
50
45
40
Temp in Farenheit
35
30
25
20
15
10
Surface
5
Core
0
-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Program steps
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting Range - Poultry
• Whole Chicken
• Chicken / Turkey Wings
• Chicken / Turkey Legs
• Chicken / Turkey Chunks
• Chicken / Turkey Drumsticks
• Chicken / Turkey Breast fillets
• Turkey Tenders **
** Turkey Tenders in > 5kg / 11 lb blocks is not applicable
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting Range - Pork
• Pork Loins
• Pork Bellies
• Pork Middles
• Pork Inside/outside and knuckle
• Pork Riblets
• Pork Flanks
• Pork Necks
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting Range - Beef
• Beef Knuckles
• Beef Hearts
• Beef Liver
• Beef Tongue
• Beef – Various cuts
• Beef Top Rounds
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Typical Defrosting Times
•
Defrosting time is subject to block size, start temperature, accepted pickup from steam and end-product specification.
Chicken fillet IQF:
4-5 hours.
Chicken /Turkey fillets in blocks:
6-8 hours.
Chicken / Turkey wings IQF:
4-5 hours.
Chicken / Turkey wings in blocks:
6-8 hours.
Turkey thighs/breasts in blocks:
7-8 hours.
Pork or beef in blocks:
6-9 hours.
•
The defrosting time is calculated on basis of max. Filling degree of
tumbler (36-38% = about 8,300 lbs / 3,800 kg batch in ScanMidi10).
•
The above-mentioned capacities exclude loading and unloading.
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Chicken / Turkey Defrosting with Consistent Results
Relevancy:
No damage to product / meat fibers
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
Yield 103%
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting Results
3% steam added
Pork Shank after defrosting
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
Out of the Tumbler
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting with Consistent Results
No Damage !
No Meat dust !
Pork Insides and Outsides – 3% added steam – Yield = 103
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Beef Skirts for Fajita
No damage
to meat
structure
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Turkey Thigh Defrosting
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Pork bellies for Bacon
Defrosting high fat products (45% - 55%)
• Product: pork bellies,
IQF frozen,
• Result
• Process time:
• Steam addition:
• Start temperature:
End temperature:
6 1/2 hours
3%
-6,8 °C
+4 °C
• Product evaluation:
CFS
Defroster
(left)
Tempering
Room
(right)
Good, no fat smear on surface
End products
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Block sizes for defrosting
Chicken Breast
2 kg blocks
300 x 250 x 50 mm
Chicken Breast
20 kg blocks
540 x 350 x 50 mm
Turkey Breast
10 kg blocks
540 x 340 x 50 mm
Pork Riblets
10 kg blocks
470 x 280 x 100 mm
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
Turkey Breast
15 kg blocks
550 x 350 x 80 mm
Chicken Inner Wings
15 kg blocks
500 x 350 x 100 mm
Turkey Breast - US
18 kg blocks
470 x 460 x 100 mm
Deboned Turkey Legs
19 kg blocks
490 x 320 x 130 mm
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Block sizes for defrosting
Pork Loins
20 kg blocks
550 x 350 x 100 mm
Beef cuts (1-10 kg)
25 kg blocks
580 x 370 x 130 mm
Pork Necks
31-35 kg blocks
560 x 340 x 220 mm
(average)
Raw material
for sliced ham
35 kg blocks
560 x 360 x 220 mm
Pork Silverside
25 kg blocks
540 x 340 x 150 mm
Block size range:
Pork Ham Cuts
27 kg blocks
580 x 380 x 140 mm
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
2 – 35 kg
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrost Installation
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrost Installation
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrost In Production
Turkey Breast
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Simple Block Feeding / Deboxing
Deboxing
and
Frozen block
feeding
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Multi Purpose Functionality
Tumbling
during the
day Defrosting
during the
night !!
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Defrosting Sanitation / Food Safety
Total visibility to food zone – No hidden corners or sharp edges !
Relevancy:
Easy USDA
inspection
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Beef
100,000
Pork
100,000
Turkey
100,000
$2.60
$2.20
$1.50
Fresh Meat Shrink (Yield %)
Current Defrost Yield
CFS Defrost Yield
Difference
94.00%
96.50%
2.50%
95.00%
100.00%
5.00%
95.00%
100.00%
5.00%
Yielded Costs $/lb (Fresh Meat)
Yielded Costs $/lb (Current Defrosted)
Yielded Costs $/lb (CFS Defrosted)
Difference
$2.766
$2.694
$0.072
$2.316
$2.200
$0.116
$1.579
$1.500
$0.079
8,000
5
13
104,000
50
5,200,000
8,000
5
13
104,000
50
5,200,000
8,000
5
13
104,000
50
5,200,000
15,600,000
Annual Savings - Relative to Fresh Meat
Annual Savings - Relative to Current Defrost $372,616
Current Defrosting Cost - $0.035/lb
$182,000
$602,105
$182,000
$410,526
$182,000
($92,674)
($66,693)
$624,738
($92,674)
($66,693)
$433,159
$1,453,145
$2,440,000
59.6%
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
1.68
Weekly Requirement
Fresh WIP Costs $/lb
Frozen WIP Costs $/lb
Difference
Batch Size (lb)
Days/Week
Batches/Week
Weekly/Volume
Weeks/Year
Annual Volume (lb)
Total Annual Volume (lb)
Cost of Ownership
($92,674)
Interest - 8.2%
($66,693)
Net Savings
$395,248
Total Net Savings
Capital Costs
ROI
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
Payback (years)
Relative to:
Existing Air
Defrosting
Weekly Requirement
Fresh WIP Costs $/lb
Frozen WIP Costs $/lb
Difference
Beef
100,000
$2.90
$2.60
$0.30
Pork
100,000
$2.40
$2.20
$0.20
Turkey
100,000
$1.75
$1.55
$0.20
Fresh Meat Shrink (Yield %)
CFS Defrost Yield
Difference
99.50%
96.50%
3.00%
99.50%
100.00%
0.50%
99.50%
100.00%
0.50%
Yielded Costs $/lb (Fresh Meat)
Yielded Costs $/lb (Current Defrosted)
Yielded Costs $/lb (CFS Defrosted)
Difference
$2.915
$2.412
$1.759
$2.694
$0.220
$2.200
$0.212
$1.550
$0.209
8,000
5
13
104,000
50
5,200,000
8,000
5
13
104,000
50
5,200,000
8,000
5
13
104,000
50
5,200,000
15,600,000
$1,145,416
$1,102,714
$1,085,729
($92,674)
($66,693)
$986,049
($92,674)
($66,693)
$943,346
Batch Size (lb)
Days/Week
Batches/Week
Weekly/Volume
Weeks/Year
Annual Volume (lb)
Total Annual Volume (lb)
Annual Savings - Relative to Fresh Meat
Cost of Ownership
Interest - 8.2%
Net Savings
Total Net Savings
Capital Costs
ROI
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or
Payback (years)
214-618-1100
Relative to:
Fresh Meat
($92,674)
($66,693)
$926,361
$2,855,755
$2,440,000
117.0%
GEA0.85
Convenience-Food Technologies
Independent Lab Quality Analysis
• ”Silliker BV” Institute for Food Safety & Quality Solution
was asked to test, fresh material versus defrosted material
• Samples of Chicken Breast were performed according to the form: ”Routine
Product Evaluation” from The National Food Laboratory
• Products were evaluated on:
Chemical, Microbial and Sensory
according to the 5-point scale
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Chemical Results
SAMPLE
FRESH
DEFROSTED
Fat
1.7%
1.5%
Salt
0.83%
0.77%
Moisture
71.5%
71.6%
Protein
25.0%
25.5%
The chemical compounds meet specifications, no difference
between the fresh or defrosted meat.
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Sensory Results
Fresh Meat
Sample
Initial
Defrosted Meat
After Hold
Initial
3 hours
(65C)
After Hold
Specifications
Initial
After Hold
3 hours
(65C)
Sweet
1
1
1
1
1
0
Salty
5
5
4.5
4.5
4.5
5
Sour
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bitter
0
0
0
0
0
0
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Microbial Results
SAMPLE
Total Plate Count/g
FRESH
DEFROSTED
240
360
<10
<10
(max. 25,000)
Total Coliforms/g
(max. 100)
The microbial compounds meet specifications – no
difference between the two tests.
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Product Attribute Summary
Microbial.
•
Microbe numbers constant or reduced relative to frozen.
•
Safer than water defrosting.
Color/appearance:
•
No difference.
Aroma:
•
No difference.
Flavor:
•
No difference.
Texture:
•
Only small difference – Defrosted meat lightly more tender compared to fresh
meat.
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Sensorial Results - Conclusion
The Sensory evaluation shows only differences where all aspects meet
specifications, also after hold on 65°C
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Microbial Investigation 1
Microbiological results from defrosted Riblets.
Comparing frozen vs. Defrosted surface samples.
Bacterial Reduction During CFS Defrosting
400,000
Bacteria Per Gram
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
Surface,
Frozen
Surface,
Defrosted
CFS defrosting process is a safe bacteriological process that
contributed to a bacterial reduction in the order of up to log 2 .
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Microbial Investigation 2
Microbiological results from defrosted Pork Muscles. Comparing surface
microbes on CFS vs. air defrosted pork.
Surface Microbes After Defrosting
50,000
45,000
CFU's
40,000
CFS
35,000
CFS
30,000
Air Defrost
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
CFS
CFS
Air Defrost
CFS defrosting process is a safe bacteriological process that
compares favourably to air defrosted meat.
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Microbial development – Test
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
Microbial development = Zero
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies - Microbial Safety Statement
Validation on microbial safety at customers and by local
authorities has shown that GEA defrosting process is
considered safe and even better compared to existing
approved defrosting processes.
CFS process has no microbial growth !!!
Henrik Thrysoe – Toll Free 1800-388-2601 or 214-618-1100
GEA Convenience-Food Technologies

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