WELCOME Academic Writing Workshop Basic APA Style

Report
WELCOME
Academic
Writing
Workshop
Basic APA Style
Reky Groendal
Resources
◦ APA Manual Sixth Edition
◦ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
◦ http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/apa.html
◦ http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm
◦ http://www.landmark.edu/Library/citation_guides/apa.cf
m#quotewebsites
The American Psychological
Association (APA)
Resources
Basic Formatting
Basic Stylistic
Basic Formatting in APA
General format
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Use standard paper (8.5” x 11”)
Use 1” margins for all sides (2.54 cm)
Use 12 pt. Times New Roman
Double space
One space after commas, colons, and semicolons
Two spaces after punctuation
Flush left alignment
Paragraph indentation is 5-7 spaces
Page number in top right corner
Abstract:
Ask your instructor if you need an
abstract
 When in doubt, include the abstract
 A single paragraph
 Between 150 and 250 words
 Abbreviation and acronyms in your paper
should be defined here

Headings :
(cited from OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab)
APA headings and seritations (n.d.). In Purdue Online Writing Lab.
Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/16/
Example:
Development of Reasoning in Early Childhood  Title
Reasoning in Young Children  1st level
Inductive Reasoning  2nd level
Definition of inductive reasoning.  3rd level
Existing notion of inductive reasoning.  4th level
Inductive reasoning by Piaget.  5th level
Recent understanding of inductive reasoning.  4th level
Deductive Reasoning
Definition of deductive reasoning.
Existing notion of deductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning by Piaget.
Recent understanding of deductive reasoning.
In text citation
1 author
 (Name, year of publication)
Reasoning works behind problem solving (Leighton, 2004)
 Name (year of publication)
Leighton (2004) argued that reasoning works behind
problem solving.
 Year of publication, name
In 2004, Leighton argued that reasoning works behind
problem solving.
In text citation
2 authors


(1st name & 2nd name, year of publication)
Inductive reasoning is also well known as a process of
introducing new assumptions (Stenning & Monaghan, 2004)
1st name and 2nd name (year of publication)
Stenning and Monaghan (2004) noted that inductive
reasoning is also well known as a process of introducing
new assumptions
In text citation
3 to 5 authors
Cite all names and publication year the first time, thereafter only the
first author followed by et al. (even though in different paragraph)
The first time cited
(Joosse, Danbrook, & Parker, 1990). or
Joosse, Danbrook, and Parker (1990)...
Thereafter
(Joosse et al., 1990).
Joosse et al. (1990)...
In text citation
6 authors
Cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the
year from the first citation.
The first time cited
.... (Danbrook et al., 2003).
Danbrook et al. (2003)...
Thereafter
Danbrook et al. (2003)...
.... (Danbrook et al., 2003).
In text citation
Multiple publications by same author
(Hanson, 1992, 2012). or Hanson (1992, 2012)...
Multiple publications by different author
…(Danbrook, 1995; Joosse & Hooch, 1982;
Parker, 1976).
Unknown author
... (“Reasoning”, 1997).
In text citation
Corporate or group of authors
If organization is recognized by abbreviation
... (Human Early Learning Partnership [HELP],
2005)
thereafter...
…(HELP, 2005).
If abbreviation not widely known, give the
name in full every time:
... (Canadian Research Council, 1996).
Citing from online sources or website
...(Hanson, 2011, para. 2)
Citing from secondary source
.... (Goswami, 2008, as cited in Groendal, 2011).
Goswami (2008, as cited in Groendal, 2011) ...
Groendal (2011) cited Goswami (2008) as
finding...
ONLY include the details of the source you read in the reference list
(secondary source only)
Citing specific part from an article
One of “the sub-types of inductive reasoning is
analogical reasoning “ (Groendal, 2006, p. 45).
Groendal (2006) argued that one of “the subtypes of inductive reasoning is analogical
reasoning" (p. 45).
REFERENCE LIST

1 author
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1999). Deductive reasoning.
Annual Review Psychology, 50, 109-135.
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure
of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910924. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.126.6.910

2 authors
Rattermann, M. J., & Gentner, D. (1998). More evidence for
a relational shift in the development of analogy:
Children’s performance on a causal-mapping task.
Cognitive Development, 13, 453-478.

3 to 7 authors
Hawkins, J., Pea, R. D., Glick, J., & Scribner, S. (1984).
“Merds that laugh don’t like mushrooms”: Evidence
for deductive reasoning by preschoolers.
Developmental Psychology, 20, 584–594.
Article in journal paginated by VOLUME
Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress,
reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54, 317- 326.
VOLUME
ISSUE 1
ISSUE 2
ISSUE 3
ISSUE 4
1234567
9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20
Article in journal paginated by ISSUE
Wagner, S., Winner, E., Cicchetti, D., Grdner, H. (1981).
“Metaphorical” mapping in human infants. Child
Development, 52(2), 728-731.
Issue number
ISSUE
ISSUE 1
ISSUE 2
ISSUE 3
ISSUE 4
1234567
1234567
1234567
1234567

Book
Hollister, R. (2003). The growth in after-school programs
and their impact. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Edited book
Stenning, K., & Monaghan, P. (2004). Strategies and knowledge
representation. In J. P Leighton & R. J. Sternberg (2nd
Eds.), The nature of reasoning (pp. 129-168). Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press.
Basic Stylistics in APA
Voice and point of view
◦ First person point of view
◦ Distinguish between the research and the
researchers
◦ Use pronouns when explaining about
experiments (who did the experiment)
◦ Use active voice instead of passive voice
Tips on paraphrasing
◦ Read & understand  write your own
sentence  mark same words from original
source  double check the meaning
◦ Try to deliver your ideas and have the
references to support your ideas (instead of
listing the references to deliver the idea)
◦ Careful in using synonym (potentially change
the meaning)
◦ Do not plagiarized yourself
◦ Paraphrase instead of quoting if the sentence
is more than 40 words
Thank you

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