APA Presentation - Online Writing Lab

APA Style: an Overview
Kemp 105: Hours vary
Faculty Coordinator, Linda G. Foss
English Department
APA Style: an Overview
This presentation will cover:
 2009 updates to APA
 General APA guidelines
 First page format
 Section headings
 In-text citations
 Formatting quotations
 Reference page citations
2009 Update
The APA modified guidelines for:
 Formatting section headings
 Report data in various forms, including
graphs, charts, etc.
 Citing digital materials without page
 Citing electronic sources to reflect
changes in technology
Rule #1: Ask Your Instructor
Always follow your instructor’s guidelines
and don’t be afraid to ask for information,
samples or reliable reference guides.
Format: General Guidelines
Margins: one inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right)
Font Size and Type: 12-point Times Roman
Line Spacing: Double-spaced, including the title page, body of the
document, and references page.
Spacing after Punctuation: Space once after all punctuation.
Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right margin)
Paragraph Indentations: 5 spaces (or standard ½” tab)
Running Heads: The paper title appears in caps in upper left and
page number in the upper right header
Paper: Use plain white 81/2 x 11 paper. Multiple pages are stapled
in the upper left-hand corner. Do NOT enclose in binder or file.
IF a cover page is required: Center paper’s title, author(s) names,
and course/college name on 3 lines.
Format: First Page
No title page
Double space everything including headings
In the upper left corner of the 1st page, list your name,
your instructor’s name, the course, and date
Center the paper title (use standard caps but no
underlining, italics, quotation marks, or bold)
Create a header ½” from the top of page with running
head in caps on left and inserted page number on right
Format: Section Headings
APA papers are typically divided into major sections: Abstract,
Method, Results, Discussion, which should appear centered, in
bold-face, and in upper and lower case.
IF subheadings are used, the second level should be flush left,
bold-face, upper and lower case; the third level should be
indented, bold-face, upper and lower case.
Top-down progression is used, for example if there are three
levels of headings, you would use Levels 1, 2, and 3.
The introductory section to a paper does not require a heading
since it is assumed that the first section in your document is an
Sample Section Headings
Level 1
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and
Lowercase Heading
Level 2
Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Level 3
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading
ending with a period.
Level 4
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph
heading ending with a period.
Level 5
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading
ending with a period.
Citations: the Basics
“Whether paraphrasing, quoting an author directly, or
describing ideas that influenced your work, you must
credit the source” (APA, 2010, p.170).
Typically APA uses an author-date citation system that
provides enough information in parentheses for the
source to be located on the alphabetical reference list at
end of paper.
The information within the parenthetical citations depends
on the medium and whether page numbers are visible.
Author-Date Style
In-text Example:
Although Russia has regained her autonomy and independence
economically in recent years, many citizens are silent in their
public opinion (Coleman & McCulloch, 1990).
Corresponding References Entry:
Coleman, P.G. & McCulloch, A.W. (1990). Societal change, values and
social support: exploratory studies into adjustment in late life.
Journal of Aging Studies, 4(4), 321-332.
Format: Quotations
Short quotations should be blended into sentences:
According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality”
(Foulkes, 2005), though others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express “profound aspects of
personality” (2005).
Quotations of 40 or more words should be as explained in this block quote:
In a freestanding block of text and omit the quotations marks. Start such a block
quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin
(in the same position as a new paragraph. If there are additional paragraphs within
the quotation, indent the first line of each an additional half inch. (APA, 2010)
Adding/Omitting Words
Added Words are bracketed:
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states:
“some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of
learning every rumor or tale” (2003).
Omitted Words are indicated by elipsis:
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that
“some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor
or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details
occurs” (2003).
Format: References page
The list of sources should begin on a new
page with a centered heading: References.
The list should be double-spaced with a
hanging indent of ½” for run over lines.
Sources should be listed alphabetically by
whatever name or major word begins the
Format: Citing Books
Author, A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Burns, N. (2002). The Chaos Theory, New York:
Editor, A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Wallace, S. (2010). History of the World. London:
Author, A. (year). Title of book. URL.
Smith, T. (2012). America. Retrieved from http://www.
University of Maryland.edu.
Format: Citing Websites
Title of article (Date). Retrieval information
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001).
Retrieved March 21, 2001, from
Title of webpage (Date). Retrieval information
Learn APA Style. (2012). Retrieved November 7,
2012, from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/
Format: Citing Periodicals
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of
article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue
number if available). Retrieved from URL
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A
List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149.
Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com
Author(s) (Date of publication). Title of Article. Title of
Periodical, Volume (Issue), pages. Medium of publication.
Clark, G. (2001). No more aches and pains. Woman’s
Day, 65(1), 54-56. Retrieved from
For comprehensive information
about APA style, visit their
website: http://www.apastyle.org/
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