APA Presentation - Online Writing Lab

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APA Style: an Overview
Kemp 105: Hours vary
Faculty Coordinator, Linda G. Foss
English Department
APA Style: an Overview

This presentation will cover:
 2009 updates to APA
 General APA guidelines
 First page format
 Section headings
 In-text citations
 Formatting quotations
 Reference page citations
2009 Update
The APA modified guidelines for:
 Formatting section headings
 Report data in various forms, including
graphs, charts, etc.
 Citing digital materials without page
numbers
 Citing electronic sources to reflect
changes in technology
Rule #1: Ask Your Instructor
Always follow your instructor’s guidelines
and don’t be afraid to ask for information,
samples or reliable reference guides.
Format: General Guidelines

Margins: one inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right)

Font Size and Type: 12-point Times Roman

Line Spacing: Double-spaced, including the title page, body of the
document, and references page.

Spacing after Punctuation: Space once after all punctuation.
Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right margin)

Paragraph Indentations: 5 spaces (or standard ½” tab)

Running Heads: The paper title appears in caps in upper left and
page number in the upper right header

Paper: Use plain white 81/2 x 11 paper. Multiple pages are stapled
in the upper left-hand corner. Do NOT enclose in binder or file.

IF a cover page is required: Center paper’s title, author(s) names,
and course/college name on 3 lines.
Format: First Page

No title page

Double space everything including headings

In the upper left corner of the 1st page, list your name,
your instructor’s name, the course, and date

Center the paper title (use standard caps but no
underlining, italics, quotation marks, or bold)

Create a header ½” from the top of page with running
head in caps on left and inserted page number on right
Format: Section Headings

APA papers are typically divided into major sections: Abstract,
Method, Results, Discussion, which should appear centered, in
bold-face, and in upper and lower case.

IF subheadings are used, the second level should be flush left,
bold-face, upper and lower case; the third level should be
indented, bold-face, upper and lower case.

Top-down progression is used, for example if there are three
levels of headings, you would use Levels 1, 2, and 3.

The introductory section to a paper does not require a heading
since it is assumed that the first section in your document is an
introduction.
Sample Section Headings
Level 1
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and
Lowercase Heading
Level 2
Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Level 3
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading
ending with a period.
Level 4
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph
heading ending with a period.
Level 5
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading
ending with a period.
Citations: the Basics
o
“Whether paraphrasing, quoting an author directly, or
describing ideas that influenced your work, you must
credit the source” (APA, 2010, p.170).
o
Typically APA uses an author-date citation system that
provides enough information in parentheses for the
source to be located on the alphabetical reference list at
end of paper.
o
The information within the parenthetical citations depends
on the medium and whether page numbers are visible.
Author-Date Style
In-text Example:
Although Russia has regained her autonomy and independence
economically in recent years, many citizens are silent in their
public opinion (Coleman & McCulloch, 1990).
Corresponding References Entry:
Coleman, P.G. & McCulloch, A.W. (1990). Societal change, values and
social support: exploratory studies into adjustment in late life.
Journal of Aging Studies, 4(4), 321-332.
Format: Quotations
Short quotations should be blended into sentences:

According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality”
(Foulkes, 2005), though others disagree.

According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express “profound aspects of
personality” (2005).
Quotations of 40 or more words should be as explained in this block quote:
In a freestanding block of text and omit the quotations marks. Start such a block
quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin
(in the same position as a new paragraph. If there are additional paragraphs within
the quotation, indent the first line of each an additional half inch. (APA, 2010)
Adding/Omitting Words
Added Words are bracketed:
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states:
“some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of
learning every rumor or tale” (2003).
Omitted Words are indicated by elipsis:
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that
“some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor
or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details
occurs” (2003).
Format: References page

The list of sources should begin on a new
page with a centered heading: References.

The list should be double-spaced with a
hanging indent of ½” for run over lines.

Sources should be listed alphabetically by
whatever name or major word begins the
citation.
Format: Citing Books

Author, A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Burns, N. (2002). The Chaos Theory, New York:
Norton.

Editor, A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Wallace, S. (2010). History of the World. London:
Pearson.

Author, A. (year). Title of book. URL.
Smith, T. (2012). America. Retrieved from http://www.
University of Maryland.edu.
Format: Citing Websites
Title of article (Date). Retrieval information
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001).
Retrieved March 21, 2001, from
http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story

Title of webpage (Date). Retrieval information
Learn APA Style. (2012). Retrieved November 7,
2012, from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/
faqs/web-page-no-author.aspx

Format: Citing Periodicals

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of
article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue
number if available). Retrieved from URL
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A
List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149.
Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com

Author(s) (Date of publication). Title of Article. Title of
Periodical, Volume (Issue), pages. Medium of publication.
Clark, G. (2001). No more aches and pains. Woman’s
Day, 65(1), 54-56. Retrieved from
http://proquest.umi.com
For comprehensive information
about APA style, visit their
website: http://www.apastyle.org/
Or visit us online at:
http://www.centralia.edu/academics/
Writingcenter/
OR
http://owl.centralia.edu

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