In-Text Citations

Using A.P.A. Style
Show what information you have taken from sources
Show how to find further source information on the
references page
When should you use quotations?
Use Quotations When:
Taking four or more words from a source
An author makes a particularly poignant statement
Block Quotation
When should you use block style to set off a
Use a Block Quotation When:
Quoting more than forty words from a source
Example of a Block Quotation
…Robert Samboa (2003), general manager at Stamford’s
Restaurant, agrees:
Setting goals reminds employees to strive for perfection
and promotion. Without goals, a job can quickly become
simply a paycheck, and a paycheck isn’t enough when a
company is wants to achieve a high levels of job
satisfaction and customer service. Managers should note
the types of goals set by each employee to better
understand what motivates each individual on their team
(pp. 43-44).
Jackson (2008) asserts …
When should you use paraphrasing?
Use Paraphrasing When:
Condensing source information by stating it in your
own words
Citing Sources
Include in-text citations for both quoted and
paraphrased material
In-Text Citations Should Include:
The author’s name (or corporate author, or an
abbreviated version of the title)
The year of publication
The page number (for direct quotes from print or
PDF sources)
A.P.A. Conventions for In-Text Citations
Year of publication should follow or appear near
the author’s name
According to Jackson (2007)
In Jackson’s 2007 study
In 2007, Jackson studied
…aspect of retention (Jackson, 2007).
A.P.A. Conventions for In-Text Citations
Page numbers follow quoted material
According to Jackson (2007), “the right way is
always the best way,” (p. 4) and she defines the
right way as…
Multiple Authors
If five or fewer authors, list all five in the first in-text
According to McMillin, Cox, Edmonds, Wood, and
Mason (2008) …
…(McMillin, Cox, Edmonds, Wood, & Mason,
Multiple Authors Cont.
In subsequent citations of five or fewer authors use
et. al.
McMillin et. al. (2008) emphasize …
Indirect Quotations
Cite both the speaker of the quote and the author
of the article
Gerber claims that “employees should be
encouraged to…” (as cited in Walls & Willis, 2009,
Paraphrasing from Multiple Sources
Cite all sources to give credit and establish
…(Loftus, 2004; Testerman, Kuegler, & Dowling,
2009; Smith, 2008).
Loftus (2004), Testerman, Kuegler, and Dowling
(2009) and Smith (2008) all note that ….
My Convention for Direct Quotes
Introduce the speaker of the quote before giving
the quoted material
According to Jackson (2007) “Employee
retention…” (p. 8).
Corporate Author
How should you cite a source with a corporate
author or an organization as author?
Corporate Author
Microsoft (2009) asserts…
…(Microsoft, 2009).
No Author
How should you cite a source if no author was
No Author—Use Abbreviated Title
In “A Short History” (2009) the author says…
…(“A Short History,” 2009).
Two Authors With Same Last Name
How do you cite two authors with the same last
Two Authors With Same Last Name
J. Smith (2001) and K. Smith (2001) disagree…
…(J. Smith, 2001; K. Smith, 2001).
Two Sources Written by Same Author in
Same Year
How do you cite articles written by the same author
in the same year?
Add Letters to Year of Publication
Berta (2009a) agrees …
Berta (2009b) agrees…
…(Berta, 2009a; Berta, 2009b).
Add letters to references page, as well.
In-Text Citation Resources
Your textbook pp.180-182
Purdue University Owl
University Writing Center handout
University Writing Center tutor
Problems With Word’s Citation Feature
Improper/incomplete in-text citations
Citations drop out when you copy and paste
Attention to detail=correct citations=credibility

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