Citing Sources with APA

Report
Citing Sources with APA
by C. Carroll
2014
To cite =
to identify and give credit to the
source of your information.
site
CITE IS
RIGHT!
sight
Why do we need to cite sources?

To give credit to true author / recognize
intellectual property

To be honest and ethical

To avoid plagiarism

To avoid academic censure
Main Citation Styles
MLA = Modern Language Association
Used primarily in Humanities
APA = American Psychological Association
Used primarily in the Social Sciences
Chicago/Turabian = University of Chicago,
Manual for Writers of Research Papers
by Kate Turabian
Uses footnotes ; Used in Social Studies ;
Title in Different Styles
 Chicago/Turabian
: Bibliography
 MLA
: Works Cited
 APA
( = You!) : Reference List

Whatever you call it, it is a requirement for
all academic research, papers, & articles
Purpose of Reference List

To support your conclusions with the
corroboration of other authorities

To show that you are familiar with
research in the field

To enable your reader to find more
information on the topic
Example MLA v. APA
MLA Works Cited:
Gibb, Barry J. The Rough Guide to the Brain.
New York: Penguin, 2007. pp. 90-100.
In-text: (Gibb 92)
APA Reference List:
Gibb, Barry J. (2007). The Rough Guide to the
Brain. New York: Penguin. pp. 90-92.
In-Text: (Gibb, 2007, p. 92)
Why do you think the
publication date is so
prominent in the
APA format?
What to Include in a Reference List entry :
Print Sources





Author (if known) – Last name, First name
Title italicized (long work) or
in “quotation marks” (short work)
Date published = copyright date:
(use latest date with a ©beside it)
Place published
Publisher
What to include in a Reference List entry:
Online Sources






Author (if known) – Last name, First name
Title of webPAGE (ex: “Know Your Brain: Brain
Basics”)
Title of webSITE (ex: National Institute of
Neurological Disorders & Stroke)
Date posted (if known)
Retrieved date you accessed at
URL
Note: Most of this info may be found on the website home page and/or
via the About Us link; items not provided online are simply omitted.
How to Format the Reference List

Title is Reference List

List sources in alphabetical order by first
word – books & websites mixed together

First word = Author’s last name or Title
(if no author)
How to Format the Reference List
cont’d

Use Hanging Indent = Second line
(+ beyond) is indented 3-5 spaces

Single space within entries and double
space between entries

Do not number entries
Note: MS Word will create the hanging indent for you under
Paragraph  Special
How to create an in-text citation

Cite the source within the text of your essay
(rather than using footnotes)

Place the in-text citation at the end of the
sentence or paragraph where ideas are used
What to include in an in-text citation
(Concise, 2005)

Author’s last name in parentheses

If author unknown, use title of work

Followed by a comma and date of publication

For direct quotations, add page number (p. x)

Sentence punctuation goes AFTER parentheses
Example of In-Text Citation:
Book with author known
(Concise , 2005)
“The human brain holds billions of impressions,
some fleetingly, some for a lifetime. We call them
memories” (Carter, 1998, p. 158).
________________
(Carter, 1998) in the citation above refers to the following
source listed on your Reference List page:
Carter, Rita. (1998). Mapping the Mind. Berkeley and Los
Angeles, CA: Univ. of California Press.
Example of In-Text Citation:
Web page with author unknown
“Deep within the brain…lie structures that are the
gatekeepers between the spinal cord and the cerebral
hemispheres. These structures not only determine our
emotional state, they also modify our perceptions and
responses depending on that state.” (“Brain Basics,” 2014).
___________________________
“Brain Basics” in the citation above refers to the following
source listed on the Reference List page (bibliography):
“Brain Basics: Know Your Brain.” National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2001. Retrieved Sept.
10, 2014 from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/
brain_basics/ know_your_brain.htm.
Example of In-Text Citation:
Author identified in text
If you introduce the quotation or idea with the
author’s name in the text, you only need to
include the date and page in the parentheses.
Example:
As Carter (1998) points out, “Part of the brain’s
internal environment is a ceaseless pressure to
seek out new stimuli” (p. 20).
More Help with Citing Sources

Ohio State University Writing Center

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Concise Rules of APA Style. Call No. REF 808 CON.
Reference List
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., &
Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ owl/resource/ 560/01/
“Brain Basics: Know Your Brain.” (2014, April 28). National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2014 from
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ brain_basics/know_your_brain.htm.
Body: The Complete Human. (2007). Washington, D.C. : National
Geographic.
Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the Mind. Berkeley and Los Angeles , CA:
University of California Press.
Concise Rules of APA Style. (2005). Washington, D.C. : American
Psychological Association.

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