Citing Sources with APA by C. Carroll 2014 To cite = to identify and give credit to the source of your information. site CITE IS RIGHT! sight Why do we need to cite sources? To give credit to true author / recognize intellectual property To be honest and ethical To avoid plagiarism To avoid academic censure Main Citation Styles MLA = Modern Language Association Used primarily in Humanities APA = American Psychological Association Used primarily in the Social Sciences Chicago/Turabian = University of Chicago, Manual for Writers of Research Papers by Kate Turabian Uses footnotes ; Used in Social Studies ; Title in Different Styles Chicago/Turabian : Bibliography MLA : Works Cited APA ( = You!) : Reference List Whatever you call it, it is a requirement for all academic research, papers, & articles Purpose of Reference List To support your conclusions with the corroboration of other authorities To show that you are familiar with research in the field To enable your reader to find more information on the topic Example MLA v. APA MLA Works Cited: Gibb, Barry J. The Rough Guide to the Brain. New York: Penguin, 2007. pp. 90-100. In-text: (Gibb 92) APA Reference List: Gibb, Barry J. (2007). The Rough Guide to the Brain. New York: Penguin. pp. 90-92. In-Text: (Gibb, 2007, p. 92) Why do you think the publication date is so prominent in the APA format? What to Include in a Reference List entry : Print Sources Author (if known) – Last name, First name Title italicized (long work) or in “quotation marks” (short work) Date published = copyright date: (use latest date with a ©beside it) Place published Publisher What to include in a Reference List entry: Online Sources Author (if known) – Last name, First name Title of webPAGE (ex: “Know Your Brain: Brain Basics”) Title of webSITE (ex: National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke) Date posted (if known) Retrieved date you accessed at URL Note: Most of this info may be found on the website home page and/or via the About Us link; items not provided online are simply omitted. How to Format the Reference List Title is Reference List List sources in alphabetical order by first word – books & websites mixed together First word = Author’s last name or Title (if no author) How to Format the Reference List cont’d Use Hanging Indent = Second line (+ beyond) is indented 3-5 spaces Single space within entries and double space between entries Do not number entries Note: MS Word will create the hanging indent for you under Paragraph Special How to create an in-text citation Cite the source within the text of your essay (rather than using footnotes) Place the in-text citation at the end of the sentence or paragraph where ideas are used What to include in an in-text citation (Concise, 2005) Author’s last name in parentheses If author unknown, use title of work Followed by a comma and date of publication For direct quotations, add page number (p. x) Sentence punctuation goes AFTER parentheses Example of In-Text Citation: Book with author known (Concise , 2005) “The human brain holds billions of impressions, some fleetingly, some for a lifetime. We call them memories” (Carter, 1998, p. 158). ________________ (Carter, 1998) in the citation above refers to the following source listed on your Reference List page: Carter, Rita. (1998). Mapping the Mind. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: Univ. of California Press. Example of In-Text Citation: Web page with author unknown “Deep within the brain…lie structures that are the gatekeepers between the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres. These structures not only determine our emotional state, they also modify our perceptions and responses depending on that state.” (“Brain Basics,” 2014). ___________________________ “Brain Basics” in the citation above refers to the following source listed on the Reference List page (bibliography): “Brain Basics: Know Your Brain.” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2001. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2014 from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ brain_basics/ know_your_brain.htm. Example of In-Text Citation: Author identified in text If you introduce the quotation or idea with the author’s name in the text, you only need to include the date and page in the parentheses. Example: As Carter (1998) points out, “Part of the brain’s internal environment is a ceaseless pressure to seek out new stimuli” (p. 20). More Help with Citing Sources Ohio State University Writing Center Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Concise Rules of APA Style. Call No. REF 808 CON. Reference List Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ owl/resource/ 560/01/ “Brain Basics: Know Your Brain.” (2014, April 28). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2014 from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ brain_basics/know_your_brain.htm. Body: The Complete Human. (2007). Washington, D.C. : National Geographic. Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the Mind. Berkeley and Los Angeles , CA: University of California Press. Concise Rules of APA Style. (2005). Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association.