AN INTRODUCTION TO APA DOCUMENTATION Part One: THE BASICS WHAT IS APA DOCUMENTATION? When your teacher states that you must use APA documentation style, he or she is simply directing you to use a system that reveals to your reader what sources and information you have utilized in writing your paper. The documentation style also determines certain formatting practices in your paper. GENERAL PAPER FORMAT RULES Double space entire paper. Use 12 point, Times New Roman font Set all margins to 1” New paragraphs should be indented ½” from the margin PARTS OF DOCUMENTATION In-text (parenthetical) citation Bibliography (the References page) The in-text citation acts as a key to your bibliography and directs your reader to specific sources. The in-text citation includes the author’s last name (and/or) the title of the work so that you can easily locate the complete source information in the bibliography. Part Two: THE TITLE PAGE, THE HEADER, AND THE PAGE NUMBER APA Title Page •The page number •Introduction of the running head of your essay, formatted Running head: TITLE OF ESSAY •The title of the essay, your name, and the university name should appear centered, double spaced, and on the top half of the page. •All text should be in 12 pt. Times New Roman font and should not be bolded. •Author’s note (optional) contains contact information and acknowledgements and should be placed at the bottom half of essay. Running Head (Title in all caps) Page number SUBSEQUENT PAGES CREATING AN APA HEADER An APA header is more complicated than an MLA header. On the first page, the header will have the words Running head: followed by the title in all caps (i.e. Running Head: TITLE OF ESSAY). This phrase is justified on the left. The page number is justified on the right. Subsequent pages do not include the words Running head: before the title. CREATING AN APA STYLE HEADER Click the “Insert” tab. Select the “Page Number” icon. CREATING AN APA HEADER 1. Select the “Top of the Page” menu. 2. Select “Plain Number 1.” CREATING AN APA HEADER: JUSTIFYING THE TITLE ON THE LEFT AND THE PAGE NUMBER ON THE RIGHT Type the title of your paper in all caps. Tab twice to right justify the page number. CREATING AN APA STYLE HEADER, CONT. Remember: select the entire text and format it as 12 pt., Times New Roman font. CREATING AN APA HEADER, MAKING THE FIRST AND SUBSEQUENT PAGES DIFFERENT On the design tab, click the box labeled different first page. Your header will disappear, for now. (Don’t worry it will appear after you have more than one page). CREATING THE FIRST PAGE HEADER Click the icon for the page number. CREATING AN APA HEADER, FORMATTING THE FIRST PAGE Type the words Running head: followed by the title in all caps, and then tab twice. (Don’t forget to format the font as 12 pt. Times New Roman) CLOSING THE HEADER To close the header, return to the “Design” tab. Click the “Close Header and Footer” Button . (It is red and located in the right corner of the screen.) EXERCISE Create a title page Part Three: IN-TEXT CITATIONS IN-TEXT CITATIONS You need to give credit to a source any time you use information from the source in the following ways: Direct Quotation Paraphrase Summary TYPES OF QUOTATIONS Block Quotations – must be longer than three lines, set off from main body of paragraph (like a block) Integrated Quotations – three lines of text or fewer, flows seamlessly in the paragraph BLOCK QUOTATION FORMAT Indented 1” and double spaced Period comes at end of quote No quotation marks Citation follows the period INTEGRATED QUOTE FORMAT Quote integrated into paragraph Quotation mark precedes citation The governments usually use a very complex and intricate method to set these prevailing wages, “but because of the large number of distinct geographic labor markets and numerous occupational categories, the tendency is for wages to be set equal or approximate to those determined in local collective bargaining agreements between unions and contractors” (Vedder 1997). Quotation marks needed Period follows citation FORMATTING A PARAPHRASE OR SUMMARY The paraphrase or summary is in your own words and flows smoothly with the paragraph. It was during the Great Depression that the government of the United States first decided to implement prevailing wage laws. In those times, the national unemployment rate was at about 14 percent and was expected to rise even further, while the total output, or GDP, decreasing (Vedder & Gallaway 1997, 77). Period follows citation. WHAT MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE CITATION Author’s name (if available) Year of publication Page number (formatted p. #) CITING THE AUTHOR The author may be cited within either the sentence or in the parentheses following the sentence. The year immediately follows the author’s name. TWO WAYS OF CITING THE AUTHOR Look at the following examples: The growth was most rapid among fast-food chains, which by 1999 were opening a new restaurant every two hours (Schlosser, 2001). Amanda Spake and Mary Brophy Marcus (2002) note, “When McDonald’s opened, its original burger, fries, and 12-ounce Coke provided 590 calories. Today, a supersize Extra Value Meal with a Quarter Pounder With Cheese, supersize fries, and a supersize drink is 1,550 calories” (p. 44). WAYS TO INTRODUCE DIRECT QUOTATIONS With an explanatory statement and a colon With a verb and a comma Spot quotation mixed with paraphrase INTRODUCTION WITH A COLON Amanda Spake and Mary Brophy Marcus (2002) contend that the increase in portion sizes among American fast food companies has contributed to the obesity epidemic: “When McDonald’s opened, its original burger, fries, and 12-ounce Coke provided 590 calories. Today, a supersize Extra Value Meal with a Quarter Pounder WithCheese, supersize fries, and a supersize drink is 1,550 calories” (p. 44). INTRODUCE WITH A VERB AND A COMMA Amanda Spake and Mary Brophy Marcus (2002) note,“When McDonald’s opened, its original burger, fries, and 12-ounce Coke provided 590 calories. Today, a supersize Extra Value Meal with a Quarter Pounder WithCheese, supersize fries, and a supersize drink is 1,550 calories” (p. 44). SPOT QUOTATION WITH PARAPHRASE The increase in portion sizes from McDonald’s “original burger, fries, and 12-ounce Coke” that supplied only “590 calories” to today’s “Supersize Extra Value Meal” which supplies more than 1500 calories has contributed to obesity in children (Spake & Marcus, 2002, p. 44). Part Four: THE REFERENCES PAGE REFERENCES BASICS Start the References page at the top of a new page. (Use the insert Page Break icon. Do not hit enter repeatedly until you reach the top of a new page). Entries should be alphabetized by first word. All entries should have a hanging indent and be double spaced. All entries end with a period. Book titles and titles of periodicals should be italicized Authors are listed by last name and first initial. Capitalize only the first word of titles and subtitles. BASIC BOOK ENTRY Brownell, K. D., & Horgen, K. B. (2004). Food fight: The inside story of the food industry,America’s obesity crisis, and what we can do about it. Chicago: Contemporary Publishing. ARTICLE IN A BOOK O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107123). New York, NY: Springer. SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ARTICLE Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13. MAGAZINE Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31. NEWSPAPER Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A. ONLINE PERIODICAL (WITH DOI) Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 12451283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161 ONLINE PERIODICAL WITHOUT DOI Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html A HELPFUL WEBSITE The Online Writing Lab at Purdue This website includes accurate guides to both APA format, annotated sample papers, examples of different types of works cited entries, and detailed information concerning punctuation, grammar, and other writing related topics. EXERCISE Create a title page for the following sources: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/index.ht m http://www.americanpopularculture.com/jo urnal/articles/fall_2010/pandey.htm Your textbook Use the examples from this presentation and examples from the OWL at Purdue APA Guide.