Student Guide th to APA 6 edition 2012-2013 What is APA Format? APA Style establishes consistent standards of written communication concerning: • the organization of content & writing style • citing references • and how to prepare a manuscript for publication in certain disciplines Why Do I Need to Use APA? Aside from simplifying the work of editors by having everyone use the same format for a given publication, using APA Style makes it easier for readers to understand a text by providing a familiar structure they can follow. Abiding by APA's standards as a writer will allow you to: • Provide readers with cues they can use to follow your ideas more efficiently and to locate information of interest to them • Allow readers to focus more on your ideas by not distracting them with unfamiliar formatting • Establish your credibility or ethos in the field by demonstrating an awareness of your audience and their needs as fellow researchers Who Uses APA? APA is used to document papers in fields such as: • Business • Health • Technology • In other words, all majors and professions at DU! This includes you! Similarities & Differences Between APA & MLA • APA and MLA use parenthetical citations in the text to refer readers to sources at the end of the paper. • APA and MLA both use numbered notes to add information that would interrupt the flow of the writing. • APA lists of works cited in the paper are called “References”; MLA lists are “Works Cited.” • Unlike MLA, APA includes the publication date in parenthetical citations, and the date appears after the author’s name in the References. • Unlike MLA, which lists an author’s full name on the Works Cited page, APA uses the author’s last name and only initials for the first and middle names. • APA and MLA capitalize, italicize, and use quotes with titles differently. Taken from Prentice Hall’s Reference Guide, 8th edition, p. 456 Components of an APA Paper • • • • • Cover page (also called a title page) Abstract (approximately half a page) Body/text (with in-text citations) References page Optional: Figures, charts, photos General Format of an APA Paper • • • • • • • • Double-spaced 12-point Times New Roman font One-inch margins on all sides Two spaces after all end-of-sentence punctuation Left-hand justification margins (no righthand justification) Tab key paragraph indentations Running header flush to the left margin (if required) Page numbers in header, flush to the right margin Title/Cover Page in APA Format Each title page should have: • A running head • A page number • Identifying information (title, student name, university name) Title/Cover Page in APA Format (Optional Info.) NOTE: The first three lines are required; the last three lines are optional. Always follow the request of your instructors. Details of an APA Abstract • Note that this is now page 2 of the paper; students should remove the words “Running head:” from their header, leaving only the all-caps portion. • The word “Abstract” is centered on the page, with no font changes. • The abstract begins without indentation on the second line of text. Details of the Body in an APA Paper • The title of the paper is restated at the top of the page, centered with no font changes. • If the paper uses section headings, there are specific formatting guidelines for them. (refer to A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition) General Format of an APA Paper: Headings Headings: The first is for a major heading; the others are for subheadings beneath the major heading. Follow the pattern in the chart: General Format of an APA Paper: In-Text Citations Avoid plagiarism by correctly citing in APA: • Direct Quotes • Paraphrases • Summaries • Please refer to pages 166-175 in A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition. In-text Citation Basics Direct Quote • • • • • Enclose the quote in quotation marks Provide the author Year of publication Print sources add a “p.” (page number) Electronic sources add a “para.” (paragraph number) • Include a signal phrase (p. 171-172 in A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition) • When using quote marks, all periods and commas go inside the quote, ALWAYS, except when using a citation demonstrated below. Example: Jenny Jones discovered, "students often had difficulty using APA style" (1998, p. 199). In-Text Citation Basics Paraphrases & Summaries • If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) • Provide the author • Year of publication • Print sources add a “p.” (page number) • Electronic sources add a “para.” (paragraph number) • Include a signal phrase (p. 171-172 in A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition) • Helps to show beginning and end of source Example: According to Jones, APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. The APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199). The APA Reference Page • The Reference page begins on its own page (not included at the end of the last page of the essay). (Hit CTRL-ENTER to start a new page.) • The word “References” is listed at the top and centered, with no font change. • Listings are put in alphabetical order by author’s last name (if no author is available, use the title). The date will never begin a reference on this page. Reference Page Basics Different types of sources have different requirements for what needs to be included, but the basics are: • • • • Author(s) Date of publication Title Title of periodical (if necessary) with volume and issue numbers • Page numbers (if part of a periodical) • Website retrieval information (if a web source) • DOIs (if available) Reference Page Basics • Each reference cited in text must appear on the References page • Each entry on the References page must be cited in text Two exceptions (in-text citations only): • Classical works • Personal Communications Reference Page Basic Examples Book Author. (Year). Title. City, State: Publisher. Example: Bradshaw, C. (2012). Foreplay and the suburbs: A prequel to Sex and the City. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Reference Page Basic Examples Simple Website Citation Author. (Date published if available; n.d.--no date-- if not). Title of article. Title of Website. “Retrieved” date, “from” URL. Example: Jones, H. (n.d.). Why did it have to be snakes? Raiders of the Lost References. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from http:www.indyrefs.com/snakes.htm (Notice, there is no period after a URL when ending the reference) (A date is only required if there is a belief that the webpage will disappear in the future; otherwise state, “Retrieve from URL”) Reference Page Basic Examples General Journal Citation Author. (Year). Article title. Title of Journal, number of the edition, pages. Example: Summers, B. (2002). Stake your claim: Innovations in vampire slaying. Journal of Modern Demonology, 42(3), 149-159. *Include the DOI if it is on the article: doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9351-2 Citation Assistance • • • • • • www.apastyle.org http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ www.citationmachine.net www.bibme.org A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition NoodleTools (DU library resource) • DU’s APA Brief Overview document is available through the library webpage and under “research services” link and “APA help” link. Questions?