IB Psych Research Skills

Are You Ready to Research?
Note cards - one or more per source
2 column-note or Linear notes - keep track of source(s) in
the margins
As soon as you find a good source, make a note of
bibliographic info. Ask for a Works Cited worksheet from
the library.
Schlozman, S. (2013, March/April). Cheating in the age of Facebook. Psychology
Today, 47-8.
Harvard Cheating Scandal
o 125 students cheated on a take-home exam with a no-collaboration
policy, using Facebook
In the age of likes, tweets & tags – it’s difficult to navigate
between media
How do you cite on-line collaboration?
o Facebook discussion
o Online forum thread
ANSWER: see APA reference guide! (p. 215)
60.8% of college students admitted to cheating
16.5% didn’t regret it
only 20% admitted to it in the 1940s
Majority of cheaters believe it’s necessary for success
55% of college professors say cheating has increased and
believe digital tools play a role in plagiarism
See section 2.2 of your Academic Honesty handout
“Some candidates seem to believe that because the
internet is in the public domain and largely uncontrolled,
information can be taken from websites without the need
for acknowledgment.”
“Simply stating the search engine […] is not acceptable.”
BE CAREFUL of background reading
o Keep track of ALL SOURCES used, even if not directly quoting – you
may wish to go back to it later
o Cite especially when using specialized terms
o Teachers can tell if your language level or style seems beyond your
No need to cite common knowledge, but err on the side of
Every time you use data or more than two words from a
source, or one specialized word unique to a source
If you use an image, graph, or chart
If you put the information into your own words, put in an intext citation (author, year).
Integrate quotes into your own sentences.
Set up your quote or paraphrase, introducing how the data
will serve your thesis.
After your quote, provide analysis (explain how the data
serves your thesis).
Include the author’s name, the year of publication, and
page numbers
If there are 3 or more authors, cite them all the first time
around, then use “Author, et al.”
If no page numbers are found, or you have any other
question, see the APA reference guide
Use if the quote is shorter than 40 words
 If the quote is in the middle of a sentence, put your
parenthetical reference immediately after the quote &
continue your sentence:
Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested
that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently
validated parental negativity about the adolescent without
adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns”
(p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity.
If the quote finishes at the end of the sentence
Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in
palliative care, whereby “medical needs are met by those in
the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed
by anyone on the team” (Csikai & Chalitin, 2006, p. 112).
If your quote is more than 40 words
o Put into a block of text with no quotation marks
o Indent every line ½ an inch from the margin; if another paragraph
comes in, indent a further ½ inch
Others have contradicted this view:
Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group
members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds
or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or
celebrate an event.
In these instances, participants are able to see the visible
manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability
to make direct, intimate connections is limited by the magnitude of
the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)
If you mention the author in the sentence, you do not need
to repeat the name in the parenthetical reference.
Ex: According to Smith, blah blah (2007, p. 250).
In a recent study, blah blah (Smith, 2007, p. 250).
If you switch to a new study, you must make it clear by
introducing the new reference.
Likewise, if you switch back and forth, you must use the
author’s name again.
Always aim for clarity.
Digital Object Identifiers
 Provides a means of persistent identification
 May be hidden under a button labeled Article, CrossRef,
PubMed, or another vendor name
 If no DOI is found, use the URL
General Reference form:
Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If no DOI, use this format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography.
European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283.
Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview
transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site:
http:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_histories.htm
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of
Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from http://www.articlehomepage.com
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits
[Data file]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08
For APA:
in-text citation: (author, year).
first few words of title, along with pg. number, appear in
top right corner
on References page (in MLA, it's called Works Cited), last
name is spelt out, first name is initial only
only the first word of a title is capitalized
usually requires an abstract
Your instructor
Your teacher-librarians
The APA format book (808 PUB)
Links on our website:

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