American Planning Association Sustainable Disaster Recovery Conference “Your Next Disaster: Getting Ready for Recovery” November 14, 2013, St. Louis James C. Schwab, AICP Manager, APA Hazards Planning Research Center PAS Report 577 Why rewrite the “Green Book”? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 ESF-14 FEMA within Homeland Security Lessons of Hurricane Katrina Map Modernization and RiskMap Florida Requirements (no longer required) Climate change Emergence of Web-based technology National Disaster Recovery Framework Why did FEMA fund this project? • Rationale online: http://www.planning.org/research/postdisaster/rationa le.htm • Resistance, resilience, reflection: • What kinds of communities do we want? • Who provides a comprehensive view of community issues in disasters? • What distinguishes planners’ contributions? • What does it take to turn a vision of resilience into a reality? • What do planners know about hazards? • What do they need to know? Revisiting the “Green Book” The Old, the New, the Work in Progress Not just a PAS Report anymore: • Online case studies • Online tools and resources (e.g., model ordinance) • Recovery News blog • Potential derivative products under consideration Where Do We Draw the Line? Who Moves? Who Stays? Is Resilience Personal or Public? Who Takes Responsibility? APA Response to Sandy On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore, causing an estimated $36 billion in damages in New Jersey and another $32 billion in New York. APA Recovery Workshop Planning in a Post-Sandy World Protecting people, strengthening communities As the lights have come back on in New York and New Jersey, the region has looked to the future. How can planning create a more resilient region? Who will make the tough decisions? And how will they change the way people live, work, and play along the coastal shores? For an entire week in April, the American Planning Association examined the critical questions in a series of free workshops focused on long-term solutions for stronger communities. Participants learned about: Connecting disaster recovery to long-range community planning Using an Interim Recovery Ordinance to resolve land-use issues Finding funding and meeting state and local requirements Adopting mitigation planning for more resilient communities Click on the workshop links below to find the agenda, PowerPoint presentations, small group breakout session notes, and other information from each of the five workshops APA presented. This series of free workshops was supported in part by The Planning Foundation's "Disaster Recovery and Planning" fund. Donate to the Foundation Breakouts: Hands-on Engagement 1: The Vision of a Resilient Community • Resilience as a concept for governance • Resilience in functional and economic terms • Ability to adapt to social, economic, political, and physical change • Resiliency in the context of natural hazards: How does this fit with what planners do already? Planning helps avoid disasters Disasters are one type of crisis Recovery policy has parallels to development policy Disasters are one type of crisis Natural disasters are similar to other unexpected events that occasionally affect nearly all communities. From a management perspective, the approaches are similar, organizing resources to tackle new challenges. This is the domain of managers, broader than any one department of local government, typically with input from the planning department, the finance department and others. Recovery policy has parallels to development policy The dynamics of a community are affected by change. The rapidity of change is greatest in disaster circumstances, measured in minutes or hours. Blight, employment decline, business stagnation, commercial revitalization, housing construction and green initiatives are slow processes over many years. The ingredients are the same, however. In some instances the disruption and destruction of a disaster unveils opportunities for reversing decline, taking advantage of a catalyst Question 3: How Should the City Address Climate …And Southern Brooklyn… Risks? Plan Highlights Develop designs for Coney Island Creek wetlands and tidal barrier with opportunities for economic development16 Support entertainment district expansion, including new roller coaster and Aquarium improvements Work with USACE on nourishment of Coney, Brighton and Plumb Beaches Replace destroyed Ida G. Israel hospital facility Launch “21st C. bungalow competition” for neighborhoods such as Gerritsen Beach CONFIDENTIAL Conceptual rendering of Coney Island Creek wetlands and tidal barrier Defining Resilience 1. “Resilience” in emergency management terms refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies. 2. Instead of repeated damage and continual demands for federal disaster assistance, resilient communities proactively protect themselves against hazards, build selfsufficiency and become more sustainable. Resilience is the capacity to absorb severe shock and return to a desired state following a disaster. It involves technical, organizational, social and economic dimensions. . . It is fostered not only by government, but also by individual, organization and business actions. (Godschalk et al., 2009) What is a Resilient Community? Communities and the people who live therein can, however, increase their resilience and be even better able to anticipate threats, limit their impacts, and recover more rapidly through adaptation and growth in the face of turbulent change. Building community resilience encompasses the entire community, including its physical infrastructure, its economic and social capital, its natural environment, and its systems providing essential services. Add to these the community’s ability to resist or recover rapidly from natural or man-caused events. (ICMA 2011, related to CARRI) Planners traditionally seek designs that embody resilience. In the layout of new residential neighborhoods or industrial parks, it is common to configure streets so there is more than one way to enter or exit the development. Such design is governed by regulation, typically by standards in the subdivision ordinance. In this instance, the design is resilient because it can maintain access even if one street is temporarily blocked by an accident, utility work or other construction. Finance managers likewise diversify the community’s investment assets to lower risk. Organization of Municipal Government for Recovery Planning Elected Governing Body Professional Management Planning & Advisory Commissions and Committees Development Department(s) Organizing Organizing Influence: Influence: Comprehensive Comprehensive Plan Plan Transportation & Land Use Planning Economic Development Planning Project Design Review, Zoning, Subdivision Economic Development Planning 5-Year Transportation Improvement Program Business Improvement Districts, Incubators, TIF Strategy Annual Budget: Transit/Roads, : Capital Projects Commercial Revitalization SBDCs General Management Structure Annual Capital CDBG Action Improvement Plan Plan & Agency Growth Service Management Plans, Human Needs Assessments Financial Resources HOME Strategy and ESG Homeless Services Risk Management CDCs & and Insurance Microenterprise Reserves for LoanResiliency Programs Section 8 Subsidized Intergovernmental Plann Organizations Metropolitan, Regional, Ru Stormwater & Wastewater Management Planning Floodplain Management Permits Drainage Projects 5-Year Update to HM Plan Public Private Partnerships, Affordability Watershed Protection Plans for Wetlands Buyouts of At-Risk Properties Neighborhood Stabilization Lake Improvement Structural Resilience Grants Rental Rehab Senior Housing Public Housing Waterfront Plan Event Recovery Plan Response Recovery Organization Recovery Phase 1 Preparing the Plan Organizing the recovery planning process Recovery Phases 1: The Vision of a Resilient Community Plans for recovery after disasters: Why bother? • Building a local culture of disaster awareness • Providing a focus for pre-disaster exercises among designated public officials • Opportunity to establish clear lines of responsibility should the need arise for long-term community recovery • Opportunity to consider and review financial needs that would be triggered by recovery • Assessment of the community’s overall preparedness stance Making Resilience Happen • Typology of Disaster Recovery Plans • Pre-Disaster: Operational • Focused on short-term recovery, driven by emergency management concerns • Pre-Disaster: Policy • Identify managerial framework for long-term community recovery • Identify priority issues governing recovery • Post-Disaster (Design-oriented) • Based on assessment of known damages • Focused on physical rebuilding and community redevelopment 2: Disaster Preparedness and Recovery: Expectation and Reality • • • • • • • • • Components of disaster management Primer on disaster preparedness Major federal legislation defining disaster policy Why preparation and planning matter The new dynamics of organizational relationships Where anticipation and reality part company Understanding the scale and spectrum of damages Institutional learning after disaster Special feature: Model recovery ordinance Disaster Preparedness and Recovery: Expectation and Reality • Components of disaster management Disaster Preparedness and Recovery: Expectation and Reality • Primer on disaster preparedness Explaining the NDRF (sort of) Disaster Preparedness and Recovery: Expectation and Reality Sidebar: Major Federal Legislation Defining Disaster Policy • Key Federal Disaster Management Laws • Key Federal Secondary Disaster Management Laws Key Federal Disaster Management Systems • • • • • • • Federal Response Plan, 1992 44 CFR Part 201 – Mitigation Planning National Incident Management System, 2004 National Response Plan, 2004 National Response Framework, 2007 Presidential Preparedness Policy Directive – 8 NDRF, 2011 Disaster Preparedness and Recovery: Expectation and Reality • • • • Why preparation and planning matter The new dynamics of organizational relationships Where anticipation and reality part company Institutional learning after disaster Disaster Impact/Recovery Typology Source: Ken Topping Geographic Scale Low Impact Event High Impact Event (Low to moderate life loss, population-economic dislocation, damage – primarily requires repair or restoration of homes and facilities) (Extensive life loss, population-economic dislocation, major destruction - requires full re-planning and major reconstruction ) Sites/Neighborhood Level 1. Localized Restoration Level 2. Localized Reconstruction Substantial Parts of Community Level 3. Community Restoration Level 4. Community Reconstruction Examples: recurring flooding, hurricane damage Examples: Greensburg KS, Oakland Hills Fire Level 5. Regional Restoration Level 6. Regional Reconstruction (Catastrophic) Substantial Parts of Region Example: Northridge EQ Examples: Hurricane Katrina; Gulf Oil Spill; Tohoku EQ and Tsunami MODEL PRE‐EVENT RECOVERY ORDINANCE One action a community can take to move toward better management of disaster mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is the adoption of an ordinance before or after a damaging event to serve as either a forerunner or supplement to a full‐blown recovery plan. The Model Recovery Ordinance below outlines a foundation on which a community can organize in advance of a declared disaster to efficiently manage short‐ and long‐term recovery. Draft posted at: https://www.planning.org/research/postdisaster/pdf/modelrecoveryordinance. pdf 3: Long-term Recovery Planning: Goals and Policies • Whole community recovery (Quality of life in addition to physical rebuilding) • Opportunities for post-disaster hazard mitigation • Land use • Infrastructure/transportation restoration • Housing • Economic redevelopment • Environmental restoration • Health and recovery • Making it all work together 4: Long-term Recovery Planning: Process • Where and when to start • Before disaster strikes: Characterize the planning environment • After disaster strikes: Characterize the planning environment • Leadership and collaboration • Broadening public involvement • Psychological and emotional considerations 5: Long-term Recovery Planning: Implementation • Before disaster strikes: What aspects of a PDRP may need implementation even before disaster strikes? • After disaster strikes: What obstacles are likely to arise in a post-disaster scenario? • Post-disaster organization and roles • Financing implementation • Establishing milestones and a timetable for implementation • Implementation as a community enterprise • Managing post-disaster uncertainties • Legal issues • Metrics of recovery: measuring success 6: Next Steps in Creating Resilient Communities • Resilience and the future of planning • Fostering public understanding of environmental change • Green communities and economic development • Seizing opportunities and anticipating the unexpected Contact Information Jim Schwab, AICP, Manager APA Hazards Planning Research Center http://www.planning.org/nationalcenters/hazards/index.htm Jschwab@planning.org The work of the Hazards Planning Research Center advances communities that reduce the impact of natural hazards on the built environment.