Water Resources Management

Report
WATER RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
Zekâi Şen
Turkish Water Foundation
WATER FOUNDATION
Arid regions of the world
WATER FOUNDATION
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
Cities
Cities
Cities
Cities
DROUGHTS
FLOODS
POLLUTION
WATER MANAGEMENT
Diagram illustrating major pathways of changes. Demographic and
economic growth, and increasingly consumptive life style, drive the
changes in hydrological cycles and freshwater resources through changes
in land use, water withdrawals, and climate related to food production and
the emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). (Modified from Oki, 2005
by Şen, 2008).
WATER MANAGEMNT RELATED SIGNIFICANT DECISION PARAMETERS
INTENSITY
DURATION
Design
Early warning
Dimension
Risk
Insurance
Operation
Volume
FREQUENCY
Warning
INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
OF WATER RESOURCES
FUTURE WATER RESOURCES PLANNING STEPS
 Spatial Environment (areal extent, depth)
 Temporal Environment (replenish-able, non-replenish-able)
 Hydrogeological Environment (geological structure,
voids, fissures, fractures)
 Hydro-chemical Environment (Chemical quality, ion
exchange, salt water intrusion, pollution)
 Alternative Strategies (runoff, desalination, aquifers,
long distance transportation, rainfall and runoff harvesting)
 Emergency Situations (earthquakes, land slides,
terrorist attacks, wars, system mal-functioning)
WATER FOUNDATION
FUTURE FACTS
“Of all the social and natural crises we humans face, the water crisis is the
one that lies at the heart of our survival and that of our planet Earth,”
“No region will be spared from the impact of crisis which touches every facet
of life, from the health of children to the ability of nations to secure food for
their citizens,”
“Water supplies are falling while the demand is dramatically growing at an
unsustainable rate. Over the next 20 years, the average supply of water
world-wide per person is expected to drop by a third.”
“By the middle of this century, 7 billion people in 60 countries will be faced
with water scarcity, at best 2 billion in 48 countries, depending on factors
like population growth and policy-making”
"The survival of humanity and of all other species on earth depends upon the fate of
water. Where water is absent, life is absent,"
"Technological, economic and scientific solutions are not enough,"
"Water is different than other resources, such as oil. People of different religious and
scientific backgrounds treat water in a special way”.
"There's the realization that scientific and political approaches are needed, but they
are not sufficient. A spiritual and ethical approach is needed as well."
“People have fought over dominance of water sources for thousands of years”,
Fresh Water: A Scarce and Critical Resource
Population Growth
The Middle East population more than doubled between 1970 and 2001, rising from
173 million people to 386 million people and reducing the average amount of fresh water
available per capita by more than half, to 1,640 cubic meters per person per year
Household Demand
Household demand for water is affected by a variety of factors, such as household
size, households' distance from the source of water, how regularly water is accessible, and
people's consumption patterns. The Middle East growing population, together with higher per
capita income, greater urbanization, and greater access to running water, has been driving up
the region's domestic demand for fresh water.
Qanats and Rainwater Harvesting – Ain Zubaidah
Qanats, or chain wells, a traditional method for bringing water to the surface, consist
of a series of horizontal tunnels bored into a cliff or mountainous area.
Sequential Water Use (Reuse)
Sequential water use involves capturing and treating water that has been used in one
sector so that it can be directed to other uses. Domestic use requires the cleanest water, so the
ideal order is for water to be used in the household first, then in industry, then in agriculture
Desalination
Extracting salt from seawater is extremely expensive. Desalination provides a clean
and reliable source of water, but it uses large quantities of heat and has some negative
environmental consequences. Sixty percent of the world's desalination capacity lies in the oilrich Gulf states
Trading Water
There are a number of ways to transport water from one region to another, including
shipping it by boat, transporting it via pipeline, towing it in large water bags (Medusa bags), and
carrying it overland in vehicles.
Strategies for Managing Demand
Successful policies and programs for managing water supplies might involve strategies
for promoting more desirable patterns and levels of water use.
Water Reallocation
For most the Middle East countries, reallocating water away from agriculture and
toward the domestic and industrial sectors may be a critical, although controversial way to
adjust to water scarcity.
Less Water-Intensive Crops
A number of the Middle East countries rely heavily on their own production of
cereals, which have a low return per unit of land and water.
Efficient Technologies
Better technologies may help reduce long-term costs and improve efficiency. Studies
have shown, for example, that drip irrigation cuts water use by between 30 percent and 70
percent and increases crop yields by between 20 percent and 90 percent, compared with
traditional irrigation.
Distribution Efficiencies
Other measures for improving distribution, such as repairing leaking distribution
systems and sewer pipes, expanding central sewage systems, metering water connections, and
rationing and restricting water use, can also play important roles.
Public Education and Community Involvement
Involving communities in adopting new strategies can increase acceptance of new
water systems.
Institutional Reforms
Complicated systems of water rights, land rights, social and civic institutions, and legal
regimes can sometimes undermine water management; reform could improve how water
resources are regulated
BASIC DEFINITIONS
1) ARIDITY: It is a permanent natural condition and a stable climatic feature of a region,
2) DROUGHT: It refers to a temporary feature of the climate or to regular but
unpredictable climatic changes,
3) WATER SHORTAGE: It is understood mostly as a man-made phenomenon reflecting the
concern with temporary and small area water deficiencies, and
4) DESERTIFICATION: It is a part of an alteration process in the ecological regime often
associated with aridity and/or drought but principally brought about by human-made
activities which change the surrounding environment to a significant degree.
WATER FOUNDATION
WATER FOUNDATION
ARIDITY AND HUMIDITY
Precipitation
Extremely
humid
High
Extremely
humid
Humid
Moderate
Semi-arid
Extremely arid
Arid
Low
0
Cold
Warm
Hot
Temperature
Water resources in general are subject to various external effects that cause its amount
to decrease by time and recently even by location. Among these undesirable events the
following are just the most significant ones.
1) Population increase not only by birth but equally importantly by migration due to
economical, political, military, religious, social and hazardous situations.
2) Industrial investments, development and processing in potential catchment areas
and especially groundwater recharge areas lead to pollution of water resources and hence
water potentiality for domestic use decreases,
3) Recent climate change, global warming and greenhouse events give rise to
groundwater resources quantity and quality deteriorations,
4) Mis-management of water resources in general and groundwater reservoirs in
particular may lead to over-pumping and consequent groundwater quality changes,
WATER FOUNDATION
Groundwater resources are the most conservative reservoirs and have the most
significant strategic properties especially for arid regions due to the following
facts.
1) Since they infiltrate and penetrate geological layers their quality are better than
surface waters provided that the geological formations such as quartz, granite,
sandstones, alluvial deposits are the traveling media. Groundwater resources are most
preferable for drinking purposes than any other sources,
2) They are protected from any atmospheric pollution events and can preserve the
quality and temperature throughout the whole year,
3) Groundwater resources are available anywhere in the world and therefore they
are the most dependable water resources especially in the cases of dangers such as natural
or anthropogenic disasters,
4) Aquifers are natural and dependable reservoir spaces for storage of water for future
use without much cost. Besides, storage of groundwater in aquifers reduces evaporation
losses almost to zero even in very hot climates and therefore they are preferable in arid
regions.
WATER FOUNDATION
The water development studies in different regions should include the following three
fundamental steps in mind.
 Data base
 Restrictions
a) Water demand quantity and types (domestic or agriculture),
b) Safe yield,
c) Possibility of supply and locations,
d) Water demand quality,
e) Supply possibilities and restrictions,
WATER FOUNDATION
f) Water structure levels and capacities,
g) Possible volume for future water storage,
h) Present water volume for availability,
i) Rainfall water volume for replenishment,
j) Water resources potentiality,
k) Any limitation on water structure methods,
l) Water contamination and pollution possibilities,
m) Economic situation under available budget restrictions
n) Other jointly manageable nearby water storages.
 Effective field survey
The following questions can be asked and at least partial
solutions may be suggested.
• Which locations have the priority for water development in the study area?
• What other water resources in the nearby locations can be managed in an integrated
manner so as to reach to an optimum solution?
• What are the possibility of additional supply location and pumping in the whole area?
• Are there adequate water resources quantitatively to meet the demand in the area?
• Is the water quality is suitable for the development activities in and nearby the area?
• What are the discharge and recharge possibilities and rates temporally and spatially in
the study area?
• Are there water mixture possibility so as to enhance the water quality and quantity?
WATER FOUNDATION
• What are the potentiality in the area and are there different aquifers that may be
exploited in an integrated manner?
• Are there possibilities of quick droughts thus increase in the pumping lift?
• Are there any potential hazard either to the groundwater resource from pollution to any
infrastructure due to excessive pumping and subsidence?
• What is the number of population that can be supported by the available water
resource?
• If there are already water development studies in the area, is it possible to integrate
them in the management program?
WATER FOUNDATION
WATER USAGE MAY BE CURTAILED THROUGH SOME EFFECTIVE
MECHANISMS, WHICH MAY BE STATED AS FOLLOWS.
The water reservoir monitoring requires extensive records and investigations. This may be
one of the key reasons why overdraft may escape recognition until it is too late because the
effects of development are commonly obscure, complex and becomes understandable slowly
by time,
The causes and effects of water overdraft are not reversible immediately or fully.
Consequently, cutting of withdrawals in the reverse order of their priorities does not assure
that the overdraft trend will be reversed. There may be either of two reasonable doubts that
the available facts would suffice to sustain them against any appeal from an order for
reduction, or that the statutory procedure would in fact recapture the status of the earlier
appropriators,
Even in a water basin in which the perennial or sustainable yield and appropriations for use
are about equal in total, some further development may be feasible.
WATER FOUNDATION
CLIMATE CHANGE
DUE TO HUMAN
INTERACTION WITH
ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
WATER FOUNDATION
Global warming questions are:
How much is the world warming?
Is the recent warming unusual?
How rapidly did climate change in the distant past?
Have precipitation and atmospheric moisture changed?
Are the atmospheric/oceanic circulations changing?
Has climate variability, or have climate extremes, changed?
Are the observed trends internally consistent?
What are the effects on WATER RESOURCES?
“Scientific information and knowledge”
WATER
FOUNDATION
10-12 km
Expansion due to
GLOBAL WARMING
 700 m
2000-2050
250
WATER FOUNDATION
2000-2050
Kuraklık ?
200
Yönetim ?
Frequency
Sıklık
150
100
Taşkın ?
50
Kuraklık ?
250
0
20
40
60
80
100
Monthly precipitation (mm)
120
2050-2100
140
Aylık yağışlar (mm)
200
Frequency
Sıklık
0
2050-2100
Yönetim?
150
100
Taşkın ?
50
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Monthly precipitation (mm)
Aylık yağışlar (mm)
140
160
180
90
90
2000-2025
80
2025-2050
80
70
70
60
Frequency
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
100
20
40
60
80
Monthly precipitation (mm)
90
100
120
0
0
120
20
40
60
80
100
2050-2075
120
140
2075-2100
100
80
70
80
60
50
60
40
40
30
20
20
10
0
0
50
100
150
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Water Resources Basins Metropolitan City of Istanbul
KIRKLARELİ
TEKİRDAĞ
İSTANBUL
MELEN
İSTANBUL
KOCAELİ
DÜZCE
Water Resources Basins Cover Approx. %46 of the Province of Istanbul
Average Precipitation in the Province of Istanbul (mm).
Annually Avarage Precipitation (mm)
ŞİLE MONTHLY AVARAGE PRECIPITATION (mm)
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12
Kilometer
FLORYA MONTHLY AVARAGE PRECIPITATION (mm)
BAHÇEKÖY MONTHLY AVARAGE PRECIPITATION (mm)
200
200
150
150
100
100
50
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
(KARACA,M.2006)
Lakes, Forest Areas, Agricultural Fields and Settlement
Areas of the Province of Istanbul
Agricultural Fields
Lakes and
Reservoirs
Forest Areas
Settlement Areas
Kilometer
Meteorological
Stations
(Karaca ve diğ., 2005)
Current and Prospective
Water Resources
for the Metropolitan
City of Istanbul
(Million m ³ /yıl - %)
(
Sazlıdere Dam
Büyükçekmece Dam
Terkos Dam
; 100 ; 4%
; 142 ; 6%
; 55 ; 2%
Alibeyköy Dam
; 36 ; 2%
Istrancalar; 235.2; 11%
Groundwater
; 10 ; 1%
Şile Caisson Wells ; 30 ; 1 %
Ömerli Dam
Melen Project;
1190; 53%
Darlık Dam
; 220 ; 10 %
; 97 ; 4%
Elmalı I and II ; 15 ; 1%
Yeşilvadi Çevirme Yapısı
0%
Yesilçay Regulator
; 10 ;
; 145 ; 6%
Küçükmehmetoglu, M. & Geymen, A., (2006)
Bu yazılım vasıtası ile Türkiye’de istenen bir şehrin gösterilen pencereden seçilmesi ile 2100
yılına kadar aylık olarak tüm meteoroloji ve hidroloji bilgilerine ulaşmak mümkündür. Ayrıca
her hangi bir ilçenin (veya köyün veya merak edilen noktanın) enlem ve boylamı girilerek aynı
meteorolojik ve hidrolojik değişkenlerin bu nokta için değerlerini 2100 yılına kadar aylık olarak
üretmek mümkündür.
GOZTEPE EH4OPYC-A2
FLORYA EH4OPYC-A2
900
1000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
500
400
300
200
O
S
M
N
a
FLORYA EH4OPYC-A2
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
A
GOZTEPE EH4OPYC-A2
1200
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
1000
800
600
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
1000
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
1200
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
600
0
A
1400
400
800
600
400
SU VAKFI
200
200
0
700
100
100
0
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
800
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
900
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
A
0
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
A
FLORYA EH4OPYC-A2
GOZTEPE EH4OPYC-A2
900
1000
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
700
600
500
400
800
300
200
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
900
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
800
100
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
0
A
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
A
c
FLORYA EH4OPYC-A2
GOZTEPE EH4OPYC-A2
1000
1000
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
800
700
600
500
800
400
300
700
600
500
400
300
200
200
100
100
0
O
S
M
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
900
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
900
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
0
A
d
SU VAKFI
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
A
FLORYA EH4OPYC-A2
GOZTEPE EH4OPYC-A2
900
1000
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
700
600
500
400
300
200
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
900
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
Ardışık toplam aylık yağış (mm)
800
100
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
0
A
O
S
M
N
M
H
T
Aylar
A
E
E
K
A
e
SU VAKFI
RUNOFF HARVESTING
FOR WATER RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
RECOMMENDATIONS
1) Research priorities (data networks, problems of scale, need for
interdisciplinary dialogue),
2) Research management (large scale land-surface experiments, advanced
planning for remote sensing, communication with decision makers and the
public),
3) Project design and management (effect of climate change, broad
dialogue on practical operational problems, conflict resolution on water
issues), and
4) Policy formulation (national planning based on up-to-date information,
respect for local culture and level of development, involvement of all
stakeholders at an early stage).
WATER FOUNDATION

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