Freshmen Final Exam Review Health & Physical Education 2005-2006 As you are going through the review, have your Health & P.E. study guides accessible. I would suggest highlighting the information that you are unfamiliar with, or jotting down notes on what you don’t remember. If you ace this review, you should have no problem with the exam! SOCCER Do you remember…. What the lines on the soccer field are called? Sidelines (or touchlines) are the longer boundary lines and endlines are the shorter ones. What are the offensive positions? Who are the players responsible for scoring goals? The front line, or the attack, are the offensive positions. That line is made up of right & left wings and striker who try to score for the team. Though scoring is their job, they are NOT the only players that are allowed to score goals. What is a “save?” When the goalie blocks an attempted shot on the goal. Who is the only player allowed to use his or her hands? The goalie. What are ways to move the ball upfield? Dribbling (advancing the ball using short controlled taps to yourself) & passing (delivering the ball to a teammate). Passing the ball to a teammate upfield is quicker than carrying it/dribbling it yourself. What is the difference between a goal kick and corner kick? A goal kick is taken by the defense when the offense kicks the ball over the endline (without scoring). A corner kick is taken by the offense (from the corner) when the defense kicks the ball over the endline. What is a throw-in? When a team kicks the ball over the sideline, the opposing team will throw the ball in from where it went out. Proper technique is a two handed, over the head snap, while keeping both feet on the ground. What are good defensive concepts? The goalie and defensive line should try to get the ball out wide, to the wing positions. When they get the ball away from the center of the field, they are getting the ball away from where the goal is. What is the difference between a direct free kick, and an indirect free kick? You can score DIRECTLY on a direct free kick. You need to pass to a teammate first before scoring on an indirect free kick. BASKETBALL What do you remember? How many points is a basket worth? 1 - One point, when it is a foul shot. 2 - Two points, when it is a regular shot (lay-up or jump-shot). 3 - Three points, when it is a shot make from behind the 3-pt line. What is the key? What are the rules relating to it? The key is the large rectangle under the basket. You, as an offensive player, can not stand there for more than 3 seconds. What is it called when you get into good rebounding position? You seal the shooter behind you by putting your “butt” to their “gut.” Boxing - out What is a backcourt violation? When the offensive team dribbles the ball over the midcourt line, they can not go back. If the do, the referee will blow the whistle and give the ball to the other team for a backcourt violation. How do you play knock-out? What skills does it focus on? Ask your friend how to play! It is a great way to work on your layup and foul-shots (free throws). What is a tip-off? When the referee tosses the ball between two opponents at the beginning of the game. This is also called a jump ball. What are good dribbling concepts? Have good control of the ball, look up, see the court, pass the ball to the open space. You use the dribble to get the ball upcourt (even though passing is quicker), drive to the basket, penetrate the defense, or get away from a pesty defender! What fitness components are pre-dominant in the game of basketball? AGILITY – there are a lot of quick movements: stopping, starting, changing directions, pivoting SPEED – sprinting up & down the court quickly helps your play CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE – games are long! You need to have the CV fitness to last the duration of a game COORDINATION rebound, etc you need to be able to catch & throw, shoot, SOFTBALL Think back…what do you recall? How many people officially should be playing the field in a SLOWPITCH SOFTBALL game? 10. What is a line drive? Hard hit ball that does not float through the air (pop-up or flyball), or roll (grounder). It is hit hard and stays low & level. Line drives are sometimes called “frozen ropes!” What does it mean to “tag up?” As a baserunner, you are not allowed to leave your base until a fly ball is caught. Once it is caught, you may advance. (BUT, you should only go if you can get to the next base before the ball does!!!) What is a grand-slam? A homerun with bases loaded. What is an error? A mistake or misplayed ball by the team trying to field the ball. A goof-up, a blunder, a boo-boo… What are balls and strikes? A strike is a pitch that is thrown by the pitcher that goes over the plate, and is between the batter’s shoulders and knees. A ball is anything outside of the strike zone. The ball/strike combination on a batter is called the COUNT. Can a runner go AFTER a ball is caught? Sure,as long as they make it to the next base before... 1) getting tagged with the ball, and 2) before the ball reaches the base they are going to. This is called tagging-up. In softball, lines are... IN. If the ball hits the line and goes fair, it is FAIR! If the ball hits the line and goes foul, it is foul IF this happens before the base…and fair if it happens beyond the base. The batter is out if the defense... 1) Catches the ball before it hits the ground. 2) Gets the ball to first base before the runner gets there. 3) Tags (not pegs!) the runner with the ball. VOLLEYBALL Let me set you up for a good grade on the exam. In volleyball, lines are... IN. Can you explain how to set a volleyball? Can you explain how to BUMP a volleyball? If not, figure it out before next week! How many times can you serve the ball in a game? It depends. If you are serving, you will continue to serve until your team loses possession. You won’t serve again until everyone else on your team has served. How many opportunities do you get to make a legal serve in a rotation? Only one. If the ball hits the net on a serve and goes over, it is good. You can continue serving until loss of possession. If it hits the net and doesn’t go over, it is loss of possession. What are net rules? The ball can hit the net on a volley. The ball can hit the net on a serve, but has to go over to be good. The ball can be played OUT OF the net on a volley, assuming that team has not exceeded 3 hits per side. A person cannot physically hit the net at all. Are you allowed to kick the ball? Not in freshman PE! Under other guidelines, the ball is able to be played, as long as it does not COME TO REST on any part of the body. Do you know how to keep score? Rally Scoring! A point is scored on EVERY serve, regardless of who served the ball (that is different from “the old days,” where you had to serve to score). Games are played to 25; you must win by 2 points. What is a spike? Hitting the ball with one hand forcefully at a downward angle into your opponent’s court. This is too dangerous for Freshmen PE play because the nets are too low and the skill level is too diverse! Project Adventure Let’s talk about this... Can you identify and define the 6 pillars of character? Trustworthiness, Respect, Responsibility, Fairness, Caring, & Citizenship. HINT: Just be TRRFCC! (Terrific!) What are their definitions? Trustworthiness: A trustworthy person is an individual who is sincere and genuine. He/she will behave in a way that sends the message, “I am reliable, I am dependable… you can count on me!” Respect: A person who demonstrates respect will show care and concern for another person’s property, ideas, opinions, and feelings. Responsibility: A responsible person is accountable for his or her actions. He/she will behave with maturity and common sense. He/she is cognizant of when things need to get done and takes the initiative to accomplish said tasks. What are their definitions? • Fairness: A person who demonstrates fairness will recognize the diversity present in society. Furthermore, his/her actions will demonstrate a tolerance and, ideally, an appreciation of these differences in various social circles. • Citizenship: A person who embodies citizenship will adhere to all social responsibilities that personify the true American ideal. This will include, but not be limited to, keeping the environment clean, voting, respecting elders, following community rules & regulations, and helping those in need. • Caring: A caring person will show interest and compassion towards another person’s thoughts, experiences, feelings and/or ideas. What are some concepts that are needed to help this unit be a successful one? Working together, communicating well, being patient, being involved, good leadership... Playing hard, playing fair, playing safe, and having fun! WELLNESS No more “weighting,” let’s have the right answers! What is the F.I.T. Principle? In order to improve your fitness, you need to improve the FREQUENCY of your workouts (how often you exercise), the INTENSITY of your workouts (how hard you exercise), OR the length of TIME you workout (how long you exercise for). What is the Target Heart Rate Zone? The range you want your heart rate to be in after working out. This is a sign that you are working hard enough to achieve your fitness goals. For you (age14-15), it should be between 120 and 160 bpm. What are Components of Fitness? Health-related or Skill-related factors that determine your fitness level. HEALTH = Factors which are important to overall healthy function of the body systems. SKILL = Factors that make you a better athlete. What are examples of controllable & uncontrollable risk factors related to personal fitness? Controllable: Activity Level, Obesity, Stress, Smoking, High Blood Pressure,High Levels of Cholesterol Uncontrollable: Age, Gender, Heredity What is body composition? The ratio of lean body mass (bones, connective tissues, muscle) to fat. What is blood pressure? What’s normal? Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts (systolic) and relaxes (diastolic). How do you test the components of fitness? By doing President’s Physical Fitness Testing: 1) Agility - What is your shuttle run score? 2) Flexibility - How far can you reach on the flexibility box? 3) Cardiovascular Fitness - What is your mile time? 4) Muscular Strength - Are you able to do pull-ups? Flexed arm hang? 5) Body Composition - What was your body fat percentage? 6) Muscular Endurance - How many curl-ups can you do in one minute? Can you identify where the following muscles are located? Gastrocnemius, Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Gluteus Maximus, Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoids, Pectorals, Biceps, Triceps, Adductors, Abductors, Abdominals, Obliques,Trapezius TEST YOUR “MUSCLE” KNOWLEDGE… • • • • • • • Gastrocnemius - Calf Muscles Quadriceps - Thigh muscles Hamstrings - Back of thigh Gluteus Maximus - Buttocks Latissimus Dorsi - Back muscles Deltoids - Shoulders Pectorals - Chest Muscles TEST YOUR “MUSCLE” KNOWLEDGE… • • • • • • • Biceps - Front of Upper Arm (palms up) Triceps - Back of Upper Arm (palms up) Adductors - Inner thigh muscles Abductors - Outer thigh muscles Abdominals - “Stomach” muscles Obliques - Sides of trunk Trapezius - Upper back Antagonistic muscles are muscles that work opposite each other. For example… • Triceps straighten the elbow; biceps bend it. • Adductors bring the legs together; Abductors spread them apart. • Quads straighten the leg at the knee; the hamstrings bend it. DRUGS & ALCOHOL Just Say No... Which drugs are considered Gateway drugs? Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana What ARE gateway drugs? Drugs which lead to the later use and abuse of other drugs/chemicals. They are the “first step through the gate” into the drug culture. Why do people use Gateways? •They are insecure, unsure of themselves. •They are young. •They are under stress and don’t know how to deal. •They are exposed to it b/c they see it used/abused regularly. What are inhalants? Drugs, commonly household items, which people breathe in to attain a high. What is it when the body is not physically addicted, but the individual yearns for or craves the drug? Psychological Dependence What does an addict have when their body “needs” the drug to function, or else unpleasant withdrawal symptoms (nausea, vomiting) will occur? Physical Dependence/ Physical Addiction When a person becomes accustomed to a certain dosage, his/her body adapts to that amount. In order to get the original effect, they need to increase the dosage. What has this person developed? A tolerance to the drug. What are steroids? Drugs used to enhance athletic performance or build muscle. What is Ecstasy, or “E?” A popular club drug that is often found at raves or all night dance parties. What is THC? THC is the active ingredient found in marijuana. Marijuana is an illegal drug. It can also cause lung cancer. What is caffeine categorized as? Although it is legal, caffeine is still considered a drug. It is classified as a stimulant because it speeds the systems of the body up. Caffeine is found in everyday products, such as colas, coffee, tea, & chocolate. What were some of the main points of Sgt. Farneski’s presentaion? Penalty for drug use/possession is enhanced in a school or park zone. Sometimes you are guilty by association; if you are with people who are guilty and nobody confesses, you are considered guilty too. Human Sexuality Decisions, Decisions…. What is circumcision? The removal of the foreskin on the penis. This is an optional surgical procedure performed on infant males. At what age (range) does puberty occur? In males, between the ages of 13 and 16. In females, between the of 11 and 14. What is ovulation? When does it occur? The release of the mature egg (ovum) from the ovary. * In order to determine the day of ovulation, subtract 14 from the total number of days in the menstrual cycle. The sperm and urine leave the male’s body via the…. Urethra. The sperm are stored in the ______ while they mature. Epidiymis IF you choose to be sexually intimate, what is the best way to prevent STDs and pregnancy? ABSTINENCE! You can still be intimate and passionate WITHOUT having intercourse. It’s 100% effective IF you choose to have intercourse, use a condom to protect against STDs and pregnancy. What STDs are bacterial? Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis What STDs are viral? AIDs, Genital Herpes, Genital Warts *These diseases are INCURABLE. They may go into remission, but viral STDs will ALWAYS be in the system. What are the surgical forms of contraception? In the male - the vasectomy. In the female - tubal ligation. Which methods of contraception prevent the sperm from reaching the egg by blocking it? Barrier methods. These are the male & female condom, the diaphragm and the cervical cap. Which method destroys sperm? Spermicides. Foams, jellies, creams, suppositories. How do hormonal methods of contraception prevent pregnancy? They prevent the ovum from maturing in the ovary. If you do choose to have intercourse, what is the best way to protect yourself against pregnancy and STI’s? Use a latex condom How do I use it? Which four fluids transmit HIV? Semen Blood Vaginal Fluids Breastmilk What is the ONLY guaranteed protection against pregnancy & STDs? ABSTINENCE!!! That does it! Suggestion for this weekend: Be sure you review your notes… IF you SEVERELY STRUGGLED with this review, please see your teacher!