Definitions & Characteristics Interpersonal conflict=2 people engaged in verbal hostility How do I win these arguments? Debate=verbal competition Collaboration=working out disagreements constructively Cooperative knowledge seeking Emphasis on communal knowledge-whole is greater than the sum of its parts Feminists/Women=connected knowers fusing ideas & opinions • Definition: • Argumentation: a form of instrumental communication relying on reasoning and proof to influence belief or behavior through the use of spoken or written messages. • Instrument=musical, surgical, panel in your car • Tools or implements used for doing something or understanding how something works • Instrument=a set of concepts or ideas that allows you to accomplish something. • Language is an instrument for communicating with others • Mathematics is an instrument for counting and measuring • Argumentation is an instrument for reasoning with others. • Pull information together • Structure your ideas • Offer reasons for others to consider • Persuasion is an attempt to move an audience to accept or identify with a particular point of view • Emotion and reason are appeals used in persuasion • Proof and reasoning are used to appeal to rational side of human nature • How do listeners process persuasive messages? • Take one of two routes: • Central Route=highly involved, message is relevant, identify with it by using own experience to help explain and make sense of it—thinking about the message, the quality of the argument, the soundness of the reasoning, the believability of the evidence • Peripheral Route=less involved, message relevant, simple cue pulls you in and is seized on (message, context, situation)-a shortcut that becomes what does the thinking for us • Truism: to succeed in argumentation, must adapt your message to audience—all relative to the quality of the audience that carries out the evaluation. • How to assess audience to adapt? Field Theory: 3 ways 1. 2. 3. People who function together based on expertise People who share common characteristics, e.g., demographics How will people use the argumentation as an instrument to make decisions -use argumentation to solve -impartial judge determines who makes better case -individual/self through internal dialogue weighing pros/cons for a belief or a course of action • Began in Ancient Greece. Citizenship in Athens required communication skills • Studied Rhetoric to primarily persuade or change listener by finding all means of persuading an audience to believe a proposition • Developed meaningful probabilities or arguments to support contested claims • Aristotle-one of greatest Greek rhetoricians-argumentation was central to human nature • 2 Viewpoints: • Artificial Presumption-assigned arbitrarily to one side in a dispute because of a field-accepted belief, i.e., innocent until proven guilty. Could just as easily assigned presumption as the French do-the accused is guilty until he or she proves the probability of innocence • Field-institutions, ideas, rules, policies & customs that differentiate one from the other, create an order for what is typical or natural, and are ongoing until sufficient change is required • Natural Presumption-derived from observing natural order of whatever field we are in at given time and recognizing over time what things work for that field • If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it. • Presumption is the status quo • Hypothesis Testing: Creating a Proposition-a statement that identifies the argumentative ground and points to a change in belief or behavior-that is given provisional, artificial acceptance and argued to determine if that acceptance should continue or should be rejected after thorough reasoning • Scientific method used for study or experiment 3 Perspectives about Presumption: 1. Identifies existing institutions, ideas, laws or rules, policies, practices or customs 2. Identifies what sources of info & expert opinion constitute good & sufficient reasons for accepting or rejecting a proposed change in belief or behavior 3. Is a decision rule that determines what the advocate must prove in testing the proposition as a hypothesis • The obligation of the advocate to contest the ground by offering arguments that are logically sufficient to challenge presumption • Balancing Act-shifting or transferring of the weight of evidence & reasoning from one side to the other • Requires passing judgment on & criticizing present belief or behavior & recommends a new belief or behavior Principles: 1. The advocate has the responsibility to make a case of good and sufficient reasons for change=burden of proof 2. In fulfilling the burden of proof, present beliefs & behaviors described by presumption are judged & evaluated based on the available evidence, & an alternative pattern of thought or action is proposed • Is one that “at first sight” or “on the face of it” is sufficient to justify changing belief or behavior • Suspension of presumption or what we rely on as a guide for our belief/behavior • Consist of evidence supporting the arguments • A prima facie case can be determined by using stock issues/questions that are applied to the propositions; questions that listeners want answered before they accept the advocate’s arguments to warrant a change. They focus the controversy and are naturally derived from the propositions being argued. • Proposition of Fact • Does or does not exist; what has or has not happened; what may occur in the future • Few American presidents have enjoyed favorable press coverage while in office. • The American mass media are relatively free from government regulation. • Most wildlife species will cease to exist outside of zoos in the next decade. • The controversy concerns the relationship b/t something & what we are asked to believe about it. • A particular cause has led to a particular significant event • Proposition of Value • What is virtuous, right or wrong, moral or immoral or with our sense of priorities • The rights of endangered animal species are more important than the rights of indigenous human populations. • American commercial broadcasters have sacrificed quality for entertainment. • Protecting the environment is a more important goal than satisfying America’s demands for full employment. • Establishes a judgmental standard or set of standards & applies them. • This value is more important than that value • Proposition of Policy • What specific actions we should take to deal with significant social problems • The federal govt should significantly strengthen the guarantee of consumer product safety required of manufacturers. • The federal govt should control the supply and utilization of energy in the USA. • The US should restore normal diplomatic relations with the government of Cuba. • Seeks to change behavior • We should do this policy to solve this problem 1. A clear statement of the change in belief or behavior the advocate will seek • Something should be done about strikes by professional athletes • • VS An independent labor relations board for professional sports contract negotiations should be created to arbitrate all labor-management disputes. 2. Contain one central idea • An independent labor relations board for professional sports contract negotiations should be created to arbitrate all labor-management disputes and mandate the use of video play of contested plays in professional sports. 3. Should be couched in neutral terms • “greedy” owners & “overpaid” players • • • • • • • • • • Spontaneous human combustion is real. Family friendly companies are more successful. Alcohol should be banned at all sporting events. We should volunteer. Concealed gun permits reduce crime. Mandatory voting is better than the voluntary method. American diplomats are adequately trained. Couples should limit their families to one child. Small town communities are better places to live. Cultural images of beauty are used against women. • Humans, by nature, are monogamous. • The penny is a costly and irrelevant form of currency that needs to be eliminated. • Casinos are detrimental to the communities they are in. • Criminal tendencies are genetic. • We should participate in mentoring programs. • Amateurs should be banned from climbing Mt. Everest. • The jury system is ineffective. • The elderly are overmedicated. • Regular sodas are healthier than diet sodas.