Public Administration

Outline of the presentation
 Background of Indian Statistical System
 Importance of Statistics
 Role of Statistical Offices
 Generation and Use of Data for Planning
and Monitoring of Development
Historical Background
• Kautilya’s Arthashastra (321-296 B.C.) – System of
census and data collection relating to agriculture,
population and other economic activities, covering
villages and towns
•Coexistence of economics and statistics and their
application for the welfare of states
•Huen Tsang’s writings (dated late seventh to early
eighth century) – Detailed description of plan of
cities, construction of houses and an account of
common products of India and data on area of
kingdoms and distance between them
The manuscript of
• Ain-iAkbari by Abul Afzal (Moghul period) –
system of legalised measurements, land
classification and crop yields by season etc.,
system of land tenure and land revenue
Historical Background –
British period
• Geared towards administration, tax collection, revenue, trade
and commerce and related activities
Developed in the provinces expanding in scope to cover the
fields of agriculture, industries, civil supplies (during World War
II), education, forestry, labor, cooperation, health and vital
statistics- data collected from districts
A small department of statistics was founded in 1847
In 1848, the first census relating to the area and revenue of each
in the North-west provinces was released
In 1853, the first series of statistical papers in India released
In 1862, publication of Statistical Abstract of British India –
based on returns of local administration –annual feature till 1923
Dr. W.W.Hunter –appointed as Director General of Statistics in
India in 1869 – role of present day CSI
History – British Era
• Year 1881
Following the recommendations of the Indian Famine Commission ,
Agriculture departments were opened for collection of agriculture
– (Agricultural Statistics of British India published in 1886)
First complete population census was conducted
• Year 1905 –
– Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics - trade
and commercial statistics
• Year 1925– Economic Enquiry Committee set up which recommended the
formation of a central statistical office for coordination, institution of a
statistical cadre, establishment of state/provincial statistical
Importance of Statistics
 The adequate, credible and timely data generated are essential
for the purpose of policy formulation and for monitoring the
progress of various sectors of the economy.
The requirements for decision – making have expanded from
time to time.
To establish empirical evidence.
To understand the behaviour of various socio-economic variables
such as enrolment, patients, widows, household consumption
expenditure etc.
With impressive and commendable economic development, the
constant growing requirement of the timely & reliable data
remains a challenge task.
The composition of national economy is focusing on services,
which have the implications for collection and dissemination of
Statistics – Study of the laws
of Chance
In the preface to his book on “Statistics and Truth”.
C.R.Rao (1989) writes
“It is now regarded that chance is inherent in all
natural phenomena, and the only way of
understanding nature and making predictions (with
minimum loss) is to study the laws (or the inner
structure ) of chance and formulate appropriate rules
of action. Chance may appear as an obstructer and
an irritant in our daily life but chance can also create.
We have now learnt to put chance to work for the
benefit of mankind. All knowledge is, in the final
analysis, history. All sciences are, in the abstract,
mathematics and all methods of acquiring knowledge
are essentially statistics.”
Present Indian Statistical
System: Institutional Framework
• Functions within Federal Structure of the Government of India
• Authority and responsibility for collection of statistics is determined by the overall
responsibility for the subject under the Constitution
• Laterally and vertically decentralized
• Aggregation of state level data for national level data; state level data aggregated
from district and sub-district level data
• Central Government acts as coordinating agency for presentation of statistics
• CSO in MoSPI – nodal agency for a planned development in the statistical
system and for bringing about coordination in statistical activities between
Centre and State
• In important ministries and in Central government statistical offices, officers
of the Indian Statistical Service (ISS) and subordinate statistical staff perform
the statistical functions
Statistical System at the
 Generally decentralized laterally over the Departments of the State
Government, with major Departments, such as, agriculture or health, having
large statistical divisions for the work of departmental statistics.
 At the apex level is the Directorate (formerly Bureau) of Economics and
Statistics (DES)
 responsible for the coordination of statistical activities in the State as well as for liaising
with the centre
 Publish statistical abstracts and handbooks of the States, annual economic
reviews or surveys, district statistical abstracts, and State budget analysis; work
out the estimates of the State Domestic Product and Retail Price Index
Numbers and engage in such other statistical activities as is relevant to the
 Some States have a common statistical cadre.
Flow of data
District offices
Statistical Unit
of State
Primary as well as Subsequent Flow of
Administrative Statistics
Subsequent Flow of Administrative
Statistics; weak coordination
SUs of
State DES
Subsequent Flow of Administrative
Statistics; weak coordination
Statistical Unit
of Central
SUs of
Primary Flow of Administrative
Statistics; strong coordination
Generation of Data for Planning
 Sources of Data:
Regular Administrative Data such as Agricultural
Statistics, Industrial Production, banking statistics,
foreign trade statistics etc.;
Periodic Surveys and Statistical Reports such as
NSSO’s Survey and Population Census
Data generated by using estimation techniques
Process of computation of Important Indicators
involves the combination of data mainly from the
above sources
Use of Data for Planning and
 Decentralizing and local level planning, training in use
of data for planning and monitoring development
programmes at sub-national level become imperative
in accordance with the implementation of the 73rd and
74th Amendments to the Constitution of India
 Outcomes of the data analysis and interpretation are
used for proper planning, implementation and
evaluation of various programmes at district level.
 Monitoring & Evaluation of Flagship Development
Some of the Data Uses
Monitoring of MDGs/HDI
Poverty Estimation and fixing poverty line
Consumer price Index – Measurement of Inflation
National Accounts (GDP) compilation Contribution of unorganised sector
Regional Industrial development
Employment & Unemployment scenario
Understanding various facet of socio-economic
conditions like health, education, rural debt, housing
condition, tourism etc.

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