Outline of the presentation Background of Indian Statistical System Importance of Statistics Role of Statistical Offices Generation and Use of Data for Planning and Monitoring of Development Programmes Historical Background • Kautilya’s Arthashastra (321-296 B.C.) – System of census and data collection relating to agriculture, population and other economic activities, covering villages and towns •Coexistence of economics and statistics and their application for the welfare of states •Huen Tsang’s writings (dated late seventh to early eighth century) – Detailed description of plan of cities, construction of houses and an account of common products of India and data on area of kingdoms and distance between them The manuscript of arthashastra (http://www.hindu.com/2009/06/16/stories/ 2009061653990500.htm) • Ain-iAkbari by Abul Afzal (Moghul period) – system of legalised measurements, land classification and crop yields by season etc., system of land tenure and land revenue Historical Background – British period • Geared towards administration, tax collection, revenue, trade • • • • • • and commerce and related activities Developed in the provinces expanding in scope to cover the fields of agriculture, industries, civil supplies (during World War II), education, forestry, labor, cooperation, health and vital statistics- data collected from districts A small department of statistics was founded in 1847 In 1848, the first census relating to the area and revenue of each in the North-west provinces was released In 1853, the first series of statistical papers in India released In 1862, publication of Statistical Abstract of British India – based on returns of local administration –annual feature till 1923 Dr. W.W.Hunter –appointed as Director General of Statistics in India in 1869 – role of present day CSI History – British Era • Year 1881 • • Following the recommendations of the Indian Famine Commission , Agriculture departments were opened for collection of agriculture statistics – (Agricultural Statistics of British India published in 1886) First complete population census was conducted • Year 1905 – – Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics - trade and commercial statistics • Year 1925– Economic Enquiry Committee set up which recommended the formation of a central statistical office for coordination, institution of a statistical cadre, establishment of state/provincial statistical departments Importance of Statistics The adequate, credible and timely data generated are essential for the purpose of policy formulation and for monitoring the progress of various sectors of the economy. The requirements for decision – making have expanded from time to time. To establish empirical evidence. To understand the behaviour of various socio-economic variables such as enrolment, patients, widows, household consumption expenditure etc. With impressive and commendable economic development, the constant growing requirement of the timely & reliable data remains a challenge task. The composition of national economy is focusing on services, which have the implications for collection and dissemination of data. Statistics – Study of the laws of Chance In the preface to his book on “Statistics and Truth”. C.R.Rao (1989) writes “It is now regarded that chance is inherent in all natural phenomena, and the only way of understanding nature and making predictions (with minimum loss) is to study the laws (or the inner structure ) of chance and formulate appropriate rules of action. Chance may appear as an obstructer and an irritant in our daily life but chance can also create. We have now learnt to put chance to work for the benefit of mankind. All knowledge is, in the final analysis, history. All sciences are, in the abstract, mathematics and all methods of acquiring knowledge are essentially statistics.” Present Indian Statistical System: Institutional Framework • Functions within Federal Structure of the Government of India • Authority and responsibility for collection of statistics is determined by the overall responsibility for the subject under the Constitution • Laterally and vertically decentralized • Aggregation of state level data for national level data; state level data aggregated from district and sub-district level data • Central Government acts as coordinating agency for presentation of statistics • CSO in MoSPI – nodal agency for a planned development in the statistical system and for bringing about coordination in statistical activities between Centre and State • In important ministries and in Central government statistical offices, officers of the Indian Statistical Service (ISS) and subordinate statistical staff perform the statistical functions Statistical System at the States Generally decentralized laterally over the Departments of the State Government, with major Departments, such as, agriculture or health, having large statistical divisions for the work of departmental statistics. At the apex level is the Directorate (formerly Bureau) of Economics and Statistics (DES) responsible for the coordination of statistical activities in the State as well as for liaising with the centre Publish statistical abstracts and handbooks of the States, annual economic reviews or surveys, district statistical abstracts, and State budget analysis; work out the estimates of the State Domestic Product and Retail Price Index Numbers and engage in such other statistical activities as is relevant to the State Some States have a common statistical cadre. Flow of data District offices of Departments Statistical Unit of State Government Primary as well as Subsequent Flow of Administrative Statistics CSO Subsequent Flow of Administrative Statistics; weak coordination SUs of GOI Ministries State DES Subsequent Flow of Administrative Statistics; weak coordination Statistical Unit of Central Ministries SUs of State Govt. Primary Flow of Administrative Statistics; strong coordination Generation of Data for Planning Sources of Data: • Regular Administrative Data such as Agricultural Statistics, Industrial Production, banking statistics, foreign trade statistics etc.; • Periodic Surveys and Statistical Reports such as NSSO’s Survey and Population Census • Data generated by using estimation techniques Process of computation of Important Indicators involves the combination of data mainly from the above sources Use of Data for Planning and Monitoring Decentralizing and local level planning, training in use of data for planning and monitoring development programmes at sub-national level become imperative in accordance with the implementation of the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution of India Outcomes of the data analysis and interpretation are used for proper planning, implementation and evaluation of various programmes at district level. Monitoring & Evaluation of Flagship Development Programmes Some of the Data Uses Monitoring of MDGs/HDI Poverty Estimation and fixing poverty line Consumer price Index – Measurement of Inflation National Accounts (GDP) compilation Contribution of unorganised sector Regional Industrial development Employment & Unemployment scenario Understanding various facet of socio-economic conditions like health, education, rural debt, housing condition, tourism etc.