Water - Texas Alliance

Report
October 10, 2013
The Energy – Water Nexus
Changing the Future of Texas
Texas Alliance of Energy Producers
Energy, Air and Water
A Comprehensive Study of the Issues of Today
Les Shephard
Texas Sustainable Energy Research Institute
University of Texas at San Antonio
Water Water Everywhere!
Water
Treatment
Expensive
…..
So…..
AND
What
Energyisis
Intensive!
the
Problem?
Energy – Water Nexus
A Global Context
Future Freshwater
World Population
Needs
World Electricity Demand
6000
7
35000
30000
5
4
Millions of Megaliters Withdrawn
8
Billions of kilowatt-hours
Global
population
7000
6
Billions
Population
living under
severe water
stress
9
25000
20000
15000
3
10000
2
5000
0
1
2010
0
2005
Courtesy IEEE Spectrum, July 2010
2030
2015
5000
Expected shortfall
4000
Municipal and domestic
3000
Industry
2000
Agriculture
1000
0
2020
-1000
-2000
2010
2030
2030
2025
2030
Our Water Future Will Rely on
Non -Traditional Water Resources
Produced Water From Oil and
Natural Gas Production
Gas Production
Oil Production
Mixed Production
Dry Wells
Major Inland Brackish
Water Resources
U.S. Saline “Brackish” Aquifers
Our Energy Future Will Also!
Source: Mast, et al., 1998, (on left); USGS, (on right)
Projected Water Use of Non-Traditional Water (BGD)
Growing Demand for Non-Traditional
Water Resources
20
Waste Water Reuse
Desalination
Power Requirements For Treating
Today
15
The Future
10
5
Conventional
Treatment
1990
2000
2010
Brackish
Nanofiltration
Brackish
Reverse
Osmosis
Sea Water
Reverse
Osmosis
2020
Year
• Desal increasing ~ 10% per year
• Waste water reuse increasing ~ 15% per year ……. AND Growing!
Sources: EPA 2004, Water Reuse 2007, Mickley 2003; Einfeld 2007
The U.S. Energy Future
The Energy – Water – Carbon “Trifecta”
(Kilograms per Kilowatt-Hour)
Carbon
1.0
Open
Loop
Cooling
Closed Loop
Cooling
US Electricity Generation
By Source
COAL
0.8
Petroleum
Renewables
9%
2%
Other
1%
0.6
Coal
45%
Nuclear
19%
Natural
Gas
24%
0.4
NATURAL GAS
Closed Loop
Cooling
0.2
PHOTOVOLTAIC
0
WIND
GEOTHERMAL
NUCLEAR
1
Source: Lux Research, June 2009
Global Energy: Unshackling Carbon from Water
2
SOLAR
THERMAL
3
4
Water Consumed
(Liters per Kilowatt-Hour)
HYDROELECTRIC
5
6
Water Challenges are Complex and
Highly Interdependent
Competing
Sectors
Energy
Water Supply



Secure
Reliable
Demand
Economic Prosperity



Regulatory/P
olicy
Framework

Growth
Productivity
Development
Cost
Technology
Innovation
Environmental
Stewardship



Infrastructure
Endangered Species
Land Use
Water Life Cycle
Climate
(Drought)
All Three Imperatives Must Be Addressed!!
Freshwater Withdrawal by Sector*
(~ 345 BGD in US)
Public Supply
14%
Thermoelectric Power
39%
Source: USGS Circular 1268, March 2004 * *Does not include hydropower
Industrial Livestock
6%
2%
Irrigation
39%
Freshwater Consumption by Sector
(~ 100 BGD)
Non-Ag Sector
Consumption
Freshwater
Consumption
Livestock
3.3%
Irrigation
80.6%
Non-Ag
16.1%
Domestic
7.1%
Industrial
3.3%
Commercial
1.2%
Mining
1.2%
Thermoelectric
3.3%
Energy Accounts for ~ 27 Percent of Non-Agricultural Fresh Water
Consumption
Source: USGS, 1998
The Nexus in Texas!
TexasAConsumes
Diversified~ Energy
157 Billion
– Water
Gallons
Portfolio
of Water
Is Key
to Produce
~ 400 Billion
SankWh
Antonio
Annually
Is Charting
– MoreItsThan
Future!
Any Other State!
CPS Energy
Sources
Electricity
Demand
AND …… Texas Electricity and Water Demand
Projected to Increase!
Source: Report on the Capacity, Demand, and Reserves in the ERCOT Region, May 2010;
CPS Energy - SAWs Energy Water Nexus, April 2011; Texas Water Development Board
Water
Demand
SAWS
Sources
Strategic Move Toward
Recycled Water
Water Use by CPS Energy - 1962 to 2010
Creating a Sustainable Energy – Water Future!
Total groundwater used
Total surface water used
2020 Cumulative Water
Reduction Impact
CPS Energy 2020 Vision Goal
Acre
1500
Feet MW of Renewable Energy
Generation
64,000 acre-feet
(21 Billion Gallons)
100 MW Non-Wind Generation
18,000 acre-feet
(6 Billion Gallons)
AMI and Smart Grid Roll-out
Increasing Energy Efficiency Will Further
Reduce Water Use
Years
Courtesy CPS Energy - SAWs Energy Water Nexus, April 2011
The Nexus in Texas
It Ain’t A Line Dance!
Percentage
Water
Wells Related
Oil and
(est.)
Locationofof
“Fracing”
Sites to
– 2005
toGas
2009
SOURCES
Leonard Dougal – Jackson Walker
New York Times – Citing UT Bureau Economic Geology
IHS Database
National Drought Mitigation Center
NOAA
USDA
TCEQ – Office of Water
“Shale Production”
“Contributing To A Low Carbon, Energy - Water Future?”
Water Technology
Innovation
and Data
Critical
Sustainable
Development
Is Are
Critical
Water Supply – Economic Prosperity – Responsible Environmental Stewardship
• Water Treatment Innovation – low energy and low water consumption
technologies
– improved
“waterless
“smart
• “Value
of Water”
strategy - membranes,
Considers costs
of reusefracing”,
treatment,
energy,
technologies”,
selectivedisposal
water use,
etc
transport,
concentrate
VERSUS
direct disposal and trucking.
Roads, emissions, safety, etc. are externalities. Recognize not all fluids are
• Efficacy
of Water
Reuse
is dependent
on water
quantity, water quality and
treatable
– coupled
with
regional water
strategy
flow duration. Economics will likely drive decision AND overall
water
strategy
• Water
Life
Cycle Systems Analyses – promote sustainable development
through systems analyses focused on the “Long View” for water – fresh
• Water
are sparse, error-prone and inconsistent across US – make it
andData
brackish
a priority AND readily available!
Source: EIA, March 2010
Energy and Water are
Inextricably Linked!
Water For Energy
Energy and Power
Production Require Water
• Thermoelectric Cooling
• Hydropower
• Energy Minerals Extraction and
Mining
• Fuel Production (Fossil Fuels, H2,
Biofuels)
• Emission Control
Energy For Water
Water Production, Processing,
Distribution, and End-use
Require Energy
•
•
•
•
•
Pumping
Conveyance and Transport
Treatment
Use Conditioning
Surface and Groundwater
Energy
With Sufficiently Abundant, Clean and Affordable Water
Water Problems Can Be Solved
Our Energy
Eagle Ford Shale – Keeping The Lights On ….
AND ….. Hopefully the Water Running!!
Picture courtesy of Dr. Tom Tunstall – Institute for Economic Development - UTSA
http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20130328005282/en/UTSA-Releases-Updated-Eagle-Ford-Shale-Economic
Educating Tomorrow’s America --- Today!
The University of Texas at San Antonio

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