Behavior Management MAY 21, 2014 JENNIFER PEREZ, MSW, BCBA ALEXIS SOMERS, MA, BCBA Overview What is Behavior Selecting a Behavior for Change Understanding Reinforcement and Punishment Main Functions of Behavior Effective Strategies Bag of Tricks Question and Answer What is behavior? The activity of living organisms - includes everything that people do. Behavior is learned Behavior serves a purpose The dead man test If a dead man can do it, it ain't behavior, and if a dead man can't do it, then it is behavior. Selecting Behavior for Change First, choose the behavior that you want to target This can be a behavior you want to increase or decrease • Increase – desirable behaviors - Examples: functionally equivalent skills, socially appropriate skills, communication skills, attending skills, etc. • Decrease – undesirable/inappropriate behaviors - Examples: tantrums, noncompliance, physical aggression, etc. The So What Test Is there any evidence that the child’s behavior is harmful to his, or another family member’s, social, physical, or emotional well-being? If the answer is “yes,” then target the behavior for intervention. If the answer is “no,” then stop there OR target another behavior. Fair Pair If an inappropriate behavior is targeted to decrease, then a topographically similar incompatible behavior to increase should also be targeted. This practice reduces the chance of symptom substitution or behavior covariation occurring. Back to Our Dead Man’s Test If a dead man can do the target behavior, then we do not have a fair pair. If a dead man cannot do the target behavior, then we do have a fair pair. Variables Now that you’ve selected a behavior for change, you must understand the environmental variables effecting the behavior before you can successfully intervene Do You Know Your ABC’s? A Antecedent B Behavior C Consequence • Antecedent - environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest – “triggers” • Consequence –a stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest – it’s what happens after the behavior. Can be positive, negative, or neutral. Reinforcement Reinforcement – when a behavior is followed by something that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again IN THE FUTURE Positive and Negative The term positive refers to the presentation of a stimulus event – giving something. Giving a hug, tickles, sticker, etc. The term negative refers to the removal of a stimulus event – taking something unwanted away. Providing a break, etc. A Little More on Reinforcement Does a person have to be aware that a response is being reinforced for it to work? NO! The effect is automatic It is critical that the consequence is delivered immediately following the target response Problems with delays to reinforcement Other behaviors occur during the delay The behavior temporally closest to the presentation of the reinforcer will be strengthened Reinforcement is NOT bribery! Punishment Punishment – when a behavior is followed by something that decreases the likelihood of the behavior occurring IN THE FUTURE Positive and Negative The term positive refers to the presentation of a stimulus event – giving something. Yelling, extra chores, etc. The term negative refers to the removal of a stimulus event – taking something away. Loss of privileges, taking away a toy, etc. Again, it is critical that the consequence is delivered immediately following the response Picking Out Your ABC’s Johnny and his Grandmother take a trip to the grocery store. While walking down the cookie aisle, Johnny asks his Grandmother for a cookie. His Grandmother tells him “no.” Johnny begins to scream and falls to the floor. His Grandmother gives him a cookie. What is the behavior of interest? What is the antecedent? What is the consequence? Picking Out Your ABC’s Janel is watching TV. Her father comes into the room, turns the TV off, and directs her to complete her homework. Janel begins to scream, curse, and try to hit him. He places Janel in a time out. What is the behavior of interest? What is the antecedent? What is the consequence? Picking Out Your ABC’s Peter’s mother gives him a hug and praises him for doing a great job. Peter tells his mother to stop. Peter’s mother releases him from the hug and remains quiet. What is the behavior of interest? What is the antecedent? What is the consequence? Picking Out Your ABC’s Kylie is playing with her dolls. Her sister Grace takes one from her without permission. Kylie smacks Grace on the head and takes the doll back. Grace never takes a doll away from Kylie without permission again. For Kylie: What is the behavior, antecedent and consequence? For Grace: What is the behavior, antecedent and consequence? The Four Main Functions of Behavior Escape or avoidance Attention Tangible Sensory/Automatic Functions of Behavior Continued… It is critical to understand the “why” in order to intervene safely and effectively!!!!! Three-Pronged approach to addressing problem behavior 1. Preventing problem behavior before it happens (Bag of Tricks) 2. Handing the problem behavior as it occurs (function based strategies) 3. Replacing the problem behavior (function based strategies) 3 General Steps STOP – the behavior behavior before it starts set up antecedent manipulations REMOVE – reinforcement for the behavior Identify the reinforcement (attention, escape, stereotypy, access) REPLACE – the behavior with one that meets the same need but is appropriate Bag of Tricks (antecedent manipulations) You know your child best so be prepared all the time! When going out: Bring reinforcers Bring something to occupy down time when necessary Know their triggers and use your strategies Set up environments so the problem behavior is less likely to occur (except when teaching replacement behaviors) Examples of your Bag of Tricks redirection to new topic FCT- functional communication training- giving child a question or sentence to say to replace the behavior choices of transition activity to demand reinforcing activity choice token systems rule cards going over schedule warning stimulus 10-15 mins before transition discussion of transition contriving practice situations trading in tickets/tokens to play a game during less preferred activities doing fun things at different areas to condition those areas to be fun CHOICES pre-mack principle- giving child an if-then statement of if you do x then you get y. Social stories Schedule explain what he will be missing Removing certain items If you think the function of a behavior is: ATTENTION Ignore the problem behavior It will get worse before it gets better Antecedent manipulations Remove items the child can throw or destroy give attention for appropriate behaviors and spend time with child Teach the appropriate way to get attention If you think the function of the behavior is ESCAPE Keep the demand/request on and see it through Do 1 to 2 demands/requests after the initial request before reinforcing your child Teach appropriate replacement methods Antecedent manipulations: Schedule Token system so child can anticipate break Warning stimuli If you think the function of behavior is TANGIBLE Do not allow access to items when it is not appropriate Give choices for their acceptance Give a lot of praise/reinforcement when child accepts denied access Antecedent manipulations: Give child choices whenever appropriate Teach child acceptable answers when they are unhappy with choices (you can still say No!) Set up situations to practice before going out If you think the function of behavior is SENSORY/AUTOMATIC Put yourself in their shoes Find a replacement that is more socially appropriate Teach them how to access the reinforcer appropriately and when it is appropriate to do it Antecedent manipulations Only put items out that they are allowed to use Limit distracters if the stereotypy is visual Limit access to videos that cause vocal stereotypy If it’s still not working! Instructional control Are you paired? Are you creating motivating situations? Motivation Do you have the highest reinforcers to work with? Did you isolate the reinforcer so it is potent? Did you assess their preference for the day? Strategies Rate of reinforcement Potency of reinforcers Prompting procedures Quick and immediate Brainstorm! Come up with a behavior scenario (A,B,C) with a partner that you have seen with your child What are 3 strategies you could use given the proposed function? Questions? Questions? Comments? Thoughts?