Behavior Management - Parent University

Report
Behavior Management
MAY 21, 2014
JENNIFER PEREZ, MSW, BCBA
ALEXIS SOMERS, MA, BCBA
Overview
 What is Behavior
 Selecting a Behavior for Change
 Understanding Reinforcement and Punishment
 Main Functions of Behavior
 Effective Strategies
 Bag of Tricks
 Question and Answer
What is behavior?
 The activity of living organisms - includes everything
that people do.
 Behavior is learned
 Behavior serves a purpose
 The dead man test

If a dead man can do it, it ain't behavior, and if a
dead man can't do it, then it is behavior.
Selecting Behavior for Change
 First, choose the behavior that you want to target
 This can be a behavior you want to increase or decrease
• Increase – desirable behaviors - Examples: functionally equivalent
skills, socially appropriate skills, communication skills, attending
skills, etc.
• Decrease – undesirable/inappropriate behaviors - Examples:
tantrums, noncompliance, physical aggression, etc.
The So What Test
 Is there any evidence
that the child’s behavior
is harmful to his, or
another family
member’s, social,
physical, or emotional
well-being?
 If the answer is “yes,”
then target the behavior
for intervention.
 If the answer is “no,”
then stop there OR
target another behavior.
Fair Pair
 If an inappropriate
behavior is targeted to
decrease, then a
topographically similar
incompatible behavior
to increase should also
be targeted.
 This practice reduces
the chance of symptom
substitution or behavior
covariation occurring.
Back to Our Dead Man’s Test
 If a dead man can do
the target behavior,
then we do not have a
fair pair.
 If a dead man cannot
do the target behavior,
then we do have a fair
pair.
Variables
 Now that you’ve selected a behavior for change, you
must understand the environmental variables
effecting the behavior before you can successfully
intervene
Do You Know Your ABC’s?
A
Antecedent
B
Behavior
C
Consequence
• Antecedent - environmental conditions or stimulus changes
that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest – “triggers”
• Consequence –a stimulus change that follows a behavior of
interest – it’s what happens after the behavior. Can be positive,
negative, or neutral.
Reinforcement
 Reinforcement – when a behavior is followed by
something that increases the likelihood that the
behavior will occur again IN THE FUTURE
 Positive and Negative
 The term positive refers to the presentation of a
stimulus event – giving something.
 Giving
a hug, tickles, sticker, etc.
 The
term negative refers to the removal of a stimulus
event – taking something unwanted away.
 Providing
a break, etc.
A Little More on Reinforcement
 Does a person have to be aware that a response is being
reinforced for it to work?
 NO! The effect is automatic
 It is critical that the consequence is delivered immediately
following the target response
 Problems with delays to reinforcement
 Other behaviors occur during the delay
 The behavior temporally closest to the presentation of
the reinforcer will be strengthened
 Reinforcement is NOT bribery!
Punishment
 Punishment – when a behavior is followed by
something that decreases the likelihood of the behavior
occurring IN THE FUTURE
 Positive and Negative
 The term positive refers to the presentation of a
stimulus event – giving something.
 Yelling,
extra chores, etc.
 The
term negative refers to the removal of a stimulus
event – taking something away.
 Loss

of privileges, taking away a toy, etc.
Again, it is critical that the consequence is delivered
immediately following the response
Picking Out Your ABC’s
 Johnny and his Grandmother take a trip to the
grocery store. While walking down the cookie aisle,
Johnny asks his Grandmother for a cookie. His
Grandmother tells him “no.” Johnny begins to
scream and falls to the floor. His Grandmother gives
him a cookie.
 What is the behavior of interest?
 What is the antecedent?
 What is the consequence?
Picking Out Your ABC’s
 Janel is watching TV. Her father comes into the
room, turns the TV off, and directs her to complete
her homework. Janel begins to scream, curse, and try
to hit him. He places Janel in a time out.
 What is the behavior of interest?
 What is the antecedent?
 What is the consequence?
Picking Out Your ABC’s
 Peter’s mother gives him a hug and praises him for
doing a great job. Peter tells his mother to stop.
Peter’s mother releases him from the hug and
remains quiet.
 What is the behavior of interest?
 What is the antecedent?
 What is the consequence?
Picking Out Your ABC’s
 Kylie is playing with her dolls. Her sister Grace takes
one from her without permission. Kylie smacks
Grace on the head and takes the doll back. Grace
never takes a doll away from Kylie without
permission again.
 For Kylie:

What is the behavior, antecedent and consequence?
 For Grace:
 What is the behavior, antecedent and consequence?
The Four Main Functions of Behavior
 Escape or avoidance
 Attention
 Tangible
 Sensory/Automatic
Functions of Behavior Continued…
 It is critical to understand the “why” in order to
intervene safely and effectively!!!!!
Three-Pronged approach
to addressing problem behavior
1.
Preventing problem behavior before it happens
(Bag of Tricks)
2. Handing the problem behavior as it occurs
(function based strategies)
3. Replacing the problem behavior (function based
strategies)
3 General Steps
 STOP – the behavior behavior before it starts
 set up antecedent manipulations
 REMOVE – reinforcement for the behavior
 Identify the reinforcement (attention, escape, stereotypy,
access)
 REPLACE – the behavior with one that meets the
same need but is appropriate
Bag of Tricks
(antecedent manipulations)
 You know your child best so be prepared all the time!
 When going out:
 Bring reinforcers
 Bring something to occupy down time when necessary
 Know their triggers and use your strategies
 Set up environments so the problem behavior is less
likely to occur (except when teaching replacement
behaviors)
Examples of your Bag of Tricks
 redirection to new topic
 FCT- functional communication training- giving child a question or sentence to say to
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replace the behavior
choices of transition activity to demand
reinforcing activity choice
token systems
rule cards
going over schedule
warning stimulus 10-15 mins before transition
discussion of transition
contriving practice situations
trading in tickets/tokens to play a game during less preferred activities
doing fun things at different areas to condition those areas to be fun
CHOICES
pre-mack principle- giving child an if-then statement of if you do x then you get y.
Social stories
Schedule
explain what he will be missing
Removing certain items
If you think the function of a behavior is:
ATTENTION
 Ignore the problem behavior
 It will get worse before it gets better
 Antecedent manipulations
 Remove items the child can throw or destroy
 give attention for appropriate behaviors and spend time with
child
 Teach the appropriate way to get attention
If you think the function of the behavior is
ESCAPE
 Keep the demand/request on and see it through
 Do 1 to 2 demands/requests after the initial request before
reinforcing your child
 Teach appropriate replacement methods
 Antecedent manipulations:
 Schedule
 Token system so child can anticipate break
 Warning stimuli
If you think the function of behavior is
TANGIBLE
 Do not allow access to items when it is not
appropriate
 Give choices for their acceptance
 Give a lot of praise/reinforcement when child
accepts denied access
 Antecedent manipulations:
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Give child choices whenever appropriate
Teach child acceptable answers when they are unhappy with
choices (you can still say No!)
Set up situations to practice before going out
If you think the function of behavior is
SENSORY/AUTOMATIC
 Put yourself in their shoes
 Find a replacement that is more socially appropriate
 Teach them how to access the reinforcer
appropriately and when it is appropriate to do it
 Antecedent manipulations
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Only put items out that they are allowed to use
Limit distracters if the stereotypy is visual
Limit access to videos that cause vocal stereotypy
If it’s still not working!
 Instructional control
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Are you paired?
Are you creating motivating situations?
 Motivation
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Do you have the highest reinforcers to work with?
Did you isolate the reinforcer so it is potent?
Did you assess their preference for the day?
 Strategies
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Rate of reinforcement
Potency of reinforcers
Prompting procedures
Quick and immediate
Brainstorm!
 Come up with a behavior scenario (A,B,C) with a
partner that you have seen with your child
 What are 3 strategies you could use given the
proposed function?
Questions?
Questions? Comments? Thoughts?

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