Omani Perceptions on Integrating Technology in EFL

Report
Omani Perceptions on
Integrating Technology in EFL
T H E 1 2 TH O M A N I N T E R N A T I O N A L E L T C O N F E R E N C E
“QUALITY IN ELT: RAISING PEDAGOGICAL
STANDARDS”
APRIL 18-19, 2012
LISA A. RUTHERFORD
UAE UNIVERSITY
AL AIN, UAE
Thank-You
I WOULD LIKE TO THANK
H.E. DR. RAWIYAH BINT SAUD AL BUSAIDIYAH,
MINISTER OF HIGHER EDUCATION
AND
THE SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY ELT CONFERENCE
COMMITTEE
FOR
ALLOWING ME TO PRESENT MY PAPER TODAY.
PRESENTATION’S AIMS
This presentation addresses the following aims of the
conference theme, “Quality in ELT: Raising
Pedagogical Standards:”
 Professional Development
 Teaching and Learning Environments
 Methods and Methodology
 Curriculum, Design, Implementation and Evaluation
 ELT Research
 Educational Technology
AGENDA
 OVERVIEW
 ABSTRACT
 LITERATURE REVIEW & LEARNING MODELS
 HYPOTHESIS
 SUBJECTS
 METHOD
 RESULT
 CONCLUSION
OVERVIEW
 In this case study, 34 Omani Educational Technology
students were engaged in task-based and projectbased learning.
 They were given instruction on EFL educational
theory and were tasked to create educational
materials to support learning outcomes.
 These materials included presentations, videos,
flashcards, interactive quizzes, and a class website.
 At the end of the course, students were interviewed
and given a research questionnaire about their Web
2.0 design experience.
ABSTRACT
This study examines Omani pre-service teacher
attitudes toward integrating Web 2.0 technology in
the EFL classroom. Thirty-four Omani EFL
education majors participated in this six-month
study. The results show a high degree of confidence
of technical abilities among participants. A majority
of the participants expressed confidence to design
course materials using Web 2.0 technology and
many planned to use their newly-acquired
technology skills in their EFL classroom. This study
also presents an educational technology model.
Literature Review
TWO TRENDS EMERGE
LITERATURE REVIEW
In previous studies:
 70% of education majors (pre-service teachers) felt
that a classroom computer would make them more
effective educators. (Agyei, 2011).
 However, in a study of teachers who have graduated,
only 28% felt they understood the relationship
between educational software and the curriculum.
(Ntuli, 2011).
LITERATURE REVIEW
 Two trends have emerged in recent studies involving
technology education of education majors (preservice teachers)
 Trend 1: A curriculum without an educational model
has not effectively integrated technology into teacher
training, resulting in ineffective teacher training.
 Trend 2: A curriculum that uses an educational
model in the integration of technology into teacher
training which effectively prepares educators.
LITERATURE REVIEW
 Trend 1: Ineffective technology training not based
upon an instructional model:
 Lack of Student Teacher Confidence:


16.7% of education majors felt they understood educational
technology (Agyei, 2011).
3.35% felt confident that they could apply what they’ve
learned. (Agyei, 2011).
 No Application of Theory
 Observation: No integration of technology during student
teaching practicum. (Techlehaimanot, 2011)
 Observation: No integration of technology written in student
teachers’ lesson plans. (Techlehaimanot, 2011)
LITERATURE REVIEW
 Trend 1: Ineffective technology training not based
upon an instructional model: (continued)
 Lack of “Hands-On” Experience



4.3% pre-service teachers have created an educational website
(Kumar, 2011)
9.8% have created educational videos and electronic portfolios
(Kumar, 2011)
13% have created educational web pages (Kumar, 2011)
LITERATURE REVIEW
 Trend 2: Effective technology training based upon an
instructional model:
 High Teacher Confidence


85% of pre-service teachers are confident in their ability to use
technology to enhance teaching. (Jordan, 2011)
76% can select technologies appropriate for content enhancement
and educational use. (Chai, 2011)
 Effective Application of Theory


84% pre-service teachers can use technology to enhance learning &
86% can use technology to enhance content (Jordan, 2011)
73.9% of pre-service teachers can combine content, technology and
methodology to present lessons. (Chai, 2011)
LITERATURE REVIEW
 Trend 2: Effective technology training based upon an
instructional model: (continued)
 Educational Technology is Used Purposefully


72% pre-service teachers can use technology to develop
materials. (Yardakul, 2011).
75% can use technology to develop student learning activities
based upon student needs. (Yardakul, 2011).
EDUCATIONAL MODELS
TWO CURRENT MODELS:
CPK & TPACK
AND
ONE PROPOSED MODEL
EDUCATIONAL MODELS
CPK MODEL
CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
KNOWLEDGE OF EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT
(Shulman, 1987)
EDUCATIONAL MODELS
TPACK MODEL
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
TECHNOLOGICAL CONTENT
KNOWLEDGE
PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT
KNOWLEDGE
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
TECHNOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL
KNOWLEDGE
TECHNOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL
CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
(Cox & Graham, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Shulman, 1986)
LEARNING MODEL USED IN THIS STUDY
• Instructional
Delivery
• Instructional
Design
• Learning Core
Competencies
Integration of
Technology
into
Curriculum
Computer
Skills
Foundation
English
Implement
ELT Methods
into
Instructional
Design
ELT Methods
Linguistics
Educational
Methods
• Learning ELT
Methods and
Educational
Theory
LEARNING MODEL USED IN THIS STUDY
Instructional
Design
Instructional
Delivery
•
•
•
•
•
•
Combining Text, Pictures & Sound
Presentations
Audio
Video
Interactive Exercises & Activities
Class Website
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction of Key Concepts
Presentation of Thematic Units
Reinforcement of Prior Learning
Autonomous Learning
Assessments (Exercises, Quizzes,
Exams)
Study Presented
PROJECT-BASED LEARNING
USING
WEB 2.0 DESIGN
HYPOTHESIS
 1. What are Omani pre-service teachers’ perceptions
on Web 2.0 instructional design?
 What are Omani pre-service teachers’ perceptions on
integrating Web 2.0 technology in the EFL
classroom?
SUBJECTS
 In this case study, 34 Omani second-year EFL
students were enrolled in Educational Technology, a
required course for all EFL Education majors.
 All participants had a background in computer
technology and English education theory.
 All of the participants had received training in
computer skills, English grammar, English writing,
linguistics, syntax, morphology, and young learner
education.
METHOD
 During a 15-week course, students were tasked to design an online
English course (K-12).
 Four educational technology projects were assigned and evaluated.
 The software students used included: Word, PowerPoint,
MovieMaker, Softoria, Audacity & Lame, and an online webhosting
program in .php format at http://www.000webhost.com
 The project assignments can be found at the class website at:
http://www.teachenglish.netai.net
 During the 13th week, students were given a 9-question Likert
questionnaire and an interview.
METHOD
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
&
PROJECT EXAMPLES
PROJECTS
WEEK
PROJECT
THEORY (LECTURE)
Weeks 1-2
Initial Homepage Design
What is Ed Tech?
Student Centered-Learning
E-Learning
Illustrating Educational Materials
Weeks 2-4
Young Learner Projects
The Young Learner
Emergent Readers
Sight Words
Web Design
Websites for the Young Learner
Weeks 4-7
Intermediate Learner Projects
Materials Development
Creating Audio Files
Creating Videos
Creating Assessments
Week 7-12
Advanced Learner Projects
Documentaries
Standardized Testing
Assistive Technology for the Disabled
Final Project
Final Presentation
Final Presentation
Project 1 Evaluation (Week 2)
Task Description
√ Has website URL address
√ Has initial website template design
√ Has Homepage
√ Has Young Learner Page
√ Has Advanced Learner Page
√
Has Contact Page
√
Has E-Mail Address
√
Has No Spelling Errors
√
All Web Pages Are in Order
TOTAL
Yes
No
Points
Comments
STUDENT PROJECT #1
(CREATE A HOMEPAGE)
STUDENT PROJECT #1
(CREATE A HOMEPAGE)
STUDENT PROJECT #1
(CREATE A HOMEPAGE)
Project 2 Evaluation (Week 4)
Task Description
√ Homepage with Educational Message
√ Has Young Learner Page
√ 4 Subpages Under Young Learner
√ Has Puzzles Page
√ Has Flashcard Page
√ Has Young Learner Website Page
√ Has Young Learner Video Page
√ Has No Spelling Errors
√ All Web Pages are in Order
TOTAL
Yes
No
Points
Comments
STUDENT PROJECT #2
STUDENT PROJECT #2
STUDENT PROJECT #2
Project 3 Evaluation (Week 7)
Task Description
√ Story for Intermediate Learners
√ Illustrations for Story
√ Story in Layout Format
√ Quiz in Hot Potatoes
√ Quiz Answers
√ Websites for Intermediates
√ Downloads
√ Age Appropriate
√ Content Appropriate
Yes
No
Points
Comments
STUDENT PROJECT #3
Student Project #3
Quiz
Answer Key
Student Project #3
STUDENT PROJECT #3
QUIZ
ANSWER KEY
Project 4: Documentary Evaluation (Week 12)
FORMAT
TITLE, AUTHOR
LENGTH (5 MINUTES)
THEME
CONTENT BASED THEME:
AUDIO
NARRATIVE
MUSIC
VISUAL
PHOTOS
VIDEOS
MATERIALS
READING, TESTS, VOCABULARY
YES
NO
COMMENTS
Project 4: Documentary Evaluation (Week 12)
WEEK 13
STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE
&
INTERVIEWS
Study Questionnaire
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
I have designed a website before taking educational
technology.
I have designed and owned my own website before taking
educational technology.
I didn’t know how to design a website before educational
technology.
I like designing websites.
I think that web design in educational technology is
difficult.
I think web design is fun and interesting.
7
I want to keep my website.
8
I want to create a website for my future classes.
9
I would like to learn more about web design in the future.
4
3
2
1
STUDENT INTERVIEW
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
 What do you think of software such as Hot Potatoes?
Will you use Hot Potatoes in the future?
RESULTS
STUDENT SURVEY
RESULTS (Study Questionnaire)
Agree
5
4
1
3
Disagree
2
1
I have designed a website before taking educational
technology.
I have designed and owned my own website before
taking educational technology.
I didn’t know how to design a website before educational
technology.
I like designing websites.
0
2.9
0
20.5
76.4
0
2.9
88
26.4
61.7
64.7
23.5
5.8
2.9
2.9
55.8
44.1
0
0
0
I think that web design in educational technology is
difficult.
I think web design is fun and interesting.
2.9
8.8
26.4
52.9
8.8
50
32.3
11.7
2.9
0
7
I want to keep my website.
76.4
20.5
2.9
0
0
8
I want to create a website for my future classes.
58.8
29.4
11.7
0
0
9
I would like to learn more about web design in the future.
58.8
29.4
11.7
0
0
2
3
4
5
6
RESULTS
Most students had no Web 2.0 design
experience prior to the course.
 96.9% have never designed a website before.
 88.1% have never owned their own website prior to
the course.
 88.2% didn’t know web design prior to the course.
RESULTS
At the end of the course, a majority of the
participants expressed confidence to design
course materials using Web 2.0 technology.
 99.9% of the students liked designing websites.
 82.3% found web design fun and interesting.
 61.7% didn’t find web design difficult and only 11.7%
found web design difficult.
RESULTS
 Many planned to use their newly-acquired
technology skills in their EFL classroom in
the future.
 96.9% want to keep their website.
 88.2% want to create a website for future classes.
 88.2% want to learn more about web design in the
future.
RESULTS
STUDENT INTERVIEWS
RESULTS (INTERVIEW)
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
 (Student # 7) “It is helpful for me because it is not
only teaching me how to create a website, but it also
taught me how to deal with similar situations in the
future. One day I may use it for classes or even
groups or communities in school.”
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
 (Student #10) “It is not that difficult. It is useful
because it gave us ideas about how to include
technology in teaching. And it keeps our things
organized and people may visit it and learn a lot.”
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
 (Student # 16) “Web design is useful. The teacher
can benefit from it by presenting videos or pictures
to students.”
RESULTS (INTERVIEW)
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
 (Student 21) “ I think it is helpful because it can help
teachers to do their lessons easier and it can help the
students to understand their lessons in a new way. I
think it is useful too because you can save the lessons
and students can use them any time.”
RESULTS
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
 (Student # 24) “I think it is very helpful to
communicate with learners of any age and it is
available 24 hours a day.”
IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
 1. What do you think about web design? Is it
helpful? Difficult? Useful?
(Student #33) “I think that web design is useful for us
as students and teachers (as we are going to be that
soon). Actually, this is the most interesting semester
I have had since I entered this college.”
RESULTS
 What do you think of software such as Hot
Potatoes? Will you use Hot Potatoes in the
future?
 (Student #9) “ Yes, I will use it in the future with my
students. I will make exams by using Hot Potatoes.”
 (Student #11) “I think Hot Potatoes is a very useful
program. It is useful for making exams and
competitions on the computer.”
 (Student #12) “We could use Hot Potatoes to make
various tasks that are well organized.”
CONCLUSION
 Effective technology training must be based upon a
proven educational model.
 This results in higher teacher confidence.
 A thorough understanding of educational theory
leads to a more purposeful use of educational
technology.
The End
THANK-YOU
FOR
ATTENDING MY PRESENTATION

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