Civics Today Chapter 4 Class Notes

Report
Chapter Introduction
Section 1 The First Amendment
Section 2 Other Guarantees in the
Bill of Rights
Section 3 Extending the Bill of Rights
Section 4 The Civil Rights Struggle
Review to Learn
Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Overview
In Chapter 4 you examine the Bill of Rights.
Section 1 identifies freedoms guaranteed by
the First Amendment. Section 2 explains the
other nine amendments. Section 3 discusses
how later amendments extended freedoms to
minorities. Section 4 describes the civil rights
movement.
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be
able to:
• Describe First Amendment freedoms.
• Explain the rights listed in the entire
Bill of Rights.
• Examine how minority groups are
protected by the Bill of Rights.
• Describe the civil rights movement.
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Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Soon after ratification of the Constitution, the First
Amendment was added to guarantee basic
freedoms essential to American democracy.
Key Terms
• civil liberties
• censorship
• petition
• slander
• libel
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Analyzing Information As you read, list in a chart
like the one on page 98 of your textbook the
freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment,
along with the limitations to those freedoms.
Read to Learn
• How does the First Amendment protect five
basic freedoms?
• What are the limits to First Amendment
freedoms?
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Thomas Jefferson
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First Amendment Freedoms
• The Bill of Rights, added in 1791, protects
our civil liberties–the freedoms we have to
think and act without government
interference or fear of unfair treatment.
• The First Amendment protects five basic
freedoms: religion, speech, press, assembly,
and to petition the government.
• Congress may not establish an official
religion, favor one religion over another, or
treat people differently because of their
beliefs.
• People may practice their faith as they wish.
(pages 98–100)
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First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)
• In some countries, people can be jailed
for criticizing the government or voicing
unpopular ideas.
• We can say what we want, in public or in
private, without fear of punishment.
• Freedom of speech includes conversations,
radio, and TV.
• It also protects forms of expression other
than the spoken word, such as clothing.
(pages 98–100)
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First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)
• We may express ourselves freely in print
and other media.
• The government cannot practice
censorship–it cannot ban printed
materials or films because they contain
offensive ideas or ban information before
it is published or broadcast.
(pages 98–100)
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First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)
• We may gather in groups for any reason,
as long as the assemblies are peaceful.
• Governments can make rules about when
and where activities can be held but cannot
ban them.
• We may freely join clubs, political parties,
unions, and other organizations.
• We have the right to petition the
government.
• A petition is a formal request.
• We can complain or express ideas by writing
to our elected representatives.
(pages 98–100)
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First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)
What forms of expression other than the
spoken word are protected by freedom
of speech?
Freedom of speech protects forms of
expression such as Internet communication,
art, music, and even clothing.
(pages 98–100)
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Limits to First Amendment Freedoms
• The Supreme Court has decided that
First Amendment freedoms may be
limited to protect safety and security.
• You may not provoke a riot.
• You may not speak or write in a way that
leads to criminal activities or efforts to
overthrow the government.
(page 101)
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Limits to First Amendment Freedoms
(cont.)
• You should use civil liberties responsibly
and not interfere with the rights of others.
• You may criticize government officials but
not spread lies that harm a person’s
reputation.
• Doing so is a crime called slander if the lies
are spoken and libel if they are printed.
• Unlimited freedom is not possible in a
society.
• The rights of one individual must be
balanced against the rights of others and of
the community.
(page 101)
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Limits to First Amendment Freedoms
(cont.)
Give some examples in which exercising
freedom of speech might interfere with the
rights of others.
You may talk with your friends in the street,
but you must not block traffic. You may
campaign for causes but not disturb your
neighbors with blaring loudspeaker
broadcasts. You may criticize government
officials but not spread lies.
(page 101)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
C 1. a formal request for government action
__
D 2. spoken untruths that are harmful to
someone’s reputation
A 3. freedom to think and act without
__
government interference or fear of
unfair legal treatment
E 4. written untruths that are harmful to
__
someone’s reputation
B 5. the banning of printed materials or films
__
due to alarming or offensive ideas
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A. civil liberties
B. censorship
C. petition
D. slander
E. libel
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Infer Besides the spoken word, “speech”
refers to what other forms of expression?
It refers to art, music, clothing, and the Internet.
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Identify What are the limits to First
Amendment freedoms? Give an example of
a limit to a First Amendment right.
Freedoms cannot endanger the
government or interfere with others’ rights.
Slander or libel are not protected by the
First Amendment.
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Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Which First
Amendment right do you think is the
most important?
Possible answer: Freedom of the press to
ensure that citizens are informed is the
most important First Amendment right.
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Analyzing Visuals
Describe Reexamine the photos on page
100 of your textbook. How do these
images reflect First Amendment rights?
The images represent freedom of
religion.
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Close
Are you willing to have letters and e-mails
censored by government agencies to help
prevent terrorist attacks? Freedom of speech
is at issue here. Explain your position.
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Guide to Reading
Main Idea
In addition to the important civil liberties protected by
the First Amendment, the other nine amendments in
the Bill of Rights guarantee the right to fair legal
treatment, as well as other freedoms.
Key Terms
• search warrant
• due process
• indictment
• eminent domain
• grand jury
• bail
• double jeopardy
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Categorizing Information As you read, list the
rights guaranteed by Amendments 2–10 of the Bill
of Rights in a web diagram like the one on page
103 of your textbook.
Read to Learn
• How does the Bill of Rights protect the rights of
the accused?
• What other rights and freedoms are
guaranteed by the Bill of Rights?
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Are school lockers private?
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Protecting the Rights of the Accused
• The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth
Amendments protect the rights of
accused people.
• The Fourth Amendment protects against
unreasonable searches and seizures.
• If police believe you have committed a
crime, they can ask a judge for a search
warrant–a court order allowing law
enforcement officials to search a suspect’s
home or business and take evidence.
• Search warrants are granted only with
(pages 103–106)
good cause.
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Protecting the Rights of the Accused
(cont.)
• The Fifth Amendment states that no one
can be put on trial for a serious federal
crime without an indictment–a formal
charge by a group of citizens called a
grand jury, who review the evidence.
• An indictment does not mean guilt–it
indicates only that the person may have
committed a crime.
• The Fifth Amendment also protects against
double jeopardy.
• Someone tried and judged not guilty may
not be put on trial again for the same crime.
(pages 103–106)
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Protecting the Rights of the Accused
• The Fifth Amendment protects an
accused person’s right to remain silent.
(cont.)
• This prevents a person from being
threatened or tortured into a confession.
• The Fifth Amendment states that no one
may be denied life, liberty, or property
without due process, or the use of
established legal procedures.
• The Fifth Amendment limits eminent
domain–the right of government to take
private property (usually land) for public use.
(pages 103–106)
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Protecting the Rights of the Accused
(cont.)
• The Sixth Amendment requires accused
people to be told the charges against them
and guarantees a trial by jury unless the
accused chooses a judge instead.
• Trials must be speedy and public with
impartial jurors.
• Accused people have a right to hear and
question witnesses against them and call
witnesses in their own defense.
• Accused people are entitled to a lawyer.
(pages 103–106)
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Protecting the Rights of the Accused
• Before trial, the accused may stay in jail
or pay bail, a security deposit.
(cont.)
• Bail is returned if the person comes to
court for trial but is forfeited if the person
fails to appear.
• The Eighth Amendment forbids
excessive bail and excessive fines.
• It also forbids cruel and unusual
punishment.
• Punishment must fit the severity of
the crime.
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(pages 103–106)
Protecting the Rights of the Accused
(cont.)
What is the function of a grand jury?
A grand jury reviews evidence against the
accused. If the jury judges from the
evidence that the accused may have
committed a crime, it issues an indictment.
This process protects people from being
brought to trial hastily and perhaps
needlessly.
(pages 103–106)
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Protecting Other Rights
• The Second Amendment is often debated.
• Some believe it only allows states to keep
an armed militia, or local army.
• Others believe it guarantees the right of all
citizens to “keep and bear arms.”
• The courts have generally ruled that
government can pass laws to control, but
not prevent, the possession of weapons.
• The Third Amendment says that soldiers
may not move into private homes without
the owners’ consent, as British soldiers had
done in colonial times.
(pages 106–107)
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Protecting Other Rights (cont.)
• The Seventh Amendment concerns civil
cases–lawsuits involving disagreements
among people rather than crimes.
• It guarantees the right to a jury trial in
civil cases involving more than $20.
• It does not require a jury trial, however.
• The Ninth Amendment says that citizens
have other rights beyond those listed in
the Constitution.
(pages 106–107)
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Protecting Other Rights (cont.)
• The Tenth Amendment says that any powers
the Constitution does not specifically give to
the national government are reserved to the
states or to the people.
• This prevents Congress and the
president from becoming too strong.
• They have only the powers the people
give them.
(pages 106–107)
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Protecting Other Rights (cont.)
What gives us the right to privacy in our
homes and freedom from government
interference in our personal choices?
The Constitution does not mention privacy.
However, the Ninth Amendment says that
we have rights beyond those listed in the
Constitution. The Supreme Court has drawn
on the First, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments
to uphold the right to privacy.
(pages 106–107)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
D 1. putting someone on trial for a crime
of which he or she was previously
acquitted
__
C 2. a group of citizens that decides
whether there is sufficient evidence
to accuse someone of a crime
__
E 3. following established legal
procedures
__
A 4. a court order allowing law
enforcement officers to search a
suspect’s home or business and
take specific items as evidence
__
B 5. a formal charge by a grand jury
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A. search warrant
B. indictment
C. grand jury
D. double jeopardy
E. due process
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Explain When can law enforcement
officers search a suspect’s house?
They can search a suspect’s house when
they have a search warrant.
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Identify What current controversial issue is
tied to the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition
of cruel and unusual punishment?
The death penalty is a controversial issue
tied to the Eighth Amendment.
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Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Which of the
first 10 amendments do you think is the
most important? Why?
Possible answers: the Fifth Amendment
because it guarantees due process, or
the First Amendment because it
guarantees freedom of religion
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Analyzing Visuals
Conclude Review the chart that lists the
rights of persons accused of crimes on
page 104 of your textbook. What is the
role of the grand jury in the trial process?
The Fifth Amendment requires an
indictment by a grand jury before an
accused person can be tried.
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Close
Explain whether you agree or disagree
with the following statement: Randomly
searching lockers is a constitutional way
to prevent illegal drug use in schools.
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Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The amendments adopted after the Bill of Rights
extended liberties and voting rights to African
Americans, women, and other minority groups.
Key Terms
• suffrage
• poll tax
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Explaining Information As you read, complete a
graphic organizer like the one on page 109 of your
textbook to explain the Civil War amendments.
Read to Learn
• How were the Civil War amendments intended
to extend civil liberties to African Americans?
• How did the Seventeenth, Nineteenth,
Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-sixth
Amendments extend voting rights in the
United States?
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William Lloyd Garrison
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Protecting All Americans
• At first, the Bill of Rights applied only to
adult white males.
• It also applied only to the national
government, not to state or local
governments.
• Later amendments and court rulings made
the Bill of Rights apply to all people and all
levels of government.
• The Civil War amendments–the Thirteenth,
Fourteenth, and Fifteenth–extended civil
liberties to African Americans.
(pages 109–112)
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Protecting All Americans (cont.)
• The Thirteenth Amendment outlawed
slavery, freeing thousands of African
Americans.
• After the Civil War, many Southern states
passed “black codes” that limited the rights
of African Americans.
• The Fourteenth Amendment remedied this
situation by defining citizens as anyone born
or naturalized in the United States, which
included African Americans.
• It required all states to grant citizens equal
protection of the laws.
(pages 109–112)
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Protecting All Americans (cont.)
• The Fourteenth Amendment also
nationalized the Bill of Rights by forbidding
state governments from interfering with the
rights of citizens.
• The Supreme Court upheld this
interpretation of the amendment
in Gitlow v. New York.
(pages 109–112)
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Protecting All Americans (cont.)
• The Fifteenth Amendment says that no
state may take away a person’s voting
rights on the basis of race, color, or
previous enslavement.
• It was intended to guarantee suffrage–the
right to vote–to African Americans.
• It applied only to men.
• According to the Constitution, state
legislatures were to choose senators.
• The Seventeenth Amendment changed this
to allow voters to elect senators directly.
(pages 109–112)
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Protecting All Americans (cont.)
• The Constitution did not grant or deny
women the right to vote.
• As a result, states made their own
decisions.
• The Nineteenth Amendment solved this
problem by establishing women’s right to
vote in all elections.
• Because Washington, D.C., is a district, not
a state, its citizens could not vote in
national elections.
• The Twenty-third Amendment established
their right vote.
(pages 109–112)
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Protecting All Americans (cont.)
• Several Southern states required people
to pay poll taxes to vote.
• Because many African Americans and poor
whites could not afford to pay, they could
not vote.
• The Twenty-fourth Amendment outlawed
poll taxes.
• The Twenty-sixth Amendment guaranteed
the right to vote to citizens 18 and older.
• Before this amendment, most states set the
minimum voting age at 21.
(pages 109–112)
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Protecting All Americans (cont.)
Who benefits from the “equal protection”
clause of the Fourteenth Amendment?
The equal protection clause benefits not
only African Americans for whom it was
intended, but in recent years it has also
been used to benefit women, people with
disabilities, and other groups whose rights
have not always been recognized.
(pages 109–112)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
B 1. a sum of money required of voters
before they are permitted to cast a
ballot
__
A 2. the right to vote
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A. suffrage
B. poll tax
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Explain How was the promise of the
Civil War amendments fulfilled in the
mid-twentieth century?
Laws were passed removing restrictions
on voting.
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Describe How did the Twenty-fourth
Amendment expand voting rights?
It outlawed the poll tax, which had kept
poor people from voting.
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Critical Thinking
Concluding Which of the voting rights
amendments (17, 19, 23, 24, 26) do you
think was the most important? Why?
Answers will vary.
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Analyzing Visuals
Infer Review the chart on page 110 of
your textbook. Which amendment limited
presidents to two terms in office?
The Twenty-second Amendment limited
presidential terms.
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Close
Read aloud short phrases from the section
and challenge each other to identify the
amendment being referenced by each
phrase. For example, “direct election of
senators” refers to the Seventeenth
Amendment.
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Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Although amendments to the Constitution guaranteed
rights to Americans, African Americans and other
groups still did not enjoy civil rights. African Americans
organized a civil rights movement to gain equality.
Key Terms
• discrimination
• segregation
• civil rights
• affirmative action
• racial profiling
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Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Identifying Information As you read, create and
complete a diagram like the one on page 113 of
your textbook by filling in key laws achieved by the
civil rights movement.
Read to Learn
• Why did African Americans begin the struggle
for civil rights?
• What gains did the civil rights movement win?
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Martin Luther King, Jr., leads
a march in Mississippi.
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Background of the Struggle
• After the Civil War, African Americans
routinely faced discrimination, or unfair
treatment based on prejudice against a
certain group.
• The social separation of the races was
known as segregation.
• It would take more than 100 years for
African Americans to secure their civil
rights–the rights of full citizenship and
equality under the law.
(pages 113–115)
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Background of the Struggle (cont.)
• The National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
worked through the courts to challenge laws
that denied African Americans their rights.
• The National Urban League helped improve
opportunities for African Americans in cities.
• These groups and others built a civil rights
movement.
• An important gain was made in 1948 when
President Harry Truman ordered an end to
segregation in the armed forces.
(pages 113–115)
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Background of the Struggle (cont.)
• In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
Kansas, NAACP lawyers successfully
argued that segregation
in public schools was unconstitutional.
• It violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s
principle of equal protection under the law.
(pages 113–115)
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Background of the Struggle (cont.)
• Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was a main
leader of the civil rights movement.
• He believed in nonviolent resistance.
• He helped organize marches and
boycotts.
• He inspired thousands with his “I Have a
Dream” speech about hopes for racial
equality and harmony.
(pages 113–115)
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Background of the Struggle (cont.)
• African American students staged “sit-ins”
at lunch counters that served only whites.
• White and African American “Freedom
Riders” rode buses together to protest
segregation.
• Such protests were met with violence
by whites.
(pages 113–115)
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Background of the Struggle (cont.)
• The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited
discrimination in public facilities,
employment, education, and voter
registration.
• It banned discrimination by race, color,
gender, religion, and national origin.
• The Twenty-fourth Amendment outlawed
poll taxes.
• The Voting Rights Act of 1965 further
protected access of minorities to the polls.
(pages 113–115)
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Background of the Struggle (cont.)
Describe types of discrimination that
African Americans faced after the Civil War,
especially in the South.
African Americans were barred from attending
the same schools as white students. They had
to ride in the back of buses, sit in separate
sections of restaurants and theaters, and stay
in separate hotels. They even had to use
separate public restrooms and water fountains.
(pages 113–115)
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Ongoing Challenges
• Affirmative action programs were intended
to make up for past discrimination.
• They encouraged the hiring and promoting
of minorities and women, and the admission
of more minority students to colleges.
• Critics complained that affirmative action
programs gave preferential treatment to
women and minorities, amounting to
discrimination against men and whites.
(page 115)
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Ongoing Challenges (cont.)
• The struggle for equal rights continues.
• Many Americans are subject to racial
profiling–being singled out as suspects
because of the way they look.
• Some become victims of hate crimes.
(page 115)
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Ongoing Challenges (cont.)
What are hate crimes?
Hate crimes are acts of violence based on a
person’s race, color, national origin, gender,
or disability.
(page 115)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__
B 1. the social separation of the races
A. discrimination
D 2. programs intended to make up for
__
past discrimination by helping
minority groups and women gain
access to jobs and opportunities
B. segregation
__
E 3. singling out an individual as a
suspect due to appearance of
ethnicity
__
A 4. unfair treatment based on prejudice
against a certain group
__
C 5. the rights of full citizenship and
equality under the law
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C. civil rights
D. affirmative
action
E. racial profiling
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Identify List examples of the
discrimination that African Americans
faced after the Civil War.
They were required to go to separate
schools and to ride in the back of buses.
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Define What was the purpose of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964?
The purpose was to ban discrimination in
public facilities, jobs, education, and voter
registration.
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Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Why was the
civil rights movement started?
African Americans faced discrimination
and they challenged laws that denied
their rights.
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Analyzing Visuals
Conclude Reexamine the chart on page 114 of
your textbook that lists some landmark acts
achieved by civil rights activists. What was the
purpose of the Americans with Disabilities Act?
The purpose of the Americans with Disabilities
Act was to protect the rights of the physically
disabled by banning discrimination in
employment, transportation, public facilities,
and telecommunications.
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Close
Why is it sometimes difficult for the
government to preserve and protect the
rights of all Americans?
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Section 1: The First Amendment
• The First Amendment to the Constitution
protects five basic freedoms of Americans.
• There are limits to our First Amendment
rights.
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Section 2: Other Guarantees in the
Bill of Rights
• The Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments
protect the rights of persons accused of
crimes.
• The Bill of Rights also protects other
rights and important liberties.
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Section 3: Extending the Bill of Rights
• The Civil War amendments ended slavery,
defined American citizenship to include
African Americans, and guaranteed
suffrage to African Americans.
Section 4: The Civil Rights Struggle
• Groups of African Americans joined
together to fight for equality in a struggle
called the civil rights movement.
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Reviewing Key Terms
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
E 1. a formal accusation of a crime A.
__
issued by a grand jury
B.
__
I 2. the criminal act of verbally
C.
lying about another person to
harm that person’s reputation D.
bail
__
C 3. procedures established by law E.
and guaranteed by the
F.
Constitution
G.
__
G 4. a formal request for
H.
government action
I.
indictment
J.
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censorship
due process
eminent domain
libel
petition
poll tax
slander
suffrage
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
D 5. the right of the government to A.
__
take private property for public B.
use
C.
__
H 6. a sum of money paid in
exchange for the right to vote D.
__
B 7. the banning of printed
materials because they
contain alarming or offensive
ideas
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bail
censorship
due process
eminent domain
E.
indictment
F.
libel
G.
petition
H.
poll tax
I.
slander
J.
suffrage
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
F 8. the criminal act of printing lies A.
__
about other people
B.
__
A 9. money paid to the court by an C.
accused person to guarantee
that she or he will appear for D.
trial
E.
bail
__
J 10. the right to vote
F.
libel
G.
petition
H.
poll tax
I.
slander
J.
suffrage
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censorship
due process
eminent domain
indictment
Reviewing Main Ideas
What five basic freedoms does the First
Amendment protect?
The First Amendment protects the freedom
of religion, of speech, of the press, of
assembly, and to petition the government.
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Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)
What was the significance of the Brown v.
Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas,
decision?
It declared racial segregation in schools to
be unconstitutional.
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Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)
What practice led to the inclusion of the
Third Amendment in the Bill of Rights?
Britain required colonists to house and feed
its soldiers.
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Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)
Why is protection from “double jeopardy”
important?
It prevents government from retrying a
person for a crime of which he or she has
been acquitted.
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Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.)
What was the impact of the Supreme Court’s
decision in Gitlow v. New York (1925)?
It ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment
prevents the states from infringing on First
Amendment freedoms.
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Critical Thinking
Predicting Consequences The Twenty-fourth
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution made poll
taxes illegal in national elections. What do you
think would have happened if the Twenty-fourth
Amendment had not been ratified?
People who could not pay the tax would
lose their right to vote.
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Analyzing Visuals
Study the chart that lists Amendments 11–27
on page 110 of your textbook. Which
amendment spells out the procedure for
replacing a president who leaves office? Which
amendment repeals an earlier amendment?
The Twenty-fifth Amendment spells out the
procedure for replacing a president who
leaves office. The Twenty-first Amendment
repeals an earlier amendment.
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Directions: Choose the best answer to the following statement.
The right to express yourself in an editorial letter to your
local newspaper is protected by
F the First Amendment.
G
the Second Amendment.
H
the Third Amendment.
J
the Fourth Amendment.
Test-Taking Tip Although you may not immediately recall
the answer, start by eliminating answer choices that you
know are incorrect.
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How is racial profiling by law enforcement
officers similar to discrimination in the
workplace?
In both instances, people suffer–by losing
a job opportunity or by being suspected
of a crime–because they belong to a
minority group.
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Charts
The First Amendment
Rights of the Accused
Constitutional Amendments 11–18
Constitutional Amendments 19–27
Landmark Acts of the Civil Rights Movement
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Taking Notes
Why Learn This Skill?
Reading and listening are a part of your student
life. You read your textbook, library books, and
Web pages. You listen to your teachers and to
television broadcasts. Whatever your purpose,
it helps to know how to take notes. Taking notes
helps you organize and learn information and
makes studying easier.
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Taking Notes
Learning the Skill
To take good notes, follow these steps:
• Record the date and identity of your source.
• Define the purpose of your note taking, and stay focused
on it.
• Watch for proper names, dates, events, or headings in
the selection you use. Include this type of information in
your notes.
• Write down short phrases that summarize the main
ideas of the selection. Use complete sentences
sparingly.
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Taking Notes
Learning the Skill (cont.)
• Use your own words as much as possible. Try to
develop your own system of abbreviations and
symbols. Arrows, for instance, can be a quick way to
show relationships between two or more points.
• Leave space to come back and write further information
about important ideas. This is helpful when you use two
or more sources.
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Taking Notes
Practicing the Skill
On a separate piece of paper, copy the steps needed for
good note taking and check off each step as you read the
passage on the following slide and create notes for it.
Taking Notes
Censorship and Cyberspace
Can the Internet and the First Amendment coexist?
Congress acted early to outlaw inappropriate cyber contact
between adults and children. In the mid-1990s, it reached
further. Congress first considered holding online providers
to standards similar to those used by mainstream TV and
radio networks. Owners of these “airway” communications
chose their own programs and so could control content.
The Communications Decency Act finally passed by
Congress in 1996 had fewer limits. This law simply
outlawed “indecent” and “offensive” materials. The
Supreme Court found the law a “heavy burden” on freedom
of speech, and struck it down.
Literature William Lloyd Garrison encouraged
runaway slave Frederick Douglass to become a
leading spokesperson for African Americans.
Garrison even wrote the introduction to
Douglass’s moving autobiography Narrative of
the Life of Frederick Douglass, which helped to
turn public opinion against slavery.
Despite the protection from double jeopardy, a
person can be retried for the same offense if a
jury cannot reach a verdict and the judge
declares a mistrial, if the sentence of a
convicted person has been set aside after an
appeal, or if the offense violates both federal
and state law.
Constitutional Guarantees The constitutions of
most countries contain a section describing the
rights of individual citizens. The constitutions of
the United States and most European
democracies describe the political and civil rights
of citizens. Other constitutions include rights
related to education and welfare. Article XXIII of
Japan’s constitution, for example, guarantees
academic freedom.
1924 For almost 150 years, Native Americans did
not have the right to vote in United States
elections. They were considered conquered
peoples with separate governments. Then on June
15, 1924, Congress passed laws granting U.S.
citizenship and suffrage to Native Americans.
Nobel Peace Prize In 1964 Martin Luther
King, Jr., received the Nobel Peace Prize for
leadership in the civil rights movement and for
dedication to nonviolent protest.
What details reveal
the cartoonist’s view
of the Bill of Rights?
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The cartoonist expresses
his reverence for the Bill of
Rights by portraying its
major provisions as parts
of the crown on the Statue
of Liberty. This depiction
suggests that the
freedoms guaranteed by
the Bill of Rights are
essential to the concept of
liberty in the United
States; the glow behind
the statue underscores the
cartoonist’s reverence.
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