INTRO TO RHETORIC: AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & ENGLISH IV Ms. Hunter 713.208.1544 [email protected] http://butmiss.wordpress.com WHAT IS RHETORIC? Well, it’s old – we can thank this guy for it. It comes from classical Greece. It’s the art of using language to communicate effectively In old times, a rhetor was a citizen who would publicly address juries and political leaders. Negative connotation today, although that’s a mistake. Aristotle “Those that know, do. Those that understand, teach.” THIS CLASS COMES IN THREE PARTS: Rhetorical Analysis Argument Synthesis Just like the AP Literature test, you will have three essay questions on the AP Language test. They will assess your mastery of the three skills listed above. So just what are they? SO WHAT’S THIS “RHETORICAL ANALYSIS?” Connecting DEVICE to MEANING. Analyzing how an author’s choice of: Diction Imagery Details Language Syntax contribute to the meaning of a text I. RHETORICAL ANALYSIS A close examination of texts, with the awareness of a writer’s purpose and the techniques the writer uses to achieve it WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE PIECE? Excerpt from Grapes of Wrath Once California belonged to Mexico and its land to Mexicans; and a horde of tattered feverish Americans poured in. And such was their hunger for land that they took the land--stole Sutter’s land, Guerrero’s land, took the grants and broke them up and growled and quarreled over them, those frantic hungry men; and they guarded with guns the land they had stolen. They put up houses and barns, they turned the earth and planted crops. And these things were possession, and possession was ownership. PAY ATTENTION TO THESE 3 DEVICES: Asyndeton – a writing style that omits conjunctions between words, phrases or clauses Metaphor– a method of comparison where one object is made equal to another Anadiplosis – The repetition of the last word (or phrase) from the previous line, clause, or sentence at the beginning of the next. THERE ARE 2 QUESTIONS HERE: Big Question: What is Steinbeck’s point? Little Question: How does he use rhetorical devices (asyndeton, metaphor, and anadiplosis) to make that point? II. ARGUMENT A discourse intended to persuade an audience through reasons and/or evidence LOOK CLOSELY AT THE NEXT SLIDE Taken in 1968, it has been called “the most influential environmental photograph ever taken.” What do you expect to see after that caption? When you see it, ask yourself, “What kinds of arguments would this image support?” Earthrise, William Anders WHAT ARGUMENT DOES THIS BILLBOARD TRY TO MAKE? JUST A FEW TYPES OF ARGUMENTS Arguments to inform To convince To explore To make decisions To meditate or pray Arguments about the past About the future About the present Arguments of fact Of definition Of evaluation Proposal arguments…..and there are more! THREE WAYS WE ARGUE From the heart = PATHOS Based on character = ETHOS Based on facts and reason = LOGOS Think back to the Earthrise and billboard images: what were they using? WHAT IF MY ARGUMENTS ARE LAME? Most people’s are. We’ll learn about logical fallacies and how to avoid them. Then you’ll be better equipped to make sensible arguments. Even with your parents. Read these gems: Hitler loved dogs, therefore dogs are bad. America – love it or leave it! We must keep people working – with jobs – because when many people are out of work, unemployment results. MY KEY, IN CASE I FORGET: The Hitler one is Guilt By Association The “patriotic” bumper sticker is an Either/Or scenario. That implies the issue is black and white and there are no shades of gray. The unemployment one – who do you think said that? Nope. Anyway, it’s a circular argument. Can you explain why we call it that? III. SYNTHESIS A bringing together of several texts, both written and visual, to form a coherent essay Yeah, it’s kinda like a DBQ. POR EJEMPLO… Let’s say I want to make some cookies. Because who doesn’t like cookies? (Please leave class if you felt compelled to raise your hand. You don’t belong here, cookie-hater.) Problem is, I looked up my mom’s recipe, and some of the ingredients got smudged up from the time she spilled batter all over it. Then I looked up Grandma’s, and she didn’t have any amounts written down because they were all in her head. What do I do if I want to make Starr family cookies? Seriously?! What do I do? YOU’RE RIGHT: I SYNTHESIZE THE TWO! Mom’s cookie recipe Grandma’s cookie recipe 1 c. shortening 1 c. brown sugar 1 c. white sugar 1 t. salt 1 t. soda 2 eggs (big smeary smudge goes here) shortening brown sugar white sugar salt soda eggs vanilla flour oats chopped nuts BUT WHAT’S MY PROBLEM? I still don’t know the amounts for four ingredients, and I don’t know how long to bake it OR at what temperature. So I can use SOME of Mom’s info, and SOME of Grandma’s, but then I’ve got to use my great big brain for the rest. I KNOW WHAT YOU’RE THINKING “But Miss! What are we going to DO in class this year?” If you don’t look as excited as this child does right now, you should. Come on! NOW’S WHEN I PASS OUT THE CALENDARS, AND YOU SEE… 2 summer readings, 4 in-class texts, and 5 independent books 15 vocabulary units of 10 words each 5 supervocab tests 13 rounds of multiple choice group practice 5 grammar units 15 timed writings 4 major papers 4 movies Infinite amounts of wisdom and laughter…aww!