Rhetoric intro ppt

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INTRO TO RHETORIC:
AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & ENGLISH IV
Ms. Hunter
713.208.1544
[email protected]
http://butmiss.wordpress.com
WHAT IS RHETORIC?
Well, it’s old – we can thank
this guy for it. 
 It comes from classical Greece.
 It’s the art of using language to
communicate effectively
 In old times, a rhetor was a
citizen who would publicly
address juries and political
leaders.
 Negative connotation today,
although that’s a mistake.

Aristotle
“Those that know, do. Those
that understand, teach.”
THIS CLASS COMES IN THREE PARTS:
Rhetorical Analysis
 Argument
 Synthesis
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Just like the AP Literature test, you will have
three essay questions on the AP Language test.
They will assess your mastery of the three skills
listed above. So just what are they?
SO WHAT’S THIS “RHETORICAL ANALYSIS?”
Connecting DEVICE
to MEANING.
 Analyzing how an
author’s choice of:
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Diction
Imagery
Details
Language
Syntax
contribute to the
meaning of a text
I. RHETORICAL ANALYSIS
A
close examination of texts,
with the awareness of a
writer’s purpose and the
techniques the writer uses to
achieve it
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE PIECE?


Excerpt from Grapes of Wrath
Once California belonged to Mexico and its land
to Mexicans; and a horde of tattered feverish
Americans poured in. And such was their hunger
for land that they took the land--stole Sutter’s
land, Guerrero’s land, took the grants and broke
them up and growled and quarreled over them,
those frantic hungry men; and they guarded with
guns the land they had stolen. They put up
houses and barns, they turned the earth and
planted crops. And these things were possession,
and possession was ownership.
PAY ATTENTION TO THESE 3 DEVICES:
Asyndeton – a writing style that omits
conjunctions between words, phrases or clauses
 Metaphor– a method of comparison where one
object is made equal to another
 Anadiplosis – The repetition of the last word (or
phrase) from the previous line, clause, or
sentence at the beginning of the next.

THERE ARE 2 QUESTIONS HERE:


Big Question: What is Steinbeck’s point?
Little Question: How does he use rhetorical
devices (asyndeton, metaphor, and anadiplosis) to
make that point?
II. ARGUMENT
A
discourse intended to
persuade an audience through
reasons and/or evidence
LOOK CLOSELY AT THE NEXT SLIDE
 Taken
in 1968, it has been called “the
most influential environmental
photograph ever taken.”
 What do you expect to see after that
caption?
 When you see it, ask yourself, “What
kinds of arguments would this image
support?”
Earthrise,
William
Anders
WHAT ARGUMENT DOES THIS BILLBOARD
TRY TO MAKE?
JUST A FEW TYPES OF ARGUMENTS

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Arguments to inform
To convince
To explore
To make decisions
To meditate or pray
Arguments about the past
About the future
About the present
Arguments of fact
Of definition
Of evaluation
Proposal arguments…..and there are more!
THREE WAYS WE ARGUE
 From
the heart = PATHOS
 Based on character = ETHOS
 Based on facts and reason = LOGOS
 Think
back to the Earthrise and
billboard images: what were they
using?
WHAT IF MY ARGUMENTS ARE LAME?

Most people’s are. We’ll learn about logical
fallacies and how to avoid them. Then you’ll be
better equipped to make sensible arguments.
Even with your parents.
Read these gems:
 Hitler loved dogs, therefore dogs are bad.
 America – love it or leave it!
 We must keep people working – with jobs –
because when many people are out of work,
unemployment results.

MY KEY, IN CASE I FORGET:
The Hitler one is Guilt By Association
 The “patriotic” bumper sticker is an Either/Or
scenario. That implies the issue is black and
white and there are no shades of gray.
 The unemployment one – who do you think said
that? Nope. Anyway, it’s a circular argument.
Can you explain why we call it that?

III. SYNTHESIS
A
bringing together of
several texts, both written
and visual, to form a
coherent essay

Yeah, it’s kinda like a DBQ. 
POR EJEMPLO…
Let’s say I want to make some cookies. Because
who doesn’t like cookies? (Please leave class if
you felt compelled to raise your hand. You don’t
belong here, cookie-hater.)
 Problem is, I looked up my mom’s recipe, and
some of the ingredients got smudged up from the
time she spilled batter all over it. Then I looked
up Grandma’s, and she didn’t have any amounts
written down because they were all in her head.
 What do I do if I want to make Starr family
cookies? Seriously?! What do I do?

YOU’RE RIGHT: I SYNTHESIZE THE TWO!
Mom’s cookie recipe
Grandma’s cookie recipe
1 c. shortening
 1 c. brown sugar
 1 c. white sugar
 1 t. salt
 1 t. soda
 2 eggs
 (big smeary smudge
goes here)

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shortening
brown sugar
white sugar
salt
soda
eggs
vanilla
flour
oats
chopped nuts
BUT WHAT’S MY PROBLEM?
I still don’t know the
amounts for four
ingredients, and I
don’t know how long
to bake it OR at what
temperature.
 So I can use SOME of
Mom’s info, and
SOME of Grandma’s,
but then I’ve got to
use my great big brain
for the rest.

I KNOW WHAT YOU’RE THINKING


“But Miss! What are
we going to DO in
class this year?”
If you don’t look as
excited as this child
does right now, you
should. Come on!
NOW’S WHEN I PASS OUT THE CALENDARS,
AND YOU SEE…
2 summer readings, 4 in-class texts, and 5
independent books
 15 vocabulary units of 10 words each
 5 supervocab tests
 13 rounds of multiple choice group practice
 5 grammar units
 15 timed writings
 4 major papers
 4 movies
 Infinite amounts of wisdom and laughter…aww!


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