Unsolved Mysteries (of Physics) The Speakable and the Unspeakable Weldon J. Wilson Department of Engineering and Physics University of Central Oklahoma Edmond, OK 73034-5209 cyberphysics.com/wwilson [email protected] The Speakable 96% of matter/energy is a mystery. It has never been observed even in our best laboratories or observatories! Dark Energy 1 2 m v0 2 GMm r0 1 2 mv 2 GMm r Should v slow down 1 1 2 v0 GM r0 r Speeding Up !!! The Speakable Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the “Right now,Universe, not only for cosmology but is no persuasive theoretical physical yet there for elementary particle theory, this is the “Basically, is, people don’t with have a explanation. The acceleration of the Universe along bone in our throat.” - Steven Weinberg clue as to how to solve this dark matter, the observed phenomenonproblem.” which- most directly Jeff Harvey demonstrates that our fundamental theories of particles is the biggest and gravity are either‘This incorrect or incomplete. Most experts embarrassment in believe that nothing short of physics” a revolution in our theoretical - Michael Turnerphysics will be required to understanding of fundamental achieve a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For “… would be No. 1 on my list of things to figure out.” these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among the “… Maybe the most fundamentally - Edward Witten thing in basic science.” verymysterious most compelling of all outstanding problems in physical Frank Wilczek science. Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) astro-ph/0609591 All the Current Theories of Dark Energy There are none! The Speakable 80% of all matter is a mystery. It’s effect is seen only in gravitation. Fritz Zwicky Caltech Professor of Astrophysics (1927-1968) Tech Director Aerojet Engineering (1941-1961) – "father“ of modern jet engine • 1929 – Introduced “tired light” hypothesis to explain Hubble Red Shift • 1931 – Introduced idea of exploding star origin of cosmic rays – supernova/neutron star • 1933 – Introduced idea of Dark Matter • 1937 – Gravitational Lens Zwicky von Kármán Malina Parsons 1936 – Founded (along with Theodore von Kármán, Frank Malina, Jack Parsons) the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT) that in 1943 became the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) 1943– Founded (along with Theodore von Kármán, Frank Malina, Jack Parsons) the Aerojet Corporation 19612-1968 – Published a comprehensive six volume Catalogue of galaxies and of clusters of galaxies. F ma Basic Idea GMm R 2 m v 2 R v GM R gravity From this, you can calculate the orbital speed, if you know the mass of the galaxy (Specifically the mass inside the orbit) NGC 3198 Zwicky proposes Dark Matter to explain this discrepancy of theory with observations. But what is it? MACHO ??? MAssive Compact Halo Objects Massive Compact HAlo Objects Idea: • Compact and dark objects pervade the galactic halo. • Look at distant stars (Large Magellanic Cloud). • Try to find when one spontaneously brightens. “Gravitational Lensing” Far Object You Intervening Object Baryonic Matter Summary: The amount of dark baryonic matter can only account for about 20% of the dark matter in the Milky Way region. And then only with substantial modification of galaxy formation dynamics. Goldwater Manilow White Bonds Non Baryonic Dark Matter Candidates Hot Dark Matter Cold Dark Matter • Hot means high momentum and typically light • Cold means low momentum and typically heavy • Candidates • Neutrinos (n) • Discovered in 1998 to have mass • Recent studies show they can only have 0.3% of needed Dark Matter. • Candidates • New variant of neutrino • Exotica • Etc. • New kind of particle (supersymmetric neutralino) • WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) Cold Dark Matter: Direct Searches Very hard to do WIMPS • Approximately 1,000,000 pass through you every second. • If they exist at all. • The reason they are “Dark” is they don’t interact much with ordinary matter. • They will shake atoms when they (rarely) hit one. • Atoms are always shaking due to heat. • Your detector must be (nearly) infinitely cold. Mordehai Milgrom 1983 Modified Newtonian Dynamics MOND What if Newton was wrong? Newton said that Force was proportional to Acceleration • Proposed by Milgrom - 1983 • Heavily criticized thereafter MOND Suppose Newton was right for large accelerations, but for small accelerations, his formula breaks down? Newton’s Law MOND Comments and Thoughts: How does MOND go from one behavior to the other? F a No Idea…. Why hasnt anyone else seen this modification of Newton’s laws? F a MOND Modification 2 We’re talking very small accelerations here… 1/100,000,000,000 × Earth’s gravity….. MOND: Modification of Newtonian Dynamics What if Newton was wrong? F ma MOND ma F m 2 a ao a a o a a o a m a F a0 MOND: Basic Idea centrifugal = gravity centrifugal m v ao r 2 2 = r gravity v 2 G Mm = 2 G M ao But does it work? 1/ 2 Fits to v (r) for both LSB & HSB Galaxies Tully-Fisher Relation L M F ma G Mm r a G 2 M a0 r 2 m 2 a a a0 2 v M a0 G 2 r r 2 v G M a0 4 M O N D T -F R elation!! v 4 Explanations • Unseen (and unobserved) exotic matter • WIMPs • Currently massive searches underway • MOND • Needs better theoretical motivation Cat Fight What is the prevailing wisdom? • No honest physicist will tell you that they know. • Dark matter is popular because particle physicists are looking for a similar particle (for different reasons) • MOND needs work. But there is no disputing that it describes galactic rotation curves (and other stuff) Summary/Speculation • MOND has amazing ability to model data taken after it was invented • Excellent fits to galaxy rotation curves require M/L(colour) as from SS theory • Compelling evidence that negligible DM interior to Sun • Now limiting form of Lorentz covariant theory • MOND really might be the next great step in physics The Unspeakable The unspeakable refers to a “hidden evil whose depth and deceit goes beyond the capacity of words to describe.” - Thomas Merton Telstar (1962) Awarded Noble Prize in 1978 • • • • First Private Financed Satellite, (AT&T) Transponder to relay One TV channel or 12 multiplexed telephone signals Frequency - 4 GHz Solar Powered – 14 Watts! Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson Discover Big Bang 1962 (2.73 K Blackbody Radiation) Awarded Noble Prize in 1978 Arno Penzias doing real experimental work Telstar, 1962 COBE, 1989 WMAP, 2001 Absolute Motion Relative to the Local Absolute Rest Frame Absolute Motion (relative to background radiation) ???? Local Absolute Rest Frame Moving toward Leo at ~375 km/s (0.12% c) All the Current Scientific Discussions and Papers on the CBR Dipole Anisotropy There are none! Extra Credit • Propose a model that explains Dark Energy (Any model will do – reasonable or not) • Discover what Dark Matter consists of and/or place MOND on good theoretical basis • Explain CBR Dipole Anisotropy within the current Paradigm (Any discussion will do – reasonable or not) Deadline: None. References • • • • Bekenstein J., Milgrom M. ApJ, 286, 7 (1984). Milgrom M., ApJ, 270, 365 (1983). Milgrom M., ApJ, 270, 371 (1983). Nicolson , Iain , Dark Side of the Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Cosmos, ISBN: 0801885922 , (2007). • Pendle, George, Strange Angel: The Otherworldly Life of Rocket Scientist John Whiteside Parsons. ISBN: 015100997X (2005). • Shaw, Mark, Beneath The Mask of Holiness –Thomas Merton and the Forbidden Love Affair that Set Him Free. ISBN: 0230616534 (2009).