GCSE MUSIC REVISION 2010 Learning outcomes… • To know the different areas of study for the GCSE Music listening exam. • To understand how to prepare well for the exam. • To evaluate what you need to do to succeed in the exams. GCSE Music – Areas of Study 1. Music for Film 2. Music for Dance 3. Orchestral Landmarks 4. Music for Special Events 5. Popular Song Since 1960 Music for Film Types of Film CGP Guide Pgs 9-11 • The Western • Classic Monster/Horror and Science Fiction/Fantasy • Thrillers and Spy Films The Elements of Film Music Rhythm The pattern of beats/duration of notes. • Syncopation • Cross rhythms • Homorhythmic/Polyrhythmic Melody The tune. • Conjunct/Disjunct Tonality The key of the music. This gives the piece it’s mood. Texture Thick or Thin. Dynamics Tempo Timbre Pitch • Major/Minor • Pentatonic • Modal • Atonal • Bitonal • Monophonic • Polyphonic/Contrapuntal • Homophonic The loudness and softness of the music. • See dynamics table below. • Terraced dynamics • Silence The speed of the music. • See tempo table below for terms. What kind of sound. • Instruments High or Low. Compositional Devices Compositional Devices Motif: A short melodic or rhythmic idea that is sufficiently distinctive to allow it to be modified, manipulated and possibly combined with other motifs while retaining its own identity. Batman – 5 Note Theme Leitmotif: A memorable fragment or musical idea that Represents an emotion, place, idea, object or person. E.g. Jaws Theme, Darth Vader theme, Indiana Jones etc. etc. Sequence: The immediate repetition of a motif or phrase of a melody in the same part but at a different pitch. Imitation: When a melodic idea stated by one part is copied by another part whilst the melody line of the first part continues. Only the opening notes of the original melody need be repeated for this effect to be heard. Ostinato: A rhythmic, melodic or harmonic pattern played many times in succession. Boogie Woogie Ostinato Pedal Note: A sustained or repeated note sounded against changing harmony. Example: GCSE Music – Areas of Study 1. Music for Film 2. Music for Dance 3. Orchestral Landmarks 4. Music for Special Events 5. Popular Song Since 1960 AREA OF STUDY: Music for Dance Period Baroque Dance Gavotte Minuet Sarabande Gigue Time signature 2/2 3/4 3/4 6/8 Tempo Quick Moderate Slow Fast Character Stately Elegant Serious Features All phrases begin with an anacrusis. Moderate first 2nd beat often beat accent. stressed. Sometimes Ornamentation called Menuet to decorate or Minuetto. melodic lines due to slow tempo. Jolly / Cheerful French origin, but related to British and Irish folk music. Often ended a suite. Period Romantic Dance Waltz Polka Time signature 3/4 (Sometimes with a feel of just one main beat per bar rather than three.) 2/4 Tempo Usually quick Steady beat Quick Romantic Energetic/ Cheerful Character Features Originated in Vienna Strong clear melody. Homophonic texture. Oom-cha-cha Slow rate of harmonic change; Use of simple chords (mainly primary chords). Use of appoggiaturas and chromatic notes to spice up the melody. Originated in Czech Republic. Quick quick slow. Often composers like to use orchestral effects to make it more exciting. Many pauses and changes of tempo. Other type of Dance: The Club Scene • Disco • Rap • Hip Hop • Techno • Jungle • Drum ‘n’ bass • UK Garage • Trance • Ambient All are on sheet provided and in CGP Guide Pg. 19. Music Technology Terms • • • • • • • • • • You need to know and learn these terms: Mixing Scratching Sampling Looping Digital Effects – Vocoder, Reverb, Echo Quantising Sequencing Multitracking Remixing - Examples: Punjabi MC – Billy Jean, Knight Rider Bhangra, Eminem vs Punjabi. • MIDI See Page 19 of CGP Guide for Music Technology Terms. GCSE Music – Areas of Study 1. Music for Film 2. Music for Dance 3. Orchestral Landmarks 4. Music for Special Events 5. Popular Song Since 1960 AREA OF STUDY: ORCHESTRAL LANDMARKS The Classical Period 1750 - 1800 • Composers are Haydn and Mozart. • Symphonies and Concertos are popular classical forms. Symphony A large scale piece of music for orchestra consisting of 4 movements. Concerto A work for solo instrument accompanied by orchestra usually in 3 movements. The Classical Period 1750 - 1800 • Small-ish orchestra. Strings dominate sound. Violins play most of the tunes. • Woodwind and brass support the strings. • Very structured, balanced phrase lengths with cadences. • Clear tonality – Major/Minor • Texture is mostly homphonic. • Diatonic - Simple, straightforward harmonies. • Clear rhythms, constant tempo and metre. • Light and elegant. The Late Classical Period 1800 - 1830 • • • • • Beethoven Instruments added to orchestra – larger sections. Adds more woodwind in particular. Also added trombones and some percussion (cymbals, bass drum and triangle). Persistent rhythms sometimes used to drive the music forward. Powerful themes full of tension and drama. Variations in dynamics. The Romantic Period 1830 - 1900 • • • • • • • • • • • • Composers are: Schubert, Tchaikovsky, Wagner and Liszt amongst others. Emotional and dramatic. Used tone colours to create varied moods and emotions. Bigger orchestra – New instruments added – Piccolo, Contrabassoon, Bass Clarinet, Cor Anglais, Tuba and Harp. More use of percussion – Tubular Bells Long melodies. Melody passed around different instruments/sections – advances in instruments. Chromatic notes. Frequent modulations. Uses a large range of dynamics. Expression markings. Changes in texture and tempo. The 20th Century Period 1900-2000 • • • • • • • • • • Composers are: Britten, Stravinsky, Schoenberg Large orchestra. All sections are of equal importance. Exploration of timbre - Composers experimented with instruments/sounds in new ways – see page 34 of CGP guide. Use of electronic instruments/ non-instruments Wide range of dynamics. Lack of tonality or changing tonality – Dissonance and Atonality Lack of clear structure. Fragmented/disjunct melodies. Rhythm and metre changes – syncopation, polyrhythms, ostinati. Huge contrasts in texture. Twentieth Century Styles Pg. 35 CGP Impressionism • The music is used to create the impression of a scene/title or picture • Dreamy, mystical floaty sounding music. • Uses whole tone scales and chords with added notes – 7ths, 9ths and even 13ths. • Debussy – L’apres midi d’un faune. Serialism or 12 note music • Treats all 12 semitone pitches as equal. Therefore the music is not based in a particular key or scale • The composer creates a tone row using all 12 pitches in a chosen order – each pitch is used once only. • This row is then used as the basis for the piece. • Schoenberg – Variations for orchestra Op. 31. • http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=schoenberg+variatio ns+for+orchestra+op+31&hl=en&emb=0&aq=f# • http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=serialism+schoenberg &www_google_domain=www.google.co.uk&hl=en&emb=0& aq=0&oq=serialism# • Particular techniques include Note clusters Inversions (upside down) Retrograde (backwards) Retrograde inversion (the backwards version upside down) Aleatoric music (Chance Music) • The final decision about what is to be played is made at the performance so the piece sounds different each time it is performed. • John Cage – Music of Changes. • http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=john+ca ge+music+of+changes&hl=en&emb=0&aq=1&oq=john+cage+music+of+change# Jazz Influenced • • • • Lively rhythms – syncopation Blues notes Brass – often muted Gershwin – Rhapsody in Blue or American in Paris. Minimalism • Less is More - The idea is to create music from as little as possible • http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=st eve+reich+trains&hl=en&emb=0&aq=f# GCSE Music – Areas of Study 1. Music for Film 2. Music for Dance 3. Orchestral Landmarks 4. Music for Special Events 5. Popular Song Since 1960 AOS – Music for Special Event For Music for Special Events you need to make sure you are familiar with the following. Look them up and listen to examples on the AQA CD listening material which you all have on your drives. STYLE: Fanfare Opera Recitative Aria Oratorio Odes Masque Overture Anthem March FEATURES: Music for Popular Song See word document link. Plenary • Complete the following statement adding as many details as possible. I can revise most effectively for my Music listening exam by… To do: • Complete Music for Special Events Table if you have not already completed it. • Revise using books, links and revision materials provided. • Complete definition list (as provided by Miss Longbottom). Look them up in your revision guides. If you are stuck then ask next lesson. • Check out links on Miss Longbottom’s blog. • Use Sibelius instruments to listen to different instruments and familiarise yourself with their sounds.. Learning outcomes… • To know the different areas of study for the GCSE Music listening exam. • To understand how to prepare well for the exam. • To evaluate what you need to do to succeed in the exams.