area of study: orchestral landmarks

Report
GCSE MUSIC REVISION 2010
Learning outcomes…
• To know the different areas of study for
the GCSE Music listening exam.
• To understand how to prepare well for
the exam.
• To evaluate what you need to do to
succeed in the exams.
GCSE Music – Areas of Study
1. Music for Film
2. Music for Dance
3. Orchestral Landmarks
4. Music for Special Events
5. Popular Song Since 1960
Music for Film
Types of Film
CGP Guide Pgs 9-11
• The Western
• Classic Monster/Horror and Science Fiction/Fantasy
• Thrillers and Spy Films
The Elements of Film Music
Rhythm
The pattern of beats/duration
of notes.
• Syncopation
• Cross rhythms
• Homorhythmic/Polyrhythmic
Melody
The tune.
• Conjunct/Disjunct
Tonality
The key of the music.
This gives the piece it’s mood.
Texture
Thick or Thin.
Dynamics
Tempo
Timbre
Pitch
• Major/Minor
• Pentatonic
• Modal
• Atonal
• Bitonal
• Monophonic
• Polyphonic/Contrapuntal
• Homophonic
The loudness and softness
of the music.
• See dynamics table below.
• Terraced dynamics
• Silence
The speed of the music.
• See tempo table below for terms.
What kind of sound.
• Instruments
High or Low.
Compositional
Devices
Compositional Devices
Motif: A short melodic or rhythmic idea that is sufficiently
distinctive to allow it to be modified, manipulated and possibly
combined with other motifs while retaining its own identity.
Batman – 5 Note Theme
Leitmotif: A memorable fragment or musical idea that
Represents an emotion, place, idea, object or person.
E.g. Jaws Theme, Darth Vader theme, Indiana Jones etc. etc.
Sequence: The immediate repetition of a motif or phrase of
a melody in the same part but at a different pitch.
Imitation: When a melodic idea stated by one part is copied
by another part whilst the melody line of the first part
continues. Only the opening notes of the original melody need
be repeated for this effect to be heard.
Ostinato: A rhythmic, melodic or harmonic pattern played
many times in succession.
Boogie Woogie Ostinato
Pedal Note: A sustained or repeated note sounded
against changing harmony.
Example:
GCSE Music – Areas of Study
1. Music for Film
2. Music for Dance
3. Orchestral Landmarks
4. Music for Special Events
5. Popular Song Since 1960
AREA OF STUDY:
Music for Dance
Period
Baroque
Dance
Gavotte
Minuet
Sarabande
Gigue
Time
signature
2/2
3/4
3/4
6/8
Tempo
Quick
Moderate
Slow
Fast
Character
Stately
Elegant
Serious
Features

All phrases
begin with an
anacrusis.


Moderate first  2nd beat often
beat accent.
stressed.
Sometimes
 Ornamentation
called Menuet
to decorate
or Minuetto.
melodic lines
due to slow
tempo.
Jolly /
Cheerful
 French origin,
but related to
British and
Irish folk
music.
 Often ended
a suite.
Period
Romantic
Dance
Waltz
Polka
Time
signature
3/4
(Sometimes with a feel of just one
main beat per bar rather than
three.)
2/4
Tempo
Usually quick
Steady beat
Quick
Romantic
Energetic/ Cheerful
Character
Features





Originated in Vienna
Strong clear melody.
Homophonic texture.
Oom-cha-cha
Slow rate of harmonic change;
Use of simple chords (mainly
primary chords).
 Use of appoggiaturas and
chromatic notes to spice up the
melody.
 Originated in Czech
Republic.
 Quick quick slow.
 Often composers like to use
orchestral effects to make it
more exciting.
 Many pauses and changes
of tempo.
Other type of Dance:
The Club Scene
• Disco
• Rap
• Hip Hop
• Techno
• Jungle
• Drum ‘n’ bass
• UK Garage
• Trance
• Ambient
All are on sheet provided and
in CGP Guide Pg. 19.
Music Technology Terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
You need to know and learn these terms:
Mixing
Scratching
Sampling
Looping
Digital Effects – Vocoder, Reverb, Echo
Quantising
Sequencing
Multitracking
Remixing - Examples: Punjabi MC – Billy Jean, Knight Rider
Bhangra, Eminem vs Punjabi.
• MIDI
See Page 19 of CGP Guide for Music Technology Terms.
GCSE Music – Areas of Study
1. Music for Film
2. Music for Dance
3. Orchestral Landmarks
4. Music for Special Events
5. Popular Song Since 1960
AREA OF STUDY:
ORCHESTRAL
LANDMARKS
The Classical Period
1750 - 1800
• Composers are Haydn
and Mozart.
• Symphonies and
Concertos are popular
classical forms.
Symphony
A large scale piece of music for orchestra
consisting of 4 movements.
Concerto
A work for solo instrument accompanied
by orchestra usually in 3 movements.
The Classical Period
1750 - 1800
• Small-ish orchestra. Strings dominate sound.
Violins play most of the tunes.
• Woodwind and brass support the strings.
• Very structured, balanced phrase lengths
with cadences.
• Clear tonality – Major/Minor
• Texture is mostly homphonic.
• Diatonic - Simple, straightforward harmonies.
• Clear rhythms, constant tempo and metre.
• Light and elegant.
The Late Classical Period
1800 - 1830
•
•
•
•
•
Beethoven
Instruments added to orchestra – larger sections.
Adds more woodwind in particular.
Also added trombones and some percussion
(cymbals, bass drum and triangle).
Persistent rhythms sometimes used to
drive the music forward.
Powerful themes full of tension and drama.
Variations in dynamics.
The Romantic Period
1830 - 1900
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Composers are: Schubert, Tchaikovsky, Wagner and Liszt
amongst others.
Emotional and dramatic.
Used tone colours to create varied moods and emotions.
Bigger orchestra – New instruments added – Piccolo,
Contrabassoon, Bass Clarinet, Cor Anglais, Tuba and Harp.
More use of percussion – Tubular Bells
Long melodies.
Melody passed around different instruments/sections –
advances in instruments.
Chromatic notes.
Frequent modulations.
Uses a large range of dynamics.
Expression markings.
Changes in texture and tempo.
The 20th Century Period
1900-2000
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Composers are: Britten, Stravinsky, Schoenberg
Large orchestra. All sections are of equal importance.
Exploration of timbre - Composers
experimented with instruments/sounds in
new ways – see page 34 of CGP guide.
Use of electronic instruments/ non-instruments
Wide range of dynamics.
Lack of tonality or changing tonality
– Dissonance and Atonality
Lack of clear structure.
Fragmented/disjunct melodies.
Rhythm and metre changes – syncopation, polyrhythms,
ostinati.
Huge contrasts in texture.
Twentieth Century Styles
Pg. 35 CGP
Impressionism
• The music is used to create the impression of a
scene/title or picture
• Dreamy, mystical floaty sounding music.
• Uses whole tone scales and chords with added notes
– 7ths, 9ths and even 13ths.
• Debussy – L’apres midi d’un faune.
Serialism or 12 note music
• Treats all 12 semitone pitches as equal.
Therefore the music is not based in a particular key or scale
• The composer creates a tone row using all 12 pitches in a
chosen order – each pitch is used once only.
• This row is then used as the basis for the piece.
• Schoenberg – Variations for orchestra Op. 31.
• http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=schoenberg+variatio
ns+for+orchestra+op+31&hl=en&emb=0&aq=f#
• http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=serialism+schoenberg
&www_google_domain=www.google.co.uk&hl=en&emb=0&
aq=0&oq=serialism#
• Particular techniques include

Note clusters

Inversions (upside down)

Retrograde (backwards)

Retrograde inversion (the backwards version
upside down)
Aleatoric music (Chance Music)
• The final decision about what is to be played is
made at the performance so the piece sounds
different each time it is performed.
• John Cage – Music of Changes.
• http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=john+ca
ge+music+of+changes&hl=en&emb=0&aq=1&oq=john+cage+music+of+change#
Jazz Influenced
•
•
•
•
Lively rhythms – syncopation
Blues notes
Brass – often muted
Gershwin – Rhapsody in Blue or American in
Paris.
Minimalism
• Less is More - The idea is to create music
from as little as possible
• http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=st
eve+reich+trains&hl=en&emb=0&aq=f#
GCSE Music – Areas of Study
1. Music for Film
2. Music for Dance
3. Orchestral Landmarks
4. Music for Special Events
5. Popular Song Since 1960
AOS – Music for Special Event
For Music for Special Events you need to make sure
you are familiar with the following. Look them up and
listen to examples on the AQA CD listening material
which you all have on your drives.
STYLE:
Fanfare
Opera
Recitative
Aria
Oratorio
Odes
Masque
Overture
Anthem
March
FEATURES:
Music for Popular Song
See word document link.
Plenary
• Complete the following statement
adding as many details as possible.
I can revise most
effectively for my
Music listening
exam by…
To do:
• Complete Music for Special Events Table if you
have not already completed it.
• Revise using books, links and revision materials
provided.
• Complete definition list (as provided by Miss
Longbottom). Look them up in your revision
guides. If you are stuck then ask next lesson.
• Check out links on Miss Longbottom’s blog.
• Use Sibelius instruments to listen to different
instruments and familiarise yourself with their
sounds..
Learning outcomes…
• To know the different areas of study for
the GCSE Music listening exam.
• To understand how to prepare well for
the exam.
• To evaluate what you need to do to
succeed in the exams.

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