Somalia Contamination - Peace and Security Department

Report
Somalia Weapons Contamination: Addressing Key
Challenges to Meeting Clearance
Deadlines Under the Mine Ban Convention
and Convention on Cluster Munitions Landmine
Somalia National Mine Action Authority
Mohamed Abdulkadir Ahmed, National Director
Weapons Contamination: Addressing Key Challenges to Meeting Clearance Deadlines Under the MBT
and CCM; 5-7 March 2013, African Union Commission /ICRC – Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Clearance Challenges in Somalia
Policy
 The Council of Ministers of the Transitional Federal Government
of Somalia formally approved accession to the Mine Ban Treaty on 5
April 2012 and the Prime Minister signed the instrument of accession
four days later.
Somalia acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 16 April 2012 and the
Treaty entered into force for Somalia on 1 October 2012. Somalia is
the 160th State Party and the last of Sub-Saharan Africa to accede the
MBT.
 Somalia’s initial Article 7 report for the Mine Ban Treaty is due by
30 March 2013.
 Somalia is a signatory to the Convention on Cluster Munitions but
not yet ratified.
Somalia is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
Background of Mine and ERW
Contamination
• Border conflict with Ethiopia (1970’s)
o Most of the minefields were laid during the
retreat of the Somali army: mainly affected are
towns and villages along the border areas as
Dolow, Goldogob, Burtinle.
• Two decades of civil war (1990 –2012)
o The South Central regions are mostly affected.
A clear picture of contaminated areas isn’t
available.
South Central - Contamination
1992-1993 Somali Civil War
1977-1978 Ethiopia against Somalia war
1979-1984 SSDF against Siyad Barre regime
Actual Mine and ERW Contamination
• In South Central Somalia, there is not a good overview
of the SHA’s.
• No LIS and no country wide survey conducted mainly
due to the security situation.
• Recently, cluster strikes have been dentified in
proximity of Dolow, border town with Ethiopia. It is
expected that cluster bombs are to be found in Lower
and Upper Juba
• Due to expected mines being laid all the way back to
the Ogaden War in 1977-78, local knowledge is lost.
•The majority of the ERW problem in Somalia so far has
proven to be AXO’s and UXO’s, left on the battle ground
or in ammunition dumps.
Actual Mine and ERW Contamination
• In addition there is a big problem with private
stockpiles, mainly in private homes of people looking at
making profit of selling the explosives or ERW.
• Needs attention and MRE campaigns
• Lobby of influential members of communities trying to
convince their people to hand these over.
• This will of course result in a need for proper collection
points (police stations or dedicated areas) or a system
where dedicated teams travel to the site, evaluate
remove items from the homes.
Existing Mine Action Programmes in Somalia
• Somalia National Mine Action Authority - SNMAA
• Puntland Mine Action Centre - PMAC
• Somaliland Mine Action Centre - SMAC
African Union Peacekeeping Mission - AMISOM
International NGOs and Commercial Companies
• Halo Trust - HT
• Handicap International - HI
• Mines Advisory Group - MAG
• Danish Demining Group - DDG
• The Development Initiative - TDI
• Ukroboronservice – UOS
• Olive Group
• Bancroft
Mine Action Programmes in Somalia
September 2007 – to date
• Administration and Coordination of Mine Action in South
Central Somalia is led by UNMAS.
• Supports to SMAC and PMAC in Somaliland and Puntland
respectively are led by UNMAS
Major Surveys: Landmines Impact Survey
• Somalia Landmines Impact Survey Phase I:
Awdal, Galbeed, Sahil and Togdheer Regions
• Somalia Landmines Impact Survey Phase II:
Bari, Nugaal and Mudug Regions
• Somalia Landmines Impact Survey Phase III:
Sool and Sanaag Regions
Access for International Advisors
and Technical Staff
• Technical advisors and project managers don’t follow up
teams in the field and operations on the ground unless
national qualified staff is available.
•There is no follow up on the quality management both
technical and impact of activities.
Donors Funding
• Donors are reluctant to invest money in expensive
demining assets with the current Somalia situation.
•Results in small teams that has limited impact on the
ground (mainly EOD with little land release – spot tasks).
• Donors still hesitant to engage in capacity building.
Thank you
Weapons Contamination: Addressing Key Challenges to Meeting Clearance Deadlines Under the MBT
and CCM; 5-7 March 2013, African Union Commission /ICRC – Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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