chapter review questions

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prepared by Mark Hollier,
Georgia Perimeter College Clarkston Campus
CHAPTER
23
The
Digestive
System
© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The esophagus is a part of the __________,
while the pancreas is considered a(n)
__________ when it comes to the digestive
system.
a)
b)
c)
d)
alimentary canal; accessory digestive organ
stomach; propulsion organ
accessory organs; alimentary canal component
pharynx; mechanical breakdown organ
The esophagus is a part of the __________,
while the pancreas is considered a(n)
__________ when it comes to the digestive
system.
a)
b)
c)
d)
alimentary canal; accessory digestive organ
stomach; propulsion organ
accessory organs; alimentary canal component
pharynx; mechanical breakdown organ
The majority of absorption occurs in the
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
mouth
The majority of absorption occurs in the
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
mouth
The majority of __________ occurs in the
mouth, stomach, and small intestine.
a)
b)
c)
d)
ingestion
chemical digestion
mechanical breakdown
absorption
The majority of __________ occurs in the
mouth, stomach, and small intestine.
a)
b)
c)
d)
ingestion
chemical digestion
mechanical breakdown
absorption
Stimuli that regulate gastrointestinal tract
activity are generated by __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
the CNS
chemoreceptors in the gut
the enteric nerve plexus
all of the above
Stimuli that regulate gastrointestinal tract
activity are generated by __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
the CNS
chemoreceptors in the gut
the enteric nerve plexus
all of the above
Choose the answer that lists the four layers
of the wall of the alimentary canal in the
appropriate order from innermost to
outermost.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and
serosa
Submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis externa
Serosa, mucosa, muscularis externa, submucosa
Muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa, mucosa
Choose the answer that lists the four layers
of the wall of the alimentary canal in the
appropriate order from innermost to
outermost.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and
serosa
Submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis externa
Serosa, mucosa, muscularis externa, submucosa
Muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa, mucosa
Which of the following types of epithelial
tissues predominates in most of the
digestive tract?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Simple squamous
Stratified squamous
Simple columnar
Simple cuboidal
Which of the following types of epithelial
tissues predominates in most of the
digestive tract?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Simple squamous
Stratified squamous
Simple columnar
Simple cuboidal
In general, parasympathetic inputs to the
gut are __________, while sympathetic
inputs are __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stimulatory; inhibitory
rapid; long lasting
inhibitory; stimulatory
hormonal; neural
In general, parasympathetic inputs to the
gut are __________, while sympathetic
inputs are __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stimulatory; inhibitory
rapid; long lasting
inhibitory; stimulatory
hormonal; neural
Chemical digestion is initiated in the
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
mouth
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
Chemical digestion is initiated in the
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
mouth
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
Why does your mouth suddenly “go dry”
when you are about to deliver a
presentation to a large crowd?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Parasympathetic activity stimulates salivation.
Parasympathetic activity inhibits salivation.
Sympathetic activity stimulates salivation.
Sympathetic activity inhibits salivation.
Why does your mouth suddenly “go dry”
when you are about to deliver a
presentation to a large crowd?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Parasympathetic activity stimulates salivation.
Parasympathetic activity inhibits salivation.
Sympathetic activity stimulates salivation.
Sympathetic activity inhibits salivation.
Most teeth are primarily composed of
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
enamel
pulp
dentin
cementum
Most teeth are primarily composed of
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
enamel
pulp
dentin
cementum
What is a possible side effect of weakening
of the cardiac sphincter?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Acid reflux into the esophagus
Uncontrollable bowel movements
Heart attack
Rapid overfilling of the stomach
What is a possible side effect of weakening
of the cardiac sphincter?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Acid reflux into the esophagus
Uncontrollable bowel movements
Heart attack
Rapid overfilling of the stomach
__________ involves over 22 muscle groups
and includes the buccal phase and the
pharyngeal-esophageal phase.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Mastication
Bolus formation
Deglutition
Peristalsis
__________ involves over 22 muscle groups
and includes the buccal phase and the
pharyngeal-esophageal phase.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Mastication
Bolus formation
Deglutition
Peristalsis
The stomach is able to expand to nearly 100
times its empty volume partly due to
__________ in its walls.
a)
b)
c)
d)
microvilli
rugae
circular folds
haustra
The stomach is able to expand to nearly 100
times its empty volume partly due to
__________ in its walls.
a)
b)
c)
d)
microvilli
rugae
circular folds
haustra
A patient with a low RBC count receives
vitamin B12 injections every 2 weeks. Why?
a)
b)
c)
d)
This patient is training for a triathlon.
This patient is anemic and has low iron.
Parietal cells in this patient’s stomach have ceased
producing intrinsic factor.
This patient’s parietal cells have stopped secreting
HCl.
A patient with a low RBC count receives
vitamin B12 injections every 2 weeks. Why?
a)
b)
c)
d)
This patient is training for a triathlon.
This patient is anemic and has low iron.
Parietal cells in this patient’s stomach have
ceased producing intrinsic factor.
This patient’s parietal cells have stopped secreting
HCl.
Digestion of which of the following might be
inhibited if a patient chronically consumes
an antacid?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Lipid
Carbohydrate
Sugar
Protein
Digestion of which of the following might be
inhibited if a patient chronically consumes
an antacid?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Lipid
Carbohydrate
Sugar
Protein
When your stomach growls in response to
an ad on TV for food, the __________ phase
of gastric secretion is initiated.
a)
b)
c)
d)
cephalic
gastric
intestinal
gastrin
When your stomach growls in response to
an ad on TV for food, the __________ phase
of gastric secretion is initiated.
a)
b)
c)
d)
cephalic
gastric
intestinal
gastrin
Meals high in protein __________ gastrin
secretion from the gastric glands.
a)
b)
c)
d)
increase
decrease
have no effect on
delay
Meals high in protein __________ gastrin
secretion from the gastric glands.
a)
b)
c)
d)
increase
decrease
have no effect on
delay
The __________ cells are responsible for
HCl production.
a)
b)
c)
d)
goblet
mucous
parietal
chief
The __________ cells are responsible for
HCl production.
a)
b)
c)
d)
goblet
mucous
parietal
chief
The alkaline tide uses a(n) __________ in
the basolateral membrane to move
__________ out of the cell and __________
into the parietal cell.
a)
b)
c)
d)
symporter, chloride, bicarbonate
symporter, bicarbonate, chloride
antiporter, chloride, bicarbonate
antiporter, bicarbonate, chloride
The alkaline tide uses a(n) __________ in
the basolateral membrane to move
__________ out of the cell and __________
into the parietal cell.
a)
b)
c)
d)
symporter, chloride, bicarbonate
symporter, bicarbonate, chloride
antiporter, chloride, bicarbonate
antiporter, bicarbonate, chloride
A meal high in fat would __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stimulate rapid gastric emptying
stimulate the intensity of the stomach’s peristaltic
waves
increase gastrin secretion
inhibit gastric emptying
A meal high in fat would __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stimulate rapid gastric emptying
stimulate the intensity of the stomach’s peristaltic
waves
increase gastrin secretion
inhibit gastric emptying
The __________ in the small intestine have a
similar structure and function to the
__________ in the stomach.
a)
b)
c)
d)
gastric pits; intestinal glands
intestinal glands; gastric pits
goblet cells; enteroendocrine cells
brush border; rugae
The __________ in the small intestine have a
similar structure and function to the
__________ in the stomach.
a)
b)
c)
d)
gastric pits; intestinal glands
intestinal glands; gastric pits
goblet cells; enteroendocrine cells
brush border; rugae
In what way is the small intestine well
adapted for nutrient absorption?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Acid secretions from the stomach are neutralized in
the duodenum.
CCK is released from the duodenum to promote
liver and pancreatic secretion.
It has a large surface area due to the presence of
the circular folds, villi, and microvilli.
The small intestine is very long and thin.
In what way is the small intestine well
adapted for nutrient absorption?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Acid secretions from the stomach are neutralized in
the duodenum.
CCK is released from the duodenum to promote
liver and pancreatic secretion.
It has a large surface area due to the presence
of the circular folds, villi, and microvilli.
The small intestine is very long and thin.
Which cells produce CCK in the intestine?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Simple columnar cells
Goblet cells
Intraepithelial lymphocytes
Enteroendocrine cells
Which cells produce CCK in the intestine?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Simple columnar cells
Goblet cells
Intraepithelial lymphocytes
Enteroendocrine cells
__________ macrophages are located in the
liver.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Intraepithelial
Langerhans
Stellate
Hepatocyte
__________ macrophages are located in the
liver.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Intraepithelial
Langerhans
Stellate
Hepatocyte
The gallbladder __________ bile by
__________ water and ions.
a)
b)
c)
d)
concentrates, absorbing
stores, preventing absorption of
dilutes, secreting
modifies, secreting
The gallbladder __________ bile by
__________ water and ions.
a)
b)
c)
d)
concentrates, absorbing
stores, preventing absorption of
dilutes, secreting
modifies, secreting
__________ stimulates the gallbladder to
contract.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Secretin
CCK
Gastrin
Fatty chyme
__________ stimulates the gallbladder to
contract.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Secretin
CCK
Gastrin
Fatty chyme
You would expect blood levels of
__________ to be highest when the pH of
stomach chyme entering the duodenum is
at its lowest.
a)
b)
c)
d)
secretin
CCK
gastrin
H+
You would expect blood levels of
__________ to be highest when the pH of
stomach chyme entering the duodenum is
at its lowest.
a)
b)
c)
d)
secretin
CCK
gastrin
H+
Cirrhosis of the liver would most severely
impact digestion of __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
carbohydrates
amino acids
proteins
lipids
Cirrhosis of the liver would most severely
impact digestion of __________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
carbohydrates
amino acids
proteins
lipids
In terms of gastrointestinal function, the
large intestine’s greatest contribution is
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
exposing the chyme to the rich assortment of
pancreatic enzymes through the process of
segmentation
absorption of all primary nutrients
absorption of water
regulation of gastric motility
In terms of gastrointestinal function, the
large intestine’s greatest contribution is
__________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
exposing the chyme to the rich assortment of
pancreatic enzymes through the process of
segmentation
absorption of all primary nutrients
absorption of water
regulation of gastric motility
Which of the following enzymes breaks
down lipids?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Amylase
Pepsin
Bile
None of the above
Which of the following enzymes breaks
down lipids?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Amylase
Pepsin
Bile
None of the above

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