Politics of Development in Africa

Report
HIGHER MODERN STUDIES
Politics of Development in Africa - Unit outline
This unit can be split into three
1. Conditions in Africa – Health and healthcare issues
Access to education/food/safe water
Links between health and education
2. Economic/Political/Social factors affecting development
3. In what ways have organisations helped in promoting the development
of Africa
• The African Governments
• The African Union
• The European Union
• Non Governmental Organisations
• The UK
• The United Nations
Note – South Africa will not be studied in this unit. Do not use it in examples!
‘Developing World’ is a term used to describe countries
where people have low standards of living because poverty
and hunger are widespread and where civil unrest and war
frequently occur.

 Many developing world countries suffer from hunger and
malnutrition - although not all people in developing
countries are poor.
Where is the Developing World?
Factors used to measure the development of a country
Infant Mortality – Number of babies who die before their
first Birthday
Life expectancy
Primary school enrolment
Adult Literacy levels – Adults who can read and write
GDP – Gross Domestic Product – Money a country makes
per year
Access to safe water
Facts about Africa
•Africa is the second biggest continent in the world.
•It comprises 53 countries covering 20% of the land area
of the world and has 12% of the world population.
•The countries vary in terms of size, population, wealth,
resources.
Group Task
Name as many African countries as you can in 3 minutes
•Virtually all of Africa was colonised by European countries in the
19th century.
•Most of these countries remained colonised until the 1960s when
many became independent
•Since independence many of these countries have been marked
with severe poverty/corrupt and authoritarian governments and
political and economic instability.
•Although not every African country will have all of the features outlined
below, many will have some of them………………..

Low average income per head

Many work on the land

Unemployment is high

Medical care is poor

Large debt burden
Poor
roads and communications
Education poor by Western
standards

Civil war or war with neighbouring
countries common

Country
Infant Mortality
Population
Per 1000 births
Life expectancy
UK
60 m
5
79
Mozambique
19m
104
42
Ethiopia
69m
110
48
Sudan
34m
63
57
Ghana
20m
67
59
Conditions in African Countries
Africa is the poorest continent in the world
70% of its population live on less than $2 a day
10 million children die every day from preventable
diseases
•Acute respiratory infections
•Diarrhoea
•Measles
•Malaria
•Malnutrition
In some countries 1/5 die before their first birthday.
Politics of Development in Africa
Lesson Aims
I will learn
1. Some of the conditions within African
countries
2. Reasons for food shortages.
Food Shortages
According to the Food and Agricultural
Organisation there are more than 850 million
people every day who cannot get enough food to
meet their minimum energy needs.
Sub Sahara Africa has the highest proportion of
under nourished people.
Malnutrition is one of the prime causes of low
birth babies and poor growth.
Malnutrition linked to the main child killers
Measles/Diarrhoea/malaria/pneumonia
How does Malnutrition effect the development of a country?
•Economy
•Loss of productivity
•Adults who have nutritional disorders unable to work
efficiently or at all
•People get sick =less workers=less products to sell
•Education
•Children get sick cannot attend school
•Children are undernourished and are unable to
function/learn properly
Healthcare
Cost of caring for those who are suffering malnutrition
Group Task
Mind map outlining the causes of Food Shortages in
Africa
Corrupt Government
Natural disasters
environment
Role of women
Free Trade
Causes of food shortages
Water scarcity
HIV/Aids
Conflict/war
Disease
Reasons for food shortages
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have predicted
that the world should be able to produce more than enough
food for everyone in the planet so why are there food
shortages?
Conflict
•Crops/footstock/livestock and farm equipment are destroyed
•Displacement of people - People are forced to flee their homes
and move to neighbouring towns/countries
Water Scarcity
•Availability to water and wells is already a problem
for many communities in Africa.
•884 million people worldwide have no access to safe
water. Many of these people live in African
countries.
•It is thought that this problem will increase as
development and population increases.
•Water is need to grow crops
Natural Disasters
Drought – Some countries go years without
rain and cannot grow crops. Somalia and
other countries in the horn of Africa have
suffered severe drought in recent years
Floods – 2007 Ethiopia and Sudan badly hit
Cyclones – In Feb. 2008 145000 people left
homeless after a cyclone hit Madagascar.
Many crops and farms were destroyed
Free Trade
•Many farmers are encouraged to grow cash crops
(cotton/coffee/tea) to sell to the rest of the world.
•Therefore basic food to sell to local people is not grown.
•Basic food is imported from rich countries at costly prices.
Position of women
Women play a crucial role in agriculture
•Certain customs and laws in some African countries exclude women
from the right to own or inherit land.
•In some countries if a woman divorces her husband or if he dies
she is not entitled to the land.
•Women produce most of the food for local consumption (men tend
to produce cash crops).
•In some African communities 80% of food sold at market is
produced by women. However, women are less likely to be educated
and therefore may not use the best farming methods.
•Women are less likely to get loans/grants for improving farming
methods
•Females receive only 5% of all agriculture extension services
Disease and illness
HIV/Aids
One of the biggest problems facing Africa
Approximately 45 million people living with HIV/Aids
Over 70% of adults living with Aids live in African countries
Over 80% of all children with Aids live in African countries
People die young
Workers are lost
Loss of skills and knowledge about farming and agriculture
Less food is produced
Situation of more dependents but less producers of food
Environmental factors
More and more land is being used for growing crops
which is leading to deforestation
Natural water supplies from the soil are taken
away and due to lack of education land is not
maintained properly. This can lead to
desertification (drying up of land and soil).
Corrupt government
Does not distribute food evenly
Poor Farming Methods
Over cropping – planting too much = lots of poor quality
crops
Overgrazing
Poor water management (poor irrigation)
Homework Essay – 02/03/09
“Food shortages in African countries are
mainly due to poor weather conditions.”
Discuss
• Critically examine the reasons for food
shortages in African countries.
Problems with Healthcare
Lesson aims
I will learn
1.What health problems exist in Africa
2.The various reasons for these problems
Healthcare Problems
Health and healthcare are essential features of a
developed country.
Without a healthy workforce, it is not possible for
the economy to function properly.
• Not enough healthy people to work
• Too many ill people draining the resources
• Too many people spending time caring for the sick
Health and Development.
In order for a country to develop it must have a healthy workforce.
UK average life expectancy is 79 years but in Zimbabwe it is as low
as 34 years in some regions (the lowest in the world).
The infant mortality rate in the UK is 5 but in Ethiopia it is 110.
10 million children die every day from preventable diseases
•Acute respiratory infections
•Diarrhoea
•Measles
•Malaria
•Malnutrition
In some countries 1/5 of all children die before their first birthday.
Malaria
Spread through mosquito bites
It is estimated that 1 million children die every year
from Malaria.
Every 30secs an African child dies of Malaria
Approximately 90% of all malaria deaths in are in Africa
WHO malaria
Diarrhoea
Causes dehydration and malnutrition
According to the WHO Diarrhoea accounts for 5% of deaths
worldwide and as much 8.5% in Africa.
Why is ill health such a problem in Africa?
Lack of comprehensive healthcare - little or no free healthcare
800 children die every day because parents cannot pay for medical
treatment
Very few doctors and nurses – In 2004 there were more doctors from
Ghana working in New Jersey and New York than in the whole of Ghana
itself.
Debt – money is spent repaying debt instead of investing in the healthcare
system
Lack of education – Hygiene and cleanliness
Malnutrition
Hygiene and cleanliness
Lack of clean water and sanitation
Dirty water causes diseases like
diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid. Cholera
outbreak in Zimbabwe Aug-Dec 2008.
12, 545 cases of cholera.
In rural areas the only sources of
water are lakes and rivers.
In urban areas the water may be piped
but very little in the way of sanitation.
Sewage is often left untreated and
therefore the water gets polluted.
Only 50% of Africa has access to clean
water and sanitation
Ethiopia - 69% have no toilet
facilities at all. Only 25% have
access to protected clean tap
water.
Water projects
One of the UN ‘s millennium
Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce
by half the number of people who do
have access to clean water.
UN development report 2006 suggested
that it would be 2040 before sub
Sahara Africa reaches the MDG
Lesson Aims
We will learn
1. How aids affects the development
of a country.
2. The educational problems within
many African countries.
Problem of HIV/Aids
•Kills 6000 people every day in Africa
•70% of all adults and 80% of all children living with Aids live
in Africa.
•25 million people are living with the disease
•Half of all those with HIV become infected before they are
25
•In Botswana (worlds 2nd highest incidence of Aids) 37% of the
population are infected and life expectancy is 39 years
•In Zimbabwe 24.6% of the population have HIV/Aids.
•¼ of all those aged 25-40 (working age) are infected
Effects of HIV/Aids
Treatment costs the government money – less money to
spend on other public services
In some countries 50% of all beds are used by AIDS
sufferers
People get sick and cannot work – Poverty – (Majority of
Africans with HIV/Aids are 15-49 years)
Doctors/teachers/nurses/skilled workers are lost
Why is HIV/Aids out of control in Africa?
•Failure of the governments to respond to the problem.
•Weak healthcare system – virus goes undetected and
untreated
•Lack of education – people do not know they have the
disease, how it is spread or how to prevent it.
•Social status of women and culture –
•In many cultures and tribes it is normal for men to have
several wives and mistresses. Women are viewed as inferior
and less important than men.
•It is also common and accepted for men to use prostitutes.
•Less values on fidelity
•sexual promiscuity is common.
•Some religions do not believe in the use of contraception.
What come be done to reduce and prevent HIV/Aids?
Education
Distribution of contraception
Drugs (to protect unborn children being infected)
Anti retroviral drugs (AVRs) – helps prevent HIV turning to Aids
MDG 6 – Combat HIV/Aids/Malaria and other diseases
Some countries have seen an improvement in recent years
Botswana
85% of Aids sufferers now have
AVR drugs.
More nurses and doctors
Uganda –
number living with Aids has dropped from 15% to
under 5%.
Senegal
Less than 2% of the population have Aids
Sex education workers
Preach about fidelity and abstinence
Allow the promotion of contraception
How can healthcare problems be reduced?
Clean water
Education
Low cost treatments, eg vitamins, vaccinations and mosquito nets.
The Commission for Africa states that an extra one million health
workers need to be trained in the next 10 years.
More doctors.
Conditions and pay needs to be improved to attract health workers
and doctors.
Fight against Aids – governments need to take bold steps on cultural
factors and power relationships between men and women
Homework for next Tuesday
Read pages 10 - 12
Education Problems
Lesson Aims
I will learn
1. The importance of Education to the
development of a country
2. The problems that exist in Education in
African countries
Education
Education is seen as a way out of poverty
Education is an important factor in the development of a
country
•Improves food production
•Improves healthcare
•Improves the economy
No education = no doctors/teachers/engineers/
scientists/skilled workers eg electricians.
Nearly half of all Africans cannot read or write.
Education
•
•
•
•
UK primary school enrolment 100%
Somalia primary school enrolment can be as low as 22%
Ethiopia 45 %
Tanzania 82%
Gender imbalances –Females are less likely to be educated –
2 thirds of the worlds 875 million illiterate adults are
women
A good education is regarded as the best way out of poverty.
Primary Schooling
UN - Millennium development Goal 2 - Achieve Universal
Primary Education (by 2015)
At present approximately 40 million children in Africa do
not attend primary school.
Over 50% of all countries in Africa will not meet this
MDG.
Secondary education
Sub Sahara Africa – 20% of children are in secondary
education
In 10 countries it is below 8%
Higher education
Universities lack the
resources only those who
can afford to pay the fees
can go to university.
In Ethiopia only 3% of the
population go on to higher
education.
Urban/Rural Inequalities
Schools tend to be located in urban areas and therefore
children living in the towns have easier access.
Ethiopia – Rural – 20% of the population can read and write
Urban 74% of the population can read and write
Gender imbalance
Two thirds of all illiterate adults in Africa are female.
Reasons why women are less likely to go to school
•Carers
•Housework
•Role in food production
•Collect water
•Arranged marriages
•Early marriages
•In many cultures and tribes women are viewed to be inferior
to men
Improving education especially among women would have a
positive affect on various social and economic problems.
Educated women would be more productive at home and
better paid in the workplace.
Educated women are more likely to remain unmarried for
longer and have fewer children.
When they do have children their children are more
likely to survive and will be better nourished and better
educated.
Every extra year a girl spends at school could reduce
child mortality by 10%
Conditions of African schools
There are not enough schools
Overcrowding (as much as 70 pupils per class)
Lack of resources (textbooks, pens/pencils)
Lack of properly trained teachers eg. In Malawi and
Namibia less than 60% of the teachers have
completed teacher training courses.
The pay and working conditions for teachers is poor
and therefore it is not a desired profession.
HIV/AIDS is likely to claim the lives of 10
per cent of teachers within the coming five
years, and 20 per cent of school-age children
will be AIDS orphans.
A minimum of three million more teachers are
needed in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve the
goal of universal primary education by 2015.
Somalia
Education and formal learning opportunities are
limited.
Quality and access to primary education is very
limited.
Most schools are concentrated in urban areas and
fees usually come from parents and communities.
1,172 schools and 285,574 children enrolled (19%) –
one of the lowest enrolment rates in the world.
Girls - low enrolment and high drop out rate. Only
37% of all pupils in primary schools are girls.
Only 13% of all teachers are female.
Future of Education
The situation is improving, although the MDG of universal
primary education will not be met by 2005.
The number of children in Primary schools is increasing.
Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya have abolished fees and 7m
children started Primary school as a result.
Since 2000 there has been a 90% increase in the number
of children attending primary school (both boys and girls)
Next challenge should be secondary education.
Homework
To what extent does education impact the
development of many countries within Africa
Read pages 5,6 and 7 economic factors affecting
development.
Economic Factors affecting development
Lesson Aims
We will learn
1. What economic
development of
2. What economic
development of
factors can promote the
many African countries?
factors can hinder the
African Countries?
Land ownership and tenure
• Land and natural resources are main source of income
70% of the population earn their livelihood from the land.
Proper management of land could have a positive effect on the
economy.
Often different organisations will claim rights over the same
piece of land and in many cases there are no formal records to
show who holds the rights in certain areas.
When Africa was colonised many European farmers were assigned
pieces of land. However after independence many governments
tried to redistribute the land more evenly.
This has been problematic ……..
•In many countries the land has been redistributed unfairly.
The best pieces of land has often went to friends of
government officials.
• Thousands of white farmers were evicted in Zimbabwe.
There are now less than 300 white farmers in Zimbabwe
compared to 4,500 before the invasions began.
•This has contributed to a catastrophic collapse in the
economy as white farmers left the country taking their skills
with them.
•If land is not distributed properly it can lead to conflict,
however if it is sorted out fairly and land rights are
clearly assigned the this can promote economic
development.
•Farmers will work as a team instead of competing to
produce the same products.
•Therefore, this produces efficient and productive
agricultural practices
Women and Land Ownership.
Women are responsible for 60-80% of agricultural
production so their access to farm land is very important.
However, women are often excluded from land ownership.
Women are often excluded from training programmes and
government grants.
If men and women had equal land rights the this would
also boost the economy.
Debt
Africa owes massive amounts of money to rich
countries. Africa received billions of dollars in
aid from governments, banks and charities,
mostly in Europe and America.
Each year Africa faces $14.5 billion in debt
repayments
This money should have been spent on
development programmes but much of the
money has been lost to corrupt governments and
poor administration.
How Debt Can Cripple A Country

Zambia was once one of Africa’s richest countries.
Now it is poorer than it was in 1975!

It has one of the lowest life expectancy rates in the
world at approximately 40 years. Expected that 50%
of population will eventually die of Aids

In 2004, Zambia spent 7.35% of its GDP to repay
its debt – this is twice what it spent on education.

To meet its debts, Zambia has had to privatise its
public services and take in foreign imports.
ZAMBIA

Because of this, Zambia cannot address its
health, educational and economic needs……..
Loans can be given from country to country eg UK
(Bilateral) or from a group of countries or an organisation
like the IMF (Multi Lateral).
Countries and organisations also impose conditions onto
loans.
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
have been heavily criticised for the conditions on debt.
These conditions can lead to hardships for the countries
involved.
For example, the IMF can insist that education and health
programmes are cut in order to reduce government spending
and keep up debt repayments – In Ghana education and health
are no longer free.
IMF have forced some countries to privatise water supplies.
Which means that water is even less affordable and less
accessible. This has happened in Rwanda.
The IMF can also force many African countries to remove
government subsidies.
In Sudan a condition attached to an IMF loan was the
growing of cotton (cash crop) for export and importing
cheaper American grain for food.
The bottom fell out of the cotton market so there was
not enough money to buy grain to eat.
In 1996 the IMF and the World Bank launched the Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries Initiative to provide debt relief to
developing countries.
However qualifying conditions are hard to achieve and
currently only 24 countries have had their debts cancelled.
The UK has cancelled 100% of the debt owed to it by HIPCs.
Drop the Debt
Worldwide campaign to cancel the debts of poor
countries.
Jubilee 2000
Make poverty History
There has been some successes
Benin – 54% of money previously spent on debt
repayments has went on health and education.
Tanzania – abolished primary school fees.
Uganda 2.2 million gained access to clean water.
Currency and Exchange rates
Decisions about exchange rates can have profound
consequences on African countries.
If the currency of an African country drops then
this means that imports will be more expensive
and exports worth less.
Terms of Trade
African producers do not compete on equal terms in world
markets.
The World Trade Organisation insists on free trade therefore
African governments are not allowed to subsidise farmers or
impose import taxes.
However, The USA and The EU subsidise their farmers and
also have import taxes in order to protect their agricultural
industry.
The EU subsidises its farmers through the
Common Agricultural Policy.
CAP- Policy introduced to protect farmers and
keep consumers with a constant supply of food.
Farmers are given money by the government by
the EU to grow various products.
EU farmers often produce food surpluses which
are sent to African countries. This food
undercuts local producers and puts them out of
business.
Senegal and Ghana – unwanted chicken thighs
and wings from Europe are sold at half the price
– putting local farmers out of business.
Example - Sugar
In Africa it costs £75 to produce a tonne of sugar but in
Europe the cost is around £300.
However, two things work against African sugar
producers
1. The CAP gives £550 million every year to sugar
producers bringing their cost down.
2. The EU applies huge import taxes on imported
African Sugar making it impossible for producers in
Malawi or Mozambique to compete.
World Trade Organisation
• Set up to supervise world trade.
• Supposed to promote free trade by getting
countries to abolish subsidies and tariffs.
• Target set to abolish farm export subsidies
by 2013, however little progress has been
made.
• WTO – criticised from being a club for rich
countries.
Economic factors that affect development
Promoting development
Land ownership – 70% of people
make their money working on the
land – agriculture/natural
resources – good management can
boost economy
Free trade – can sell products all
over the world – cash crops Fair Trade
Hindering development
Distribution of land/corrupt
government/lack of education
Lack of infrastructure eg
roads/bridges
Cash crops
EU Subsidies/CAP/Import taxes
World Trade Organisation –
regulate trading – committed to
free and fair trade
WTO seen as rich countries club –
many countries still continue to use
subsidies and tariffs.
Exchange rates
Aid – Loans
Debt relief
HIPC
Debt (interest) – affects on health and
education
Conditions of debt eg cash crop
Homework
Critically examine the economic factors that
affect development in Africa.
(15 Marks)
Read pages 5 and 6
Complete
Q - 1.2 A-E
Q - 1.3 A-D
Economic factors affecting development
Read pages 7, 8 and 9 – make notes on
Political factors affecting development.
Political factors affecting development in African
Countries
Lesson Aims
I will learn
1. The effects of War on developing countries
2. The effects of Bad governance to developing
countries
Political Factors affecting development
Conflict/Wars
Armed conflict leads to food shortages on a large
scale and destroys economic and social development.
Infrastructure destroyed eg roads/bridges
Workers are killed
Money spent on
arms – not on
health and
education
unemployment
Crops destroyed
Farms/livestock
destroyed
People displaced
Businesses destroyed
War
Africa is a continent more affected by armed conflict than
any other continent.
•Wars between countries
•Civil Wars – Political/tribal/religious reasons
•Unresolved disputes following independence.
Recent examples of Wars
•Sudan
•Rwanda
•Somalia
•Mozambique
•Congo
The scale of the problem of conflict in Africa was identified in
The Commission for Africa Report (2005)
Tony Blair set up The Commission for Africa in 2004.
17 members including Bob Geldof investigated the problems
that were restricting development in Africa.
The report outlined the catastrophic affects of armed
conflict and also detailed the cost of conflict to many African
nations.
Democratic Republic of Congo - $20 Billion
Rwanda after 1990s conflict - $1 billion (damage to property
alone)
Sudan – Background
1955 – 1972 – First Sudanese Civil War – North and South
1983-2005 – Second Sudanese Civil War
2003 – War broke out in Darfur – region in Sudan (roughly
the size of France)
Groups fighting in Sudan
Sudanese government
Janjaweed (supported by the government)
Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM)
Justice for Equality Movement (JEM)
Armed conflict – Sudan – Darfur
2003 – Rebels (Sudanese Liberation Movement) began attacking the
government
Disputes over equality – Arabs treated better than Black Africans.
For many years there has been tension over land and grazing rights.
The Sudanese government began fighting back and are thought to
have organised an Arab emergency army called – Janjaweed.
Janjaweed has been accused various offences against non Arab
Sudanese people.
Stealing property/land
Murder
Torture
Rape
4th March 2009 – The International Criminal Court issued an
arrest warrant for President Omar Al Bashir
Justice and Equality Movement - the most heavily armed and
active of the rebel groups in Darfur - has welcomed the
warrant as a victory for the refugees and the displaced, and a
victory for humanity.
But as a direct result of the indictment,
Khartoum expelled 10 foreign aid
agencies, including Oxfam, Care, Save
the Children UK and Medecins Sans
Frontieres from Darfur, who between
them supply food and water to some 1.5
million people.
Affects of Armed conflict in Sudan
• At least 10 000 people have been killed according to
president Bashir – Thought to be more like 300 000
• 2 million people have fled their homes – These people have
been uprooted from their homes and work – destroyed
any chance of being self sufficient.
• 200 000 people have escaped to Chad
Aid has been disrupted because it is too dangerous for aid
workers to come into the country.
Government blocked food supplies in areas where rebels
were living.
At present aid of NGOs has been blocked in Darfur as a
result of the indictment against the president
Millions of dollars was spent on the military which meant
that public services were neglected.
Children are forced to become soldiers.
Infrastructure destroyed.
Task
• Read page 8 and create a fact file outlining
the results of armed conflict using examples
Bad governance/Kleptocracy
• Kleptocracy/Corrupt Government – When a dictator or a
group use their power to benefit themselves.
• Those who support the dictator or the regime are rewarded
while those who do not are punished.
• The Commission for Africa identified bad governance as a
key issue explaining the lack of development in Many African
countries.
• The government and the police cannot be trusted
• Taxes are not collected efficiently
• Widespread corruption – Government officials have lavish
standards of living while ordinary people are living in absolute
poverty.
• Human rights are abused.
• Legal system is not independent.
Zimbabwe
Robert Mugabe is known throughout the world for his
authoritarian and corrupt regime.
Vote rigging
Racism
Violation of human rights
Beatings/torture and murder are common
Restricted press
Freud – using government and aid money wrongly
ZIMBABWE
Deception
Foreign journalists are banned
Task
Read page 9 and write notes about
corruption in Zimbabwe and the effects of
the bad governance.
Economic problems – Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe was once the economic leader in Africa but as a
consequence of mismanagement the country has experienced
economic disasters.
Exchange rate has fallen
Inflation has risen – 2005 it was 80%
2004 unemployment rate was 80%
Income per head is lower now than it was in 1980
Land distribution policies – White farmers evicted – crippling
the agricultural industry.
Tourism has collapsed
Social problems – Zimbabwe
200 00 homes destroyed – people homeless
Since 2000 Zimbabwe unable to feed itself – 50% of
population need emergency food aid.
However in May 2004 Mugabe refused food aid stating that
Zimbabwe had enough food.
Life expectancy in low
70% of people live in poverty.
Rate of HIV infection – 25% of the population
Primary school completion rates are down
Poor sanitation and water supplies – 2008 Cholera outbreak
What must happen in order for countries to
overcome political problems?
•Fair and free elections
•Independent legal system
•Trials for those who have been involved in
corruption
Homework –
Read pages 8 and 9 Open leaning pack and
answer questions – war in the DRC
Questions in sections
1.4 and 1.5
Lesson Aims
I will learn
1. The role of the African Union in promoting
development in Africa.
2. The role of the United Nations.
Homework- Friday 27/03/09
To what extent is conflict a factor in preventing
development.
(15 marks)
•Effects of war and conflict – how it hinders
development
•Examples of recent conflict
•However, conflict is not the only factor
•Health, education, economic factors, corrupt
government.
The role African governments in
promoting/hindering development.
African governments criticised for poor governance.
Independence after colonial rule left many countries
unprepared for government. This resulted in either one group
taking control or the army exerting their power.
Military regimes
•One party dictatorships
Uganda
Zimbabwe
Sudan
Since 1954 15 presidents have been assassinated and there
has been approximately 186 military coups.
Most African governments have experienced problems
creating and implementing policies concerned with economic
growth.
Some governments have spent more money on weapons than
on public health.
The African Union reported that $148 billion per year is
taken away from government accounts into personal
accounts of government officials.
International companies
have also been involved in
corruption.
Shell has admitted paying
money to the military in
Nigeria and resultantly 29
members of staff were
dismissed for corruption
Uganda – Successful initiative
Set out a Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP)
Policies include
•Increased private investment
•Modernisation and investment of agriculture
•Expansion of exports
•Checks on civil servants to minimise corruption
•Improving transport networks
•Improving banking services
Uganda’s reforms have resulted in economic growth in
recent years.
However critics say that there is still corruption and that the
economy still needs to improve in order to meet the MDGs
The African Union
Founded in 2002 – 53 members
Aims
•Secure democracy
•Promote human rights
•Promote economic growth
•Create a common market
•Bring an end to intra African conflict
•Work with international organisations to tackle social and
economic problems
Challenges?
Health – particularly Aids and malaria
Political issues – undemocratic governments/civil wars
Economic issues – debt/poverty/lack of skills/education
Ecological issues – famine/desertification of land
The African Union – Dealing with conflict
The AU’s first military intervention – May 2003
Peacekeeping forces from South Africa/Mozambique and
Ethiopia were sent to Burundi to oversee the various
agreements after the war.
7000 AU troop also sent to Darfur for peacekeeping.
However, this is not enough for an area the size of
Darfur. Virtually impossible to keep the peace.
Successes?
Still there has been some successes eg less children
being abducted/help given to refugees/reduced conflict.
Some people have been able to return to their villages
safely
African Union – Dealing with democracy
The AU has only existed for a few years so it is hard to
assess effectiveness.
It aims to promote participation and good governance.
Can investigate governments that fail to meet certain
standards
Can intervene where genocide and war crimes are
reported.
Case Study Zimbabwe
The AU is heavily criticised for not dealing with the
regime in Zimbabwe.
Despite international outrage about vote rigging in the
2002 election – AU observers approved the result.
There is a common view held within the AU that the
USA and EU should not be allowed to dictate to
Zimbabwe.
July 2002 – AU decided not to make public a report on
Human Rights by the AU commission that was highly
critical of Zimbabwe
AU – Dealing the economic and social development
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)
Framework for development needs – Main objectives
include:
•Eradicate poverty
•Ensure Africa plays a full part in the global economy
•Accelerate the empowerment of women.
However, it is difficult to assess effectiveness in such a
short period of time.
Problems with funding and implementing policies
The African Union
Successes
Dealing with conflict
•Burundi
•Sudan
Democracy
Setting example by
encouraging democracy
Has powers to investigate
countries that fail to meet
standards eg Zimbabwe –
observers were sent in
Social/Economic
Development - NEPAD
Criticisms
Finance – cannot afford
troops/equipment – Darfur not as
successful as it should have been
AU seen as a dictators club – many
members are involved in
authoritarian regimes
Poor leadership
AU – reluctance to get involved in
Zimbabwe – endorsed 2002
election results
Hard to assess – will take a long
time – Lack of funding and
expertise makes it difficult.
The United Nations
• Lesson Aims
1. How has the United Nations assisted
African countries?
2. Some of the criticisms/limitations of the
UN
Aid
Multi lateral
Bilateral
Non Governmental Aid
Military aid
Food Aid
Emergency
aid
Expertise
Equipment
Military aid
Financial
Tied Aid
Aid given with strings attached eg
conditions that the recipients purchase
goods and services from the donor country.
Problems with tied aid
Developing countries are forced to buy products
that they do not need.
Local businesses lose out because products are
being imported from other countries
Approximately 75% of Canada’s aid is tied
2001 – UK untied all of its aid
In 2000 the UN adopted eight Millennium
Development Goals to be achieved by the year
2015.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Achieve universal primary education
Promote gender equality and empower women
Reduce child mortality
Improve maternal health
Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases.
Ensure environmental sustainability
Develop a global partnership for development
The United Nations
One of the Main aims of The UN is to promote
social and economic development.
Specialised agencies
In groups of three you are going to put together
a presentation about one of the UN specialised
agencies.
FAO – page 25
UNICEF – page 23 and 24
WFP – pages 27 and 28
You must include
•The Aims of the organisation
•MDG the agency is cornered with
•Case studies
•Successes
•Failures
Time 20mins
•Training doctors, nurses,
midwives and health visitors
Develops local
health clinics
immunisation
campaigns to wipe out
killer diseases like TB,
Whooping cough etc
Helping governments
to set up health
services
How does the WHO help people in
developing countries
Aims to raise
life expectancy
Improve clean
water supplies
Aims to reduce
infant mortality
Works to combat aids
•Organising
emergency relief for
children after a
disaster
Education programmes to
increase the number of
children receiving a basic
education
Helps to build
schools
How does UNICEF help to meet the needs of
people in developing countries?
Works with the
WHO to set up
medical
facilities
•Organises projects
to help mothers and
children eg.
Breastfeeding
campaigns
Provides
textbooks, pencils,
paper to schools
UNICEF in Ethiopia
•Food has been distributed to
drought affected areas. Fifty
feeding stations have been set
up to give nutrition to children
who do not get enough to eat.
•A training programme has been
set up to teach health workers
how to deal with children who
are malnourished.
•Vaccination programme against
meningitis, measles and polio.
•Water sanitation
projects have reduced
the number of children
becoming sick
UNICEF in Sudan
Working to increase safe drinking
water. Water pumps have been
repaired and wells are being dug.
Helping children to receive an
education by building schools and
providing resources textbooks,
pencils, boards, notebooks etc.
Mosquito nets have been provided to
protect children from Mosquitoes
which carry malaria
UNICEF in Mozambique
Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in
the world
•UNICEF works with Aids orphans and try to
save them from abuse and exploitation
•They are currently trying to ensure that all
children between the ages of 6 and 12 receive a
basic education.
•Health programme focuses on reducing infant
deaths and introducing major vaccination
programmes to protect children from measles,
tetanus and polio.
WHO malaria
WHO and UNICEF malaria campaign
David Beckham
Unicef and health
Unicef and aids
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
•Aims to half the number of people living with hunger by 2015 –
currently over 800 million
•Helps governments to train people to improve the quality of crops –
Thousands of farmers have been trained through the Farmer Field
school
•Some schemes involve using appropriate fertilisers and pesticides
•Advises people about best fishing and farming methods – for
example what crops to grow and how to make the best of their land.
•Tries to teach people how to improve water supply as water is
essential for farming
•Progress has been slow and the goal will not be met by 2015
UNESCO – United Nations Education,
Scientific and cultural Organisations
Developing education systems
UNESCO has been involved in projects to introduce
compulsory schooling.
Sends teachers and lecturers to help improve teaching and
learning
Also promotes science and arts projects as well as literacy
The World Food Programme
Aims to combat hunger in Africa
Helps people who may have been involved in a crisis such as flood,
drought or natural disaster.
Worlds largest provider of free school meals
free school meals result in higher school enrolment and attendance
If children are fed then they are likely to learn more
In many African countries the WFP has been working to increase
the number of girls receiving an education – The scheme involves
giving free food to the parents of girls enrolled in schools.
In Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, the WFP has put in place feeding
programmes for war and Aids orphans
Criticisms of the United Nations
Excellent track record, however it is argued that more could
be done.
Finance
UN and all its agencies spend $10 billion each year, this works
out at $1.70 for each of the worlds inhabitants and a tiny
fraction of what governments spend on military budgets.
WFP estimated they need £78m to do their job properly – to
date it has only received £28
UN has been forced to cut back spending over the last 10
years due to a financial crisis.
Member states are not paying their contributions eg The USA
currently owes $1.5 billion to the UN.
Bureaucratic
The UN can be overly bureaucratic in its decision making – too
many rules and regulations. Too much paperwork – too slow.
UN criticised for being too slow to act in Ethiopia and Sudan
where millions were facing famine.
2004 – FAO wanted £9m to spray locust larvae in the Sahel in
the Sahara
The money did not come larvae became locusts – crops
destroyed – FAO needed £100m to repair damage
Areas for improvement
The UN will not meet the MDGs by 2015?
Poverty and Hunger? – over 800 million go hungry everyday
Education – 40 million children still do not attend school
therefore universal primary education will not be met until
2040.
Equality – still gender imbalances eg Somalia only 37% of
pupils in schools are girls. Women still do not have land
rights in many countries.
HIV/Aids – 70% (80% children) of all Aids sufferers live in
Africa, thousands still being infected every day. Zimbabwe
approx ¼ of population living with the disease
Only Africans can bring change to Africa
Corruption
Dictatorship
War
These problems must be addressed
MDG are achievable but it is a two way street
Homework – 05-05-09
Assess the effectiveness of one UN agency in
responding to problems in African Countries.
(15 marks)
Areas to include
•Aim of your chosen agency – mention MDGs
associated with your agency
•Examples of successes in specific African
countries
•Areas for development/criticisms eg Funding/too
slow
•Have the MDGs been met?
Multi Lateral Aid – The European Union
Aid is given through the European Development Fund
and
European Commission for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO)
March 2009 – allocated 247million Euro to 12 African
Countries including, Sudan (110 million) Tanzania,
Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad
Cotonou Agreement was signed in 2000
Agreement between EU countries and 70 African,
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries.
20 year programme working to improve conditions in ACP
countries.
The EU aims to help countries
•Balance their economies
•Improve social services
•Integrate into the global economy – Free Trade
•Promote equality between men and women
•Improve democracy
The EU can impose sanctions on countries that abuse
human rights
Criticisms of The Cotonou Agreement and EU Aid
Free trade can damage the economies of many
African countries
Free trade means that import and export taxes are
taken away.
African countries will be flooded with EU goods and
local businesses will lose out.
The EU in Eritrea
•Rehabilitation programmes to improve infrastructure
after the war
•Road and transport maintenance
•Supporting education sector
•Reintegrate soldiers into society
•Improve food security
Conditions attached to this aid
•Free and fair elections
•Free political prisoners
Failure to meet these conditions would result in aid
being withheld
The EU in Ethiopia
Assisting government with economic policies
Transport – Roads/Bridges/Railways
Energy – Hydroelectric power plant
Lesson Aims
I will learn
1. How the DFID promotes development of
African Countries
2. Criticisms of the DFID
Department for International
Development (DFID)
Managed by the British government
Douglas Alexander – Secretary of state for
international development.
DFID – Aims to help achieve the MDGs and
eliminate world poverty
DFID works Bilaterally and also in partnership with other
governments, the UN, The EU, The World Bank and NGOs
Read Case studies on pages 19-21 and make
notes on the work if the DFID
Kenya
DFID aims to improve maternal and newborn health
services through
•training of health workers
•provision of essential medical equipment
•raising the profile of those services in the community
•DFID has spent £7.2 Million
•deliveries by skilled attendants has increased from
approximately 18% to 23% in the target districts.
•93 health workers have been trained in emergency
obstetric and neonatal care
DFID in Ghana
Working with the Government in Ghana to
improve business growth in the pineapple
industry.
Increased export from 2000 tonnes in the
1980s pineapples to 50, 000 tonnes in 2005
Has spent $215, 000 on a project to reduce
malaria in expectant mothers
Eg vouchers given with a discount up to 50%
($4 per net)
Two thirds of women bought a net but many
still cannot afford them.
Criticisms of the DFID
Signed up to an agreement to allocate 0.7% of GNI to aid
but 2004 the figure was 0.4%.
Same year countries such as Norway and Netherlands gave
over 0.8% of GNI. – (see page 19 textbook for details)
Therefore Britain could and should be giving more.
Tied aid – Britain has dropped all tied aid, however, there
are concerns that British interests are linked to projects.
Concerns that former colonies are given preference when it
comes to deciding who should receive aid.
Lesson Aims
I will learn
1. How NGOs help promote development of
African countries
2. Criticism/failures of NGOs
Non Governmental Organisations
•Non Profit
•Non Political
•Non violent
•Voluntary
•Free from government control – although have a great deal of
contact with governments
NGOs are run by volunteers and ordinary members of the
public (although some people do get paid).
NGOs often work in partnership with African
governments/Rich countries eg UK government and
International bodies (EU and UN).
NGOs will often deliver food organised by EU and UN
Where do NGOs get money?
•Fund raising events
•Donations
In some cases NGOs are funded by the government –
DFID and the EU are involved in funding Oxfam projects
all over the world
Types of NGOs
General groups that help with all aspects of
development – Oxfam
Specific groups – help one group eg Save the Children
or help with a specific issue eg Wateraid
Successes/Advantages of NGOs
Many success stories
Bring expertise and experience
Have helped millions of people by providing
•Short term and long term aid
•Emergency relief
•Teachers/doctors/nurses
•Schools
•Hospitals
•Training programmes
For example Oxfam is currently helping 1
million people in Zimbabwe who are at
risk of Cholera and food shortages.
•Repairing water sources
•Providing soap, disinfectant
•Hygiene promotion programmes
•In Sudan Oxfam is working to assist
thousands of displaced people – provides
clean water, clothes, blankets etc
Currently working in 21 African Countries
Money is not given to the government instead money is given
to local groups
Over £30 million a year is given to projects
In Uganda Christian Aid is working to rehabilitate child
soldiers and promote reconciliation between ethnic groups in
order to avoid conflict.
Has assisted 58 000 Ethiopians get clean water
Provides food rations for children in Sudan as well as
shelters, mosquito nets, blankets and farming equipment
Have programmes in 11 African countries
Aims to improve quality of life through lasting
improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene education.
In Ethiopia Water Aid has helped over 820, 000 people
gain access to clean water
Tanzania
Worked with other agencies to persuade the government to
abolish primary school fees.
There are now 500,000 more children in schools across
Tanzania
•NGOs will often work in dangerous conditions where
international organisations will not enter eg Christian Aid in
Darfur – Some governments have had to pull workers out of
these areas because of the dangers
Since 2004 Christian Aid has supported over half a million
people affected by the conflict in Darfur.
•NGOs have been successful in persuading governments
across the world to assist African countries.
For example
Drop the Debt and Make Poverty History have acted as a
pressure group to persuade governments to write off some
of the debt owed by African countries
Britain eventually dropped the debt of the poorest
countries in Africa.
•NGOs will train and employ local people
Disadvantages/Criticisms
NGOs often act as a business – employ workers and compete
for funding from the public. (BINGOs)
Too much money is spent on administration and therefore
promises are often not delivered
NGOs often lack the experience and expertise of
government and international agencies like the UN.
NGOs can cause problems when they do not consult
governments – can start a project but are unable to see it
through
NGOs can prolong conflict by feeding rebel groups and
soldiers – by stepping in to assist corrupt states some NGOs
are thought to be legitimising the actions of the government
•NGOs are not free completely from government control –
25% of Oxfam's budget comes from the British
government and the EU.
•Medecins San Frontiers – approximately 46% of budget
comes from government sources.
•NGOs act as agents or contractors for the UN or
Western governments in the distribution of relief – most
of the humanitarian assistance provided by the World
Food Programme is distributed through NGOs (this is
often a more efficient/cheaper/less dangerous way for
donor countries to operate this way)
NGOs can cause conflict in many cultures by
lobbying for western values eg
feminism/contraception/fidelity
NGOs are unelected and therefore are
unaccountable – only held responsible to
themselves.
NGOs are also criticised for creating a culture
of dependency in many Africa Countries.
Moeletsi Mbeki a famous South African
economist suggested to Bob Geldof after Live 8
that the core problem in many African countries
is bad governance. Only when this is tackled can
aid make a difference.
NGOs are working alongside corrupt governments
therefore it is not making any real difference.
Almost 1 trillion dollars has been given in aid since the
1960s. However, improvement has been slow. Some
countries have declined in terms of development eg
Zimbabwe.
In order for aid to work it has to work alongside effective
and good governments.
South Africa and Botswana have well run governments and
need very little aid.
It is thought that countries get dependent on Aid eg
Mozambique.
Only Africans can bring change to Africa.
How effective are NGOs?
Advantages
Non profit, voluntary and free
from government control – money
from donations
Disadvantages
Often act act like a business –
BINGOs. Compete for funding from
the public – need to pay some workers
– not all money donated goes directly
towards aid projects
Can act as a pressure group –
Unelected and unaccountable – NGOs
influence government decisions – eg can have their own agenda and are
Make Poverty History
answerable only to themselves
Go to places where governments or Limitations to the work that can be
organisations like the UN cannot or done – limited numbers and resources
will not go – eg Darfur
– Lack expertise and experience of
agencies like the UN
NGOs are often first to respond to
disasters or emergencies – do not Long term commitment may be
have to go through the same long
problematic due to lack of funds – can
procedures that the UN or
start a project but unable to follow it
governments have to
through
Advantages
Disadvantages
Helped in the fight for free primary
education eg Tanzania
Helped fight for empowerment of
women and equality
NGOs have been accused of
causing conflict by lobbying and
promoting western values –
feminism/contraception/fidelity
Whereas aid workers should always
respect culture and custom
NGOs often work in partnership with
African governments/Rich countries
eg UK government and International
bodies (EU and UN).
NGOs will often deliver food
organised by EU and UN
When working for governments
NGOs must follow their rules and
regulations
Aid is delivered to people regardless
of political or religious views
NGOs have been accused of
causing and prolonging conflict by
feeding rebel groups and armies
Advantages
Disadvantages
Have helped save thousands of
lives through distribution of
healthcare, food and clean
water. Examples Uganda,
Ethiopia, Rwanda, Mozambique
etc
Created a dependency culture –
Moeletsi Mbeki – main problem is
corrupt government
1 trillion dollars given in aid
since 1960s – only limited
improvement
Helped support the Edna Adan
Maternity hospital (Somaliland)–
offering healthcare and training
Africa needs to learn to do
things for itself
Homework question –
Examine the effectiveness of Non Governmental
Organisations (NGOs) in responding to problems in
Africa.
You should provide arguments to show that NGOs
are successful and also outline any criticisms or
limitations of NGOs – use examples where possible
Tasks
Read pages 32 to 36
Open learning pack questions 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9

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