Document

Report
Policy design and implementation in
developing countries
Local Government Development
Planning
Ramadhani Amiri Hangwa
MED10727
Ministry of Regional Administration and Local
Government
22/07/2011
1
Levels Policy making process
• There are two main levels of policy making
in
Tanzania,
national
and
local
government level.
• The main focus here is the policy making
process at LGAs by explain how lower
level of local government(LLG) come with
village and Ward Development plans(VDP
and WDP) using process of opportunities
and obstacles to development(O&OD) as a
part
of
local
government
reform
program(LGRP).
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Overview of Local government
• After independence in 1961 Tanzania declared war
against illiteracy, diseases and poverty.People were
encouraged to work hard and in self-help projects.
• First president Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, came with
slogan by saying “It can be done, play your part". The
catchword “Independence and work” was used to
steer the people into action.
• In 1972 Local Government Authority(LGA) formed by
German in 1901 were abolished. Then LGAs were reestablished by Act No.7 – 10 of 1982 in accordance
with the constitution of the URT of 1977 under articles
No.145 and 146.
• Village councils, township authorities and district
councils were established as LGAs in rural areas; and
municipal and city councils as LGAs in urban areas,
became operational in 1984.
• To date there are about 12,000 villages,146 local
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councils and31 Regions
Motivation for Policy making at LGAs
• It’s a constitutional (1977)requirement articles
No.145 and 146 supported by LGA Act(1982) and
Regional Administration Act (1997) which allow the
establishment of LGAs to facilitate transfer of
authority to the people through decentralization by
devolution(D by D).
• Opportunities and Obstacles to Development(O&OD)
is a ‘vehicle’ for people to participate in
development planning at LGAs which started in 2002.
• Why?-O&OD restore the spirit of self reliance, local
resource mobilization, transparency and
accountability whereby communities participate in
planning, decision making, implementation and
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ownership of their development initiatives.
Motivation……….
The existing GAP
Region
Existing planning
system(MTEF)
Nation
District
LLG Ward
&Villages
Guideline and Vision
Priorities
Gap
filled by
O&OD
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Opportunities and Obstacles to
development(O&OD)
• Opportunities: refers to resources available within
or outside the community which can be used by
that community e.g. availability of health facilities,
arable lands, forests reserve for timber
• Obstacles: These can be defined as hindrances to
utilization of existing opportunities e.g. outdated
traditional beliefs, lack of working capital.
ideological differences, lack of qualified personnel
or technology
• O&OD - intensive consultative planning process
that uses participatory tools to come up with
VDP,WDP and DDP focusing TDV 2025.
• Key players are local community at all ages, civil
society,religion,council staffs,central government, 6
JICA,Local government training Institute(LGTI).
The O&OD planning process
The O&OD process has 9 steps as follows:
1.Community entry protocol - prior notice to the leadership
in various levels (district, ward, and village leaders
,influential persons and community )for understanding the
importance of the exercise for fully participation. Expect
community adoption behavior (early adapters 12.5%readily accept changes ,followers 75% -majority and
Laggards 12.5%-want slow changes /lack clear vision
2.An Extra Ordinary Village/Ward Assembly to launch
the planning process.Special day for the facilitators to
meet with villagers. Explain to the community the purpose
of the exercise number of participants, timetable and
logistical issues.
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Steps in O&OD
community will ask questions for further clarifications .Form
FG based on hamlet/”Mitaa”, gender and age, Select 6-10
resources person who are familiar with village and its
community, Select village/ward map drawers, Set criteria for
household wealth ranking.
3. Vision 2025 and data Collection -will be collected in
numbers, charts, drawings for the purpose of preparing the
community participatory plans e.g. land use, crops,
topography, rivers, institutions, soils, and forests. The tools
for collecting this data is village map and the transect walk
(TW).
• TW - spatial information obtained through direct observation
while walking across the village. While walking, the
facilitators and community members should note, and record
field conditions, objects, processes (such as environmental
degradation) and their relationships (such as allocation8 of
Steps in O&OD
• Data collection…..Time related data e.g Village
historical time lines(seasonal calendar).
Socio-Economic Data institutional analysis, revenue
and expenditure, household wealth ranking, daily
gender activities calendar, gender resource map.
4. Setting priorities using specific objectives
• Prioritizing by voting is easy to understand and is commonly
used. Number of votes casted for every specific objective
should be recorded. Participants are allowed to vote more
than once for different objectives.
• Prioritizing by preference - voting done by focus groups.
most important specific objective is awarded five points and
the least important is awarded one point
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Steps in O&OD…
• Prioritizing by pair wise matrix-The village council
undertakes the exercise by comparing and contrasting
the different specific objectives is done between one
option and others. The option that has received the most
votes is entered in the spaces in the table.
5.Sources of Revenue and Expenditure – Identification of
internal/external sources of revenue in a community and
budgeting.The exercise is done by focus group. It helps
the community to know their sources of revenue and
brings about transparency.
The more the sources of revenue, the more the village
can meet its development activities
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Village Source of Revenue and Expenditure
Sources of Income
Expenditure
1. Own source
Development levy
Fines
Local beer fees
Sand fee
Sub Total
1. Administration
- Costs for village meetings 100,000
- WDC
200,000
- Transport and Travelling
500,000
- Stationery
200,000
- Village Hospitality
600,000
-Uhuru touch
500,000
Subtotal
2,100,000
2. Development
-Building classroom x
&1 teacher house
2,500,000
(D/Council contr.2,000,000;
V/council 500,000/)
-Dispensary –
3,600,000
(TASAF 3,000,000 x
& V/council 600,000/=)
- Maize production
100,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
800,000
2,500,000
5,500,000
2. External source (committed)
District support to 2 classrooms
TASAF
Sub Total
3. None cash income
Labour
Grand Total
1,000,000
2,000,000
3,000,000
1,100,000
9,600,000
Grand Total
9,600,000
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Steps in O&OD
6.Extra ordinary Village Council Meeting to
prepare a draft Participatory Plan.Receives
Draft plans prepared by the executive officer in
consultation with the focus groups. The meeting
prepares the development plan and sets priorities
of the entire plan.
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Draft of Community Participatory Plan
Village___Ward_______District____________Region________________
_
Target: High quality livelihood
Goal: Food self- sufficiency and food security
Specific Oppo Obsta
objectiv rtunit cle
e
y
T=Total
Int=internal
Cau
se
inter Ste Inp
vent ps
uts
ion of
imp
lem
ent
atio
n
pri
ori
ty
indi
cat
ors
cost
T int
ext
Ext=external
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Draft of Community Participatory Plan…..
• After priorities then preparation of a three-year
development plan follow. Starting with the first
priority, the community should analyze the first
year plan and consider:
• Programs which are being implemented by the
village council. Programs which can be financed
by village councils in collaboration with LGAs and
one that require immediate implementation .
• The three-year development plan is the one
which the executive officer will present to the
ward development committee(WDC) or the
village assembly for approval
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The three year community plan
Objective: Universal Access to safe Water
Priority
Specifi
c
objectiv
es
Steps
First year
for
implem
entation
What
village
can do
What
village
can not
do
Second year
Third year
What
village
can do
What
village
can do
What
village
can not
do
What
village
can not
do
Ward development committee(WDC)
The committee will receive the three year development plans for
all villages and give advice where required and specify those
programs which are to be collectively implemented.
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Steps in O&OD
7.Extra - ordinary village assembly/special
meeting of the ward development committee
meeting-Meeting for villagers to receive, deliberate
and pass the three-year development plan. They will
take into account their ability to procure resources
within or externally, time frame, expertise and other
village responsibilities. The plan that the village
adopts becomes the final village plan.
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Steps in O&OD
8.Monitoring and Evaluation in Local Authorities Three
levels:
• Village: Standing committees meets monthly, Village council
meets monthly ,Village assembly committee meets
quarterly.
• Ward: Ward Development Committee meets quarterly.
• District: District Management Team meets monthly.
Standing Committee meets quarterly, Full Council meets
quarterly
9.Preparation of comprehensive District O&OD Plan
• Preparation of the District participatory plan based on
opportunities and obstacles will follow the procedure
contained in the planning and management guide (PMG).
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• • Baseline data and • Key indicators
Public
Council level
CSO
Full Council
Finance Committee
District Executive Director
(CMT)
Educa,Health,
Water e.t.c
(sectors)
Planning,Satistics and M&E
Department
Other deparments
Agri,NR,(sectors)
DDP
Ward level
CSO
WDC(WEO)
Village level
VEO
VEO
WDP
VEO
VEO -village executive officer, WEO-Ward executive officer, CMT-council
management team
VDP
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O&OD,TDV,MTEF,SP and NSGRP
TDV2025
NSGRP=National
strategy for growth
and reduction of
poverty
NSGRP/MKUKUTA
O&OD
Council
Strategic plan
MTEF
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• Advantages:
• Increase in Ward community secondary schools from
1,291(2004) to 4,102(2009)
• People are able to manage some projects at their locality
• Limitations
• Central government intervention
• Failure to review community plans hence it mya lead to
disappointment.
• Some people say -Time consuming
• Failed to analyses important institutions in a
community(JICA,2009),now improved by adding
Participatory social local development(PLSD)(20092013)
• Biased towards education sector.
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Thank you
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