TACROM INTRODUCTION Gravel-Packs

Report
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Company Structure
Parent Company: C.A.T. GmbH
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Company Presentation
 June 2006-Tacrom Services was established in
Romania
 Oct 2006-first frac campaign in Moinesti area
(10 wells)
 Since then we performed 160 fracs on-shore
and off-shore of Romania, Azerbaijan and
Bulgaria
 March 2008-we started to provide coil tubing
and nitrogen service (more than 100 jobs in
Romania)
 June 2008-gravel-pack service was provided
(more than 45 jobs in Romania)
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Services Provided
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Hydraulic Fracs
Acid Fracs
Frac-Packs
Acidizing
Gravel-Packs
Coil Tubing & Nitrogen Service
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Hydraulic Fracs
 The objective of hydraulic fracturing is to
increase well productivity by creating a
highly conductive flow path some distance
away from the well bore
 Using this technology we can increase
production rates as well as overall
recoverable hydrocarbons.
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Hydraulic Fracs
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Acid Fracs
 Much of the theory of hydraulic (proppant)
fracturing is applicable to acid fracturing
especially regarding fracture initiation and
propagation. Leak-off and fracture
conductivity are however fundamentally
different
 Acids create enhanced productivity by
dissolving acid-soluble rocks, such as
carbonates. The acid etches (dissolves) the
walls of the fracture. Alternatively, the acid
leaks off into the formation (accelerated by
wormhole formation)
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Acid Fracs
 The most common acid system is
hydrochloric acid and this reacts effectively
with above mentioned rocks
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Frac-Packs
 Frac-Packs are a combination of a hydraulic
fracturing and a gravel pack
 This type of treatment is suitable for medium
permeability unconsolidated formations
 Is reducing to 0 formation sand flow and is
creating a hi-permeability path for
hydrocarbons
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Acidizing
 Apart from acid fracturing jobs, there are also two
categories of acid treatment:
- acid washing
- matrix acidizing
 In acid washing, the objective is simply tubular and
wellbore cleaning. Treatment of the formation is not
intended.
 For matrix acidizing, acids are used to create
enhanced productivity when the acid reacts with the
soluble substances in the formation matrix to enlarge
the pore spaces.
 Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is occasionally used in
sandstones for the removal of fines or clay minerals.
It is never used in carbonate reservoirs as it
produces an insoluble precipitate (calcium fluoride)
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Gravel-Packs
 Gravel-packs are sand control
operations applicable to
unconsolidated hydrocarbons
reservoirs in terms of reducing
dramatically the sand flow, this way
extending the work over intervals and
life for bottomhole equipment
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Well Candidate Evaluation
Hydraulic fracturing is generally applicable in
reservoirs with low permeabilities (< 10 mD)
FracPacks (Sand Control) in moderately permeable
reservoirs
 Well selection involves finding candidates that will
benifit from increasing payzone conductivity
All treatments require reservoir pressure for the drive
mechanism
The history of stimulation operations should be taken
into consideration
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Well Candidate Evaluation
 The fracture must not propagate in water-saturated
zones
 Wells with high skin factor
 Wellbore integrity
 Possibility of equipment emplacement at the wellsite
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Fracture Summary
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Statistics of Increased Production
M-710 Oil Production
Post Frac Oil Rate
Prefrac Oil Rate
Post Frac Cumulative Oil
50
Prefrac Cumulative Oil
2500
40
2000
35
30
1500
25
20
1000
15
10
500
5
0
0
50
100
Cumulative Days
150
0
200
Cumulative Oil (m³)
Oil Production Rate (m³/day)
45
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Operational Overview
 All of the services provided by Tacrom
Services are done in a professional manner
 Production gained after stimulation
average 2 to 4 times more.
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Fracturing Equipment
10 m3/min Blender. Fully process controled
Hydration Unit. On the fly mixing of polymer
2,250 HHP Pumptrucks.
State of the Art Data Acquisition Truck
Sandtruck - proppant handling
Efficient Rig Up/Down
Heating and filtering of frac fluid
Purpose built, stackable frac tanks
Providing underbalanced well cleanout after
the frac
TACROM INTRODUCTION
10 m3/min BLENDER
TACROM INTRODUCTION
10 m3/min BLENDER
 Truck mounted hydraulically driven mixing
and blending unit
 Fully computerized on the fly mixing
capability
2 each sand screws up to 6,0 tons / min
2 each dry additive feeders
2 each liquid additive feeders
 450 HP available from truck engine
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Hydration Unit
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Hydration Unit
 Mixing Unit for linear gel preparation
 Hydraulically driven pumps. Installed Power 410 HP
 Discharge rate: Up to 10 m3/minute
 Chemical Feeders:
1 each dry chemical feeder for guar injection
3 each liquid chemical pumps with coreolis flow meters
 26 m3 on board storage
 3 magflow flow meters for mixing and transferring fluid
 Total “mix on the fly” technology. No contamination of
water tanks. No wasted chemicals or mixing time
compared to batch mixing
TACROM INTRODUCTION
60 tonnes Proppant Truck
TACROM INTRODUCTION
60 tonnes Proppant Truck
Hydraulically operated Dumper
Fully enclosed, two compartment design
42 m3 storage capacity (60 ton maximum)
Roadweight 36 tons maximum
TACROM INTRODUCTION
2250 HHP Pump Unit
TACROM INTRODUCTION
2250 HHP Pump Unit
Truck mounted remote controlled pump
units
SPM Triplex Pump, 5“ Fluid End, Allison
Transmision, MTU Diesel Engine
Work Pressure: 1000 bar max.
Rate: 500 – 2200 l/min
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Data Acquisition Truck
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Data Acquisition Truck
Air Conditioned Design
Self Powered - 30 kW Generator
Remote Control Frac Equipment
Monitoring and Data Recording
Real time data transfer to customer
State of the Art Meyer‘s Software
MFrac – Treatment Design
MinFrac - Minifrac Analyses
MFrac & MView – Treatment Control
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Data Acquisition Truck
TACROM INTRODUCTION
3“ SPM 1502 Piping
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Combination heating/filtering unit
TACROM ITRODUCTION
Combination heating/filtering unit
 Compact 4x4 chassis
 Parallel, double pod design for efficient
operation
 100 microns primary and 5 microns
secondary filters
 90 m3/ hour filtering (with normal field water)
 3.5 million BTU (1025 kW/hr) heater unit
 45 m3/hour heating (from 20C to 200C.)
 Heat alone,filter alone, or combination
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Filtering unit
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Filtering unit
 Compact skid or design
 Transport on trailer or flatbed truck
 24 kW Hatz diesel motor
 Parallel, double pod design for efficient
operation
 100 micron primary and 5 micron secondary
filters
 90 m3/ hour filtering (with normal field water)
 Clean and filter simultaneously
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Intermediate, 2800m CTU
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Intermediate CTU
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2800 meters of 1 ¼ tubing on the reel
Compact, efficient design. Crane included on unit.
18 scm/minute 210 bar air compressor included
Foamer pump included for foam cleanouts
All variables recorded during the operation
Full job report given to customer. Graphical and/or
tabular data offered
Optional pressure control equipment. Low cost 210
bar annular bag or 700 bar bop‘s. Double or triple
pressure control offered.
Optional nitrogen service for inert gas requirements
Extremely fast Rig up and rig down.
Fully trained, experienced crew.
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Flowback Trailer
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10 m3 Flowback trailer delivered with CT unit.
Compact, efficient design.
Handles all wellbore debris
Degasser included.
No spills. No mess.
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Flameless Nitrogen Pumper
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Flameless Nitrogen Pumper
 10-85 scm/minute pump rates possible
 700 bar pressure limitation
 Highly accurate Electromagnetic flowmeter
 Flameless heating of nitrogen for safe
operation
 Full recording of all pumping variables. All
data will be included in the customer report
 10,000 liter on board storage tank. Most
jobs will not require additional product.
 Customer charged only for nitrogen pumped
down the well.
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Mobile, versatile, purpose built
equipment
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Treatment Design
Well selection involves finding candidates
that will benifit from increasing payzone
conductivity. High pressure, low perm, high
skin wells are the most desired candidates.
Meyer‘s Frac Software
State of the Art Software Package
Continous Upgrading
MFrac – Treatment Design
Minfrac – Pressure Analyses
MView – Data Processing
MProd & MNPV - Economics
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Meyer‘s Software
Process Control
Frac Data Management
Frac Design
Frac Geometry Modelling
Matching Production to stimulation design
TACROM INTRODUCTION
DATA REQUIREMENTS
Reservoir Data
Geo-Mechanical Data
Frac Fluid Data
Proppant Data
DATA SOURCES
Well Logs
Core and Cuttings Analyses
Well Tests
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Rock Properties
MFRAC
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Fracture Geometry
MFRAC
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Minifrac
Step Rate Test
Fracture Extension Pressure
Step Down Test
Near Wellbore Friction
Perforation Friction
Pressure Decline Analysis
ISIP
Fluid Efficiency
kh, k, p*
TACROM INTRODUCTION
STEP RATE TEST
MinFRAC
TACROM INTRODUCTION
STEP DOWN TEST
MinFRAC
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Minifrac Analisys
MinFRAC
TACROM INTRODUCTION
MView / MFrac
Control Treatment Net Pressure
Early Detection of Screen Out
Displacement
MProd / MNpv
Production analysis and future
production estimation
Net present value
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Real time parameters
MView
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Prefrac Production Estimation
MProd
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Net Present Value
MNpv
TACROM INTRODUCTION
Fluid Systems & Chemicals
 FRAC FLUIDS
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Water Base
Oil Base
Foam Base
Acid Base
 PROPPANT
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Quartz Sand
Sintered Bauxite
Ceramics
Resin Coated
 ADDITIVES
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Biocides
Buffers
Polymers
Crosslinkers
Temperature Stabilizers
Breakers
Friction Reducers
Surfactants
 Demulsifier
 Foamer
 Clay Stabilizer
 Fluid Loss Additives
 Diverters
TACROM INTRODUCTION
 What can Tacrom do for you?
 Assist in well selection
 Assist in well preparation
 Arrange subcontractors for logging, downhole
equipment and surface pressure equipment.
 Supply engineering for frac design
 Supply tanks, equipment and chemicals for
stimulation treatments
 Perform well stimulation treatments with acid or
proppant fracs
 Gravel-packs operations
 Perform matrix acid treatments with or without
nitrogen, using conventional tubing or coil tubing
 Post frac underbalanced cleanout using coil tubing
TACROM INTRODUCTION
THANK YOU
QUESTIONS

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