By: Onubi, Ojochenemi Joy MBBS, MSc International Health and Management Introduction Aim and Objectives Methods Results Conclusion and Recommendations References Optimal child growth is important for children reach their full cognitive and social potential Under-nutrition in children is manifested as underweight, stunting and wasting. In 2011, the WHO estimated that globally, 25% of under-five children are undernourished 18% are under-weight while 28% are stunted. The majority of these children reside in Africa and Asia . MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger – some improvement MDGs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 In Guatemala and Zimbabwe, food supplementation during early childhood improved schooling in men and women height-for-age: 1 Z score was associated with an 8% increase in income in Brazil and Guatemala as well as with an increase of 0·27 household assets in India Probiotics are live micro-organisms which confer a health benefit on the host when they are consumed in adequate amounts. The dietary intake of probiotics may lead to improved growth in children and therefore help in reducing the prevalence and magnitude of under-nutrition. ↓ Diarrhoea ↑ absorption of nutrients GROWTH PROBIOTICS ↑ Immunity Growth Hormone stimulation Aim: To systematically review the available evidence on the effects of probiotics on the growth of children. Objectives: i) To determine the effect of probiotics on the growth of healthy young children ii) To determine the effect of probiotics on the growth of undernourished children Three electronic databases were searched using inclusion and exclusion criteria MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Reference lists were also searched. Outcome measure was change in growthweight, height/length Analysis was by a narrative synthesis of results Eleven studies were included in the review - Seven healthy children studies - four under-nourished children studies The studies varied in type and quantity of probiotics, duration of interventions, characteristics of participants and units of outcome measurement. Four studies found that probiotics lead to an increase in growth of children 35 Weight gain (grams/day) 30 25 20 Probiotic Group 15 Control other Intervention 10 5 0 Firmansyah et al Scalabrin et Gibson et al. Zeigler et al al Puccio et al Huet et al. Saavedra et al. Studies Weight gain (grams/duration of study) 2,500 2,000 1,500 Probiotic group 1,000 Control 500 0 He et al Saran et al Sazawal et al Studies Kerac et al Consistent improvement in growth of children in low income settings Availability and cost: Use of locally sourced, cheap probiotic substance Acceptance Adverse effects The dietary intake of probiotics seems to be effective in improving the growth of children in developing countries. May contribute to the pace of achieving MDGs However, there is a need for more quality research studies on the effects of probiotics on growth- different probiotics, age groups, settings, explore local sources Thomas DW, Greer FR, Bhatia JJS, Abrams SA, Daniels SR, Schneider MB, et al... Clinical report - Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics 2010 December 2010;126(6):1217-1231 Braegger C, Chmielewska A, Decsi T, Kolacek S, Mihatsch W, Moreno L, et al... Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: A systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011 February 2011;52(2):238-250 Steenhout PG, Rochat F, Hager C. The effect of bifidobacterium lactis on the growth of infants: A pooled analysis of randomized controlled studies. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2009 December 2009;55(4):334-340. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING QUESTIONS?