The-Good-Lives-Model-of-Offender-Rehabilitation

Report
The Good Lives Model of
Offender Rehabilitation: Recent
Developments and Challenges
Stuart Allardyce
National Youth Justice
Development Team
The Good Life?
• The Good Life Model (GLM)
• Risks Needs and Responsivity (RNR)
Tony Ward
Don Andrews
Models in practice
• LS-CMI (Level of Service Case
Management Inventory);
• YLS-CMI;
• Good Lives Programme replacing CSOGP
and SOTP
RNR Model
• ‘Nothing Works’ to ‘What Works’
• Risk: matching offender risk level to degree of service
intervention.
• Needs: if the purpose of the programme is reducing
offending, focus on criminogenic need ‘the dynamic
characteristics of higher risk individuals and their
circumstances that actually are related to criminal
conduct’ (the central eight)
• Responsivity: Match the mode, strategies and style of
service with the learning styles, motivations, readiness to
change of individual offenders
Kevin’s background
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Parents separate when he is 4. Issues around domestic abuse and physical
abuse of Kevin in early years.
Aggressive and bullying behaviour in nursery and primary school (several
exclusions due to behavioural problems)
Placed on CPR at age 6 for issues around neglect and emotional abuse.
Age 11 exposed himself to female peer at school. Excluded for throwing a
flask of acid in chemistry class.
Regularly truanting at age 12.
Resumed contact with father at age 13.
At 14 he sexually abused step brother (6) and sister (7) on 6 occasions (2
counts of rape of a young child under ss 18 SOSA)
Note: name and details in case study have been altered to preserve
confidentiality.
Outcome Scores
Management Level
Required (High / Medium /
Low)
Strengths
Medium
Improvable
Concerns
Static
Concerns
Dynamic
Concerns
Total
Concerns
Static
Strengths
Dynamic
Strengths
Total
Strengths
Sexual & Nonsexual Harmful
Behaviours
M
L
M
L
M
M
Developmental
H
H
H
H
M
M
Family
H
M
M
L
L
L
Environment
L
L
L
H
H
Totals
M
M
M
M
M
L
Kevin’s Intervention Programme
• Build self management skills, teach anger
management (compulsivity and emotional
regulation)
• Nurture interpersonal relationships
• Focus on pro-criminal attitudes (sexual feelings
towards younger children)
• Enhance school work
• Increase access to pro-social hobbies and
interests
• Work on family relationships
Critiques of RNR and the ‘What
Works’ agenda
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What works for whom?
What else works?
Who works?
Why does it work?
Good Lives Model
•
http://goodlivesmodel.com/glm/Home.html
Risk-Need Model: Draw backs
• Difficulty in motivating offenders
 ‘pin-cushion’ metaphor
• Negative (or avoidant) treatment goals
• Does not recognise the role of:
 personal identity or agency
 noncriminogenic needs
 context in rehabilitation
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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The Good Lives Approach
• “We have been so busy thinking about
how to reduce sexual crimes that we have
overlooked a rather basic truth: recidivism
may be further reduced through helping
offenders to live better lives, not simply
targeting isolated risk factors.” (Ward et al
2006:391)
The ‘Good Lives’ approach
Ward & Stewart (2003) argue:
• “the most effective way to reduce risk is to
give individuals the necessary conditions
to lead better lives (‘good lives’) than to
simply teach them how to minimise their
chances of being incarcerated”
• “the primary aim of treatment should be to
give offenders the necessary capabilities
to secure important personal and social
goods in acceptable ways in addition to
the reduction and management of risk”
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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GLM Human Needs – ‘Goods’
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Healthy Living
Knowledge
Excellence in work and play
Excellence in agency (self-management)
Inner Peace
Relatedness (relating to others)
Spirituality
Happiness
Creativity
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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G-MAP’s list of Primary ‘goods’
• Being Healthy (body & mind)
• Having Fun & Achieving (Excitement,
enjoyment, status, knowledge, mastery in play
& work)
• Being my own person (independence,
autonomy, self management, control of others /
situations)
• Having Purpose & Making a Difference
(spirituality, fulfilment, hope, and generosity)
• Having People in My Life (attachment,
intimate, romantic, family, social and community
relationships)
• Staying Safe ( self & others, routine, rules,
order)
Primary Goods and Secondary
Goods
GLM Human Needs – ‘Goods’
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Healthy Living
Knowledge
Excellence in work and play
Excellence in agency (self-management)
Inner Peace
Relatedness (relating to others)
Spirituality
Happiness
Creativity
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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The Key Elements to ‘Good Lives’
• By focusing on the reasons or needs that
ground the actions of offenders, it makes
their behaviour intelligible and provides a
more effective means of motivating them to
enter treatment
• Offending reflects socially unacceptable and
often personally frustrating attempts to
pursue primary needs
• The problem is not the primary needs
sought but the way the offender seeks to
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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What this means in practice?:
Kevin and Safer Lives
OLD
LIFE
MUDDLES
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
NE W
L IFE
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Have my own place
Feel close to my
Mum and Dad
Achievement
Security
Being my own person
Having people in my life
Being healthy emotional health – less
stress
Having people in my
life
Rich
Kevin’s
New
Life
Lots of
girlfriends
Having people in my
life – intimacy
Achievement - status
Being healthy –
sexual satisfaction
A family of
my own
Achieving -status
Own my
own garage
Achievement – status
Being healthy -emotional we
being – control - respect
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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Joining a youth club
Having contact with my Mum
Kevin’s GOOD LIVES PLAN
What do we know about old life? (This section is problem formulation)
About me
Around me
I have problems with my temper
I have sexually abused two children
I sometimes have sexual thoughts about young girls about 8 years old
My relationships with family members are often difficult
I have no close friends
I thought I was unlikeable
I have little self confidence
I have not done as well in education as I could have done
My Father used to beat up my mother when I was small
My Father hit me when I was small
My mother often found me difficult to look after
I was bullied a lot by others at school
I have seen Graham’s porn pictures from about the age of 8
What needs did my sexually harmful behaviour meet?
Wanting to be like others boys at school, angry that Dad had not given me attention, (Having people in life – belonging)
Feeling jealous of Jane and Stephen, (Being Healthy – emotional regulation)
Wanting to feel better about myself, (Achievement – self-esteem)
Enjoying sex (Being Healthy)
Which of my needs seems most important? (Overarching need)
I want to have better relationships with my family and I want to have friends (Having people in my life)
How do I meet the needs my SHB met, now? (means)
Appropriate
weekly contact with Mum (Having people in my life)
residential group outings / activities (Having people in my life, Self-esteem)
Try to not lose temper (Emotional regulation)
Individual education lessons (Achievement)
Doing stuff with my bikes (Achievement)
Which of my needs do I neglect now, if any? (scope)
Inappropriate
Withdrawal to own room
Which of my needs fight against each other now, if any? (conflict)
Having people in my life / emotional regulation
What means (activities) can I aim for to help meet my needs?
In the short term?
In the longer term?
How to be successful?
What do I need to change to be successful in means activities
What do I need others to do to help me to be successful in means
Sexual thoughts about female children
activities
Coping with negative feelings
Get a better understanding of how my past experiences influence my behaviours
Feel confident
Get better a making friends
Understand more about consequences of sexual abuse
Make me and others more confident I am not going to abuse anyone again
What strengths do I have to help me?
Positive attitude
Sense of humour
Mechanical skills
Intelligence
Willingness to do offence related work
Loyal
Caring
Hopes for the future
Mum's understanding of how best to support me
A better relationship with Graham
To have more interesting outside activities
To be able to have less supervision
Which strengths do others have to help me?
Support of Mum
Support of key worker and other residential staff
Residential unit’s group activities – cinema, bowling, bike riding, etc.
Residential education – individual programme
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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Kevin’s Good Lives Plan for next 12
weeks
What do I need to do in next 12 weeks to keep myself and others safe?
•Take
part in supervised group outings or outings with 1 member of staff
unsupervised contact with Mum but not off site
•Attend G-MAP sessions and complete homework
•Try to not lose my temper – particularly when I feel let down, criticised or sense of failure
•Talk to G-MAP and/or care staff if I have sexual thoughts about young girls or any other thoughts that worry me
•Accept help and work hard to prove to myself and others that I can be trusted
•Have
What I and others need to do before my next Good Lives Meeting (achievable and measurable steps)
Kevin
G-MAP Staff
Care Staff
Education Staff
Family
Other
Intervention and Planning with Young People who Sexually Harm 2011
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The Debate – Andrews, Bonta and
Wormith (2011) on GLM
Andrews et al. argue:
• The portrayal of RNR is inaccurate (e.g.
descriptions of relevance of relationship
and motivation)
• The role of universal need outlined in the
GLM is untested and potentially
dangerous
• What is the empirical evidence for a shift
from RNR to GLM?
‘At the present time, there is
nothing unique in GLM other
than the encouragement of
weak assessment approaches
(a return to unstructured
professional judgment…) and
the addition of confusion in
service planning.’
(Andrews, 2012)
Ward, Yates and Willis’s response
to Andrews et al. (2012)
• There are significant omissions in their
characterisation of offender rehabilitation and
the degree to which it is underpinned by values
of different types.
• Their summary of the GLM is incomplete and, in
places, incorrect.
• Their assumptions and conclusions regarding
the application of the GLM to practice are
misleading and, in some instances, inaccurate.
Values anyone?
‘Some of the friends of federally sentenced women
are becoming quite vocal in their insistence that
we should not waste our time researching
criminogenic risk/need factors but should help
people to become whole and healthy… when
the focus is on the objective of reduced
vitcitimization of other human beings, however,
perhaps advances here too may require some
specification, operationalization and testing of
the predictive criterion validity of assessments
and the underlining constructs of being ‘whole
and healthy’ and of ‘healing.’ (Andrews 1995)
Final thoughts
• Applying the Good Lives model. Bolting it
on to RNR processes is missing the point.
• Who defines what a Good Life is?
• The political dimension of Good Lives. Are
we ready to accept ‘offenders’ as ‘moral
strangers’.
The Road from Crime
• http://vimeo.com/43658591
Bibliography
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010a). The psychology of criminal
conduct (5th ed.). New Providence, NJ: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.
Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). The risk-needresponsivity (RNR) model: Does adding the good lives model
contribute to effective crime prevention? Criminal Justice and
Behavior, 38, 735-755.
F. McNeil, P. Raynor, & C. Trotter (Eds.), Offender supervision: New
directions in theory, research and practice (pp. 41-64). New York,
NY: Willan.
Ward, T., & Maruna, S. (2007). Rehabilitation: Beyond the risk
paradigm. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ward, T., Yates, P.M. & Willis, G (2012) The Good Lives Model and the
Risk Need Responsivity Model : A Critical Response to Andrews,
Bonta, and Wormith (2011) Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 94 110
Contact details
• [email protected]

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