Qualitative Paradigm: Phenomenology, Case Studies & Etnography

Report
HAYAT LAÇİN
Quantitative Research
 Qualitative Research
 Major Qualitative Traditions
1- Phenomenology
2- Case Studies
3- Etnography
4- Biography
5- Grounded Theory
 Phenomenology;
- Definition, background, the aim and the types of phenomenology
etc.
 Case studies;
- Definition, background and the aim etc.
 Etnography ;
- Definition, background and the aim etc.
 References
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Understand and talk about qualitative and quantitative research
paradigms.
See the differences between five major qualitative traditions.
Understand the purpose of phenomenology, etnography and case
studies as the major qualitative traditions.
See the philosophical perspectives in phenomenology, etnography
and case studies.
Quantitative Research:
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Systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena with statistical and
numerical data or techniques. (Given, Lisa M, 2008)
To measure the incidence of various perspectives and ideas in a chosen
sample.
Used in social sciences such as psychology, economics, sociology, health
and human development by asking specific questions and collecting
numerical datas from participants.

Exploring issues, understanding phenomena and aswering questions by
analyzing and making sense of unstructured data.

To understand human behaviour and the reasons that govern such
behaviour.

Investigates the ‘why and how of decision making’ not only ‘what, where
and when’.

Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different
academic disciplines, but also in market research and further contexts.
(Denzin,Norman K. & Lincoln, Yvonna S, 2005)

Used for asking broad questions and collecting word datas from
participants.

Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases
studied and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses .

Quantitative methods can be used to prove such hypotheses are true.
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Phenomenology is the philosophical study of the structures of
experience and consciousness.
- Philosophical movement , early year of 20th century.

Phenomenology is ‘the reflective study of the essence of consciousness
as experienced from the first person point of view’ according to Edmund
Husserl. ( Smith, David Woodruff, 2007)
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Hegel indicated that phenomenology is an approach to philosophy that
begins with an exploration of phenomena.
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Phenomenology is the study of the shared meaning of experience of a
phenomenon for several individuals.

The basic purpose of phenomenology is to reduce individual experiences
with a phenomenon to a description of the universal essence. (Manen,
1990)
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Types of phenomenology:
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- Hermeneutic Phenomenology (Manen,1990)
-Empirical
-Transcendental
-Psychological Phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994)
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The researcher determines if the research problem is best examined using a
phenomenological approach. It is important to understand several
individuals’ common or shared experiences of a phenomenon.
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A phenomenon of interest to study is identified.

The broad philosophical assumptions of phenomenology are recognized
and specified by the researchers.

The researchers collect data from the individuals who have experienced the
phenomenon.

The participants are asked two general questions about their experiences in
terms of the phenomenon and how their situations are affected by these
experiences of the phenomenon.

Building on the data from the first and second research questions, data
analyst go through the data and highlight ‘significant statements’.

These significant statements are used to write a description of what the
participants experienced. (textural description)

From these descriptions, the researchers write composite descriptions that
present the ‘essence’ of the phenomenon and these passages basically focus
on the common experiences of the participants.
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A phenomenology emphasizes the meaning of an experience for a number
of participants.
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The phenomenological research is used to identify a shared experience.
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The aim of the phenomenological research is to define lived experience of
a phenomenon.

The participants try to understand their life with the experiences and the
researchers try to make sense of these participants by collecting datas.
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Investigations of ‘bounded systems’ with the focus being either the case or
an issue illustrated by the case or cases. (Stake, 1995)
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Stake (2005) indicates that case study research is not a methodology but a
choice of what is to be studied.
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Well known case study researchers: Robert E. Stake
Helen Simons
Robert K. Yin
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To define the research questions and determine whether case study
approach is appropriate or not with the research questions.
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Selecting and identifying the cases.
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Determining data collection.
‘The data collection in case study research is typically extensive , drawing
on multiple sources of information, such as observations , interviews,
documents and audiovisual materials.’ (Cresswell, 2012)
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Determining of the types of analyzing of the data.
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Evaluating and analyzing of the data.
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Preparing a final reports about the meaning of the case, whether that
meaning comes from learning about the issue of the case (an instrumental
case), or learning about an unusual situation (an intrinsic case).
(Cresswell,2012)
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A study of shared patterns of behaviour, language and beliefs.
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The aim ; -to examine these shared patterns.
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It is indicated that Ethnography focuses on an entire cultural group
(Creswell,2012)
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Ethnography is used to describe and interpret the shared patterns of values,
beliefs, behaviours and language of a culture sharing group.
(Harris,1968)
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Ethnographers try to understand the meaning of the behaviour , the
language and the interactions of the participants of the culture-sharing
group.
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The Realist Ethnography:
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A traditional approach which is used by cultural anthropologists .
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Characterized by Van Maanen (1988)
Reflects a particular stance taken by the researcher toward the individuals
being studied.
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An objective account of the situation which is written in third person point
of view.
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The Critical Ethnography:
(Creswell,2012)
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A type of ethnographic research in which the authors advocate for the
emancipation of groups marginalized in society. (Thomas,1993)
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The issues of power, empowerment, in equality, dominance, repression ,
hegemony and victimization can be studied by critical ethnogropher.
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Ethnography is appropriate ?
Creswell(2012) indicates that Ethnography is appropriate if needs are to
describe how a cultural group works and to explore the beliefs ,language
and behaviours .
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Identifying and locating a culture-sharing group to study.
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Selecting cultural themes or issues to study about the group.
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Studying cultural concepts, determining which type of Ethnography to use.
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Gathering information where the group works and lives. It is called as
Fieldwork. (Wolcott, 1999)
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Making theme analysis.
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Forge a working set of rules or patterns as the final product of this analysis.
After these procedures, the readers of the ethnographic research can
learn about the culture-sharing group from both the participants and the
interpretation of researcher.
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Creswell, John W. (2012), Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Chosing Among Five
Approaches, Sage Publications. Retrieved 19.10.2014, from:
http://www.google.com.tr/books?hl=tr&lr=&id=OJYEbDtkxq8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=five+qu
alitative+approaches+to+inquiry+creswell&ots=eO1g8JGhbn&sig=B3CjD6mZcpzmZUFJw68Ixw9PWU&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=five%20qualitative%20approaches%20to%20inquir
y%20creswell&f=false
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Yin, Robert K. (2009), Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Retrived 19.10.2014, from:
http://books.google.com.tr/books?id=FzawIAdilHkC&pg=PA119&dq=the+art+of+case+study+r
esearch&hl=tr&sa=X&ei=glFIVM3kPKf6ywO4mYLIBQ&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage
&q=the%20art%20of%20case%20study%20research&f=false
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Meriam, Sharan B. (2009), Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, John
Wiley and Sons. Retrived 19.10.2014, from:
http://books.google.com.tr/books?id=tvFICrgcuSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+art+of+case+
study+research&hl=tr&sa=X&ei=glFIVM3kPKf6ywO4mYLIBQ&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBw#v=on
epage&q=the%20art%20of%20case%20study%20research&f=false
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