Cells: Plants and Animals

Report
Cells: Plants and
Animals
Cells: Plants and Animals
1. Overview of Cells
2. Differences Between Plant and Animal
Cells
3. Cells Organization within the Body
4. Tissue Overview
How Cells Were Named
• Cells in cork
• walled boxes that are similar to
tiny rooms, or cellula, occupied
by monks = "cell.“
Cells
in a 
plant
Cells
in an
animal

Cell Size
Cells Contain Organelles
Comparing Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
• Variety of Shapes
• One or more small
vacuoles
• Centrioles
• Lysosomes
• Often have cilia or
flagella
• Cell Membrane
• Cytoplasm
• ER (smooth and
rough)
• Ribosomes
• Mitochondria
• Golgi apparatus
• Nucleus
• Cell Wall
• Rectangular
• One large, central
vacuole
• Plastids
• Chloroplasts
• Rarely have cilia or
flagella
Comparing Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
• Variety of Shapes
• One or more small
vacuoles
• Centrioles
• Lysosomes
• Often have cilia or
flagella
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
• Golgi Apparatus
•
•
•
•
•
• Cell Wall
• Rectangular
• One large, central
vacuole
• Plastids
• Chloroplasts
• Rarely have cilia or
flagella
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
• Double layer of
phospholipids
• controls the flow of
water
Animal Cells
Cell Membrane
Electron
Microscope
Image of
Rickettsia felis
Plant Cell
Cell Membrane
Electron Microscope
Image of a Pollen
Tube of an Orange
Bush Monkey
Flower
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
• Surrounded by double
membrane
• Holds DNA
• Involved in cell division
Animal Cell
Nucleus
Electron
Microscope
Image of a White
Blood Cell
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
• Make energy for the cell
• Can be different shapes
• Surrounded by a double
membrane
Plant Cell
Mitochondrion
Electron
Microscope
Image of a Plant
Cell
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
• Different functions depending
on cell type
• Produces chemicals for the cell
• Controls the release of ions
• Collects proteins
Animal Cell
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Cartilage Cell
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
• Surrounded with a single
membrane
• Packages substances to be
transported
Animal Cell
Golgi
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Bone Marrow Cell
Comparing Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
• Variety of Shapes
• One or more small
vacuoles
• Centrioles
• Lysosomes
• Often have cilia or
flagella
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
• Golgi Apparatus
•
•
•
•
•
• Cell Wall
• Rectangular
• One large, central
vacuole
• Plastids
• Chloroplasts
• Rarely have cilia or
flagella
Comparing Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
• Variety of Shapes
• One or more small
vacuoles
• Centrioles
• Lysosomes
• Often have cilia or
flagella
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
• Golgi Apparatus
•
•
•
•
•
• Cell Wall
• Rectangular
• One large, central
vacuole
• Plastids
• Chloroplasts
• Rarely have cilia or
flagella
Animal
Cell
• Membrane bound sac
• Intracellular digestion
• Release of cellular waste
• Generally small in animal cells
Animal Cell
Vacuoles
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Pancreatic Cell
Animal
Cell
• Part of cytoskeleton of the cell
• Ring of nine groups of fused microtubules
• Groups of three microtubles
• Plants do not have centrioles
Animal Cell
Centriole
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
White Blood Cell
Animal
Cell
• Contain enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion
• In white blood cells, these lysozymes digest bacteria
• Cause cell death if improperly released into cytoplasm
Animal Cell
Lysosome
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Nerve
Animal Cell
Lysosome
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Nerve
Animal Cell
Lysosome
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Nerve
• Rigid, protective cell wall
• Made of polysaccharides
• Provides and maintains shape of the cell
• Protective barrier
• Animal Cells do not have a cell wall
Plant
Cell
Plant Cell
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Sunflower Leaf
Plant Cell
• Membrane bound sac
• Store nutrients and waste products
• Increase cell size during growth
• Generally large in plant cells
Plant Cell
Central
Vacuole
Electron Microscope
Image of a Guard
Cell of a New Dawn
Climbing Rose
Plant Cell
• Contain chlorophyll, which allows the plant to make
energy from sunlight
• Surrounded by a double outer membrane
Plant Cell
Chloroplast
Electron
Microscope
Image of a
Sugar Beet
Comparing Animal and Plant Cells
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
• Variety of Shapes
• One or more small
vacuoles
• Centrioles
• Lysosomes
• Often have cilia or
flagella
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
• Golgi Apparatus
•
•
•
•
•
• Cell Wall
• Rectangular
• One large, central
vacuole
• Rarely have lysosomes
• Plastids
• Chloroplasts
• Rarely have cilia or
flagella
More About Animal Cells
PITUITARY CELL
SERTOLI CELL
LEYDIG CELL
EGG
NERVE CELL
Cells in Perspective
Cells in Perspective
CELL – Smallest unit, Simplest animals consist of a
single cell.
CELL
TISSUE
ORGAN
TISSUE – Groups of cells with same general function
and texture (texture = tissue)
e.g., muscle, nerve, epithelium, and connective tis.
ORGAN – Two or more types of tissues;
larger functional unit
e.g., skin, kidney, intestine, blood vessels
ORGAN SYSTEM - Several organs
SYSTEM
e.g., respiratory, digestive, reproductive
systems
FOUR BASIC TYPES OF
TISSUES IN THE BODY
--------------------------------------
Epithelium
Connective tissue
Muscular tissue
Nervous tissue
Epithelium
Functions:
•
Cover organs, line organs, blood
vessels, and secretory cells of glands
Connective Tissue
Function:
• binds the other tissues together to form
organs
• include blood, cartilage, and bone
CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
Function:
Muscle
• generation of contractile force
Distribution:
• Smooth – involuntary
movements of organs,
respiratory tract, blood
vessels, uterus, etc.
• Cardiac – involuntary
contractions of the heart
• Skeletal – voluntary
movements, mostly associated
with the skeleton
Nervous Tissue
Functions:
• transmission, reception, and
integration of electrical impulses
Characteristics:
• neurons – very large excitable cells
with long processes called axons and
dendrites
• Glial cells – the supporting cells of
nervous tissue
• Nerves – collections of neuronal
processes bound together by
connective tissue
FOUR BASIC TYPES OF
TISSUES IN THE BODY
--------------------------------------
Epithelium
Connective tissue
Muscular tissue
Nervous tissue
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Epithelium
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Epithelium
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Connective
tissue
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Connective
tissue
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Muscular
tissue
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Muscular
tissue
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
NERVOUS
TISSUE
Where are these basic tissues located?
EPITHELIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
NERVOUS
TISSUE
• http://viewer.serenusview.com/Viewer.aspx?SlideId=d68a4e8e8932-492c-911c-0a2a968463aa
Plant Cells
http://viewer.serenusview.com/Viewer.aspx?SlideId=2c7d93ed-dae240bb-90fc-74253b381d4e
Normal Blood Cells
• http://staging.digitalscope.org/Viewer.aspx?SlideId=b0af451a-ce41463b-ac84-68cb4e2d142e
Abnormal Blood Cells
Shapes of Epithelial Cells
• http://viewer.serenusview.com/LinkHandler.axd?LinkId=469f376
8-acb7-4ef3-aa82-2bdd18f77dc6
Intestinal Cells
• http://viewer.serenusview.com/LinkHandler.axd?LinkId=5a615
a12-3e73-4b15-a6fa-910ac47caf9f
Eye
Cells
Cells: Plants and Animals
1. Overview of Cells
2. Differences Between Plant and Animal
Cells
3. Cells Organization within the Body
4. Tissue Overview

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