Smart Distribution Automation and Management System

Report
Smart Distribution Automation and
Management System
11th Nov 2010
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
1
Index
• Introduction
• Distribution Automation
– Necessity
– Technology
– Challenges
• Better Power Quality
– Drivers
– Power quality products
• Efficient Power Utilization
– Different efficient power utilization
– Efficient utilization solution
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Introduction
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
3
Issues in Distribution System
1. Reliability
- Continuity of power supply
- Fault detection, isolation, service restoration after fault
2. Quality
- Voltage, power factor, Harmonics, Frequency variations
3. Efficiency
- Technical losses, commercial loss
4. Unplanned Growth of Electric Power Network
- In Distribution; cause of difficulty in Management of the network
5. Complexity
- Of network, Of technology
6. Cost
- Implementation cost, maintenance cost
7. Time
- To meet the requirement of customer within shortest time
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
5
Distribution Automation - Necessity
 To measure, protection control and monitor the components
which are remotely located outside the substation
 To integrate all substations within a circle and all such
components which are remotely located outside the substation
for performance analysis
 To make the fault detection and automatic isolation
 To integrate automatic meter reading to avoid manipulation and
loss of revenue by integrating DA with Automatic Billing and
Collection Centre
 To maintain load shedding schedule automatically
 To monitor network topology and network components
(assets) using GIS (Geographical Information System).
 To increase overall efficiency, reliability.
 To make operation and maintenance easy
 To save the time gap between a trouble call by a customer and
actual service by integrating DA and Trouble Call Management
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology

Components of Distribution Network:1) Transformers
2) Ring Main Units
3) Substations

Basic Components of Automation:1.
2.
3.
4.

Master Distribution Automation Software
Engineering analysis software
Data Acquisition and Control Hardware like RTU, Relays,
Digital Multifunction Meters, Remote Tap Changer
Communication Hardware
Basic Features:1.
2.
3.
Monitoring
Control
Protection
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology

Necessary Functions: System Level
• Monitoring
•
Control
• Substation Automation
• Feeder Automation

Customer Level
• Remote Meter Reading and Billing
• Load management
• Customer Automation
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology

Monitoring and Control Functions:




Data Monitoring
Data logging
Analog Data freeze
Remote Meter Reading and Billing
Automatic Bus/ Feeder Sectionalizing




Integrated Volt/ VAR Control




Fault location, Isolation and Service Restoration
Feeder Reconfiguration and Substation Transformer Load
Balancing
Substation Transformer overload
Capacitor Control
Voltage Control
Emergency Load Shedding
Load Control
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology
Global Architecture of Distribution Automation and Management System
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology
Types of Communication between various component of
Distribution Network:– GPRS
– PLCC
– Leased Line communication on Local wired
telephone network
– PSTN Dial up connectivity
– Fiber Optic Network
– Satellite Communication (V-sat)
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology
SCADA-DMS System Architecture at Master Control Centre
Color Inkjet Printer
Laser
Printer
Dual Monitor Workstations
Redundant SCADA
Server
Dot
Matri
x
GPS
Receiver
Print Server
GPS Master
Clock
Line
Printer
Router
IDS
Redundant ISR
Processors
With External
RAID Storage
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Redundant CFE
Router
WEB Server
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology
SCADA-DMS System Architecture at Master Control Centre
LAN AT MCC
CFE
CFE
SWITCH
E1
E1
E1
E1
ROUTER
LEASED LINE CONNECTIVITY BY 2 LINES OF 2MBPS
E1
E1
E1
E1
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE
DATA HIGHWAY
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE
HDSL MODEM
HDSL MODEM
64 KBPS LEASED LINE
64 KBPS LEASED LINE
HDSL MODEM
HDSL MODEM
SWITCH
SWITCH
RTU REDUNDANT COMM
RTU REDUNDANT COMM
SS #1
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
SS #N
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology
Billing Management System
ISR
SERVER
SCADA/DMS
CONTROL CENTER
LAN
MBC
MBC
2 MBPS LEASED LINE
TELEPHONE
EXCHANGE
ROUTER
DATA HIGH WAY
TELEPHONE
EXCHANGE
HDSL
TELEPHONE
EXCHANGE
HDSL
64KPBS LEASED LINE
64KPBS LEASED LINE
HDSL
HDSL
SWITCH
SWITCH
BCC#1
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Remot
e
HT
Meter
Division: Global R&D Centre
BCC#N
Category: H1
Distribution Automation - Technology
Trouble Call Management System
APPLICATION SERVER
IVR SERVER
Workstations 10 N0.
Color Inkjet
Printer
EPABX
Dot
Matrix
Line
Printer
WORKS STATION PC
ADMINISTATION
WEB
SERVER
Router
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Challenges in Distribution
•
•
•
•
•
•
Covering Large Area
Geographical and atmospheric Problems
Interoperability Issues
Huge Data Handling
Data storage and related care
Care of future expansion
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Power Quality
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
17
Power Quality (PQ) Drivers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Penalties by utilities drive harmonic filter sales
Transition to PC-based controls in manufacturing plants
IEEE standards foster the use of harmonic filters
Rising energy costs promote harmonic filter market
Reduced equipment life drives harmonic filter market
Losses in production due to tripping and shutdowns incite
sales
7. Shift from electric to electronic loads spurs market growth
8. Environmental considerations instigate harmonic filter
market
9. Increase in Nonlinear
filter demand
Loads
ignites harmonic
Ref:- WORLD HARMONIC FILTER MARKETS , Frost & Sullivan, 2009
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Nonlinear, Harmonic Causing Loads
1. Electronic equipment such as PC
2. Battery chargers
3. Lighting dimmer controls
4. Fluorescent lights
5. Welders
6. Electronic ballasts
7. Printers
8. Photocopiers
9. Fax machines
10. VFD
All Above PQ damagers are mandatory for today's
developed World.
Hence PQ products is getting popular
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
PQ Products
1. Mechanical Switched Capacitor
 Current based
 p.f based
2. Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC)
3. STATCOM
 LV (415V, extendable up to 690V), ratings
110kVAR, 200kVAR, 500kVAR
 LV (415V) 1-ph STATCOM, 100kVAR & module
paralleling for high power rating
4. MV (11kV and above) STATCOM
5. Voltage dip compensator
6. Thyristor “Q” Compensator
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
STATCOM
• Input
source
is sensed by DSP
current
• DSP calculates harmonic
components of the input
current and reactive input
power.
Fundamental only
Supply
Load
icompensation
Active
Filter
• Counter harmonics and
reactive power control is
generated by the DSP
driven Power Electronics
and fed to power circuit
• Thus
the
harmonics
and reactive power is
compensated by active filter
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
idistortion
Category: H1
CGL STATCOM
• 32 bit TI DSP controlling high speed IGBT
• Algorithm
on
synchronous
rotating
reference
frame
i.e in DQ co-ordinates leading better harmonic attenuation
ratio and better PF correction
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Closed loop active filter with source current sensing
High attenuation of individual harmonics
Programmable selective harmonic elimination
PF compensation, leading as well as lagging
Selection between PF and harmonic compensation
IGBT based inverter design
Many units can be used in parallel i.e modular
Self current limit present, when overloaded.
Graphics LCD display for local monitoring and setting.
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Efficient Power Utilization
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
23
Efficient Power Utilization
1. Efficient Motors
•
High efficiency motors, ECM (BLDC, SRM..)
2. Efficient Pump
•
ECM (BLDC, SRM) driven high speed pump, Intelligent/smart pu
3. Efficient Appliances
•
Intelligent/smart appliance, ECM (BLDC, SRM) driven fan
4. Efficient Lighting
•
CFL, HID, IL, LED
5. Lighting Automation
•
Building Management System, Office Management Systems
•
Street light automation
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
The System—Street Light Automation
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
System Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Easy to install with wireless (GPRS) connectivity to data server
32 bit microcontroller based embedded system for control panel
Remote control (ON-OFF)
Remote Monitoring (V, I, [P, KWh] etc..)
Astronomical Timer based ON-OFF
Ambient Light intensity based On-Off using IR sensing.
Load voltage regulation
Availability of load control and dimming schemes to save electricity.
Time synchronization with the server.
Web based SCADA
Instant fault reporting via SMS along with the probable fault details.
Event and fault Logging
Customizable MIS report generation
GIS (Geographical Information System) for location & status information
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
System Firmware
1. FreeRTOS: based design
2. Self Diagnostic Features during boot
time
3. GPRS Communication
4. Protocol Support: MODBUS, BACnet
5. IEC 60730 Standard based boot code
6. Astronomical Clock for precise Sun
rise and Set time calculation
7. Instant SMS alerts in case of faults
8. Watchdog ensures failsafe operation
9. Ergonomic principles considered for
local HMI design for best user
friendliness
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
System SCADA
1. Running on Robust RedHat Linux
Operating System
2. Few thousand concurrent communication
threads
3. Open source database connectivity with
MySQL
4. Maintains user and panel transaction
database
5. Provides configuration and control
6. Provide time synchronization
7. Monitors user license period for
communication support
8. Governs user attributes to reflect hierarchy
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
System Web Server
1. Open Source “JBOSS” web server
2. Java Server Pages and Java script
for client side validation
3. Supported Browsers: Mozilla and
IE5 and above
4. GIS Interface to locate Installation
Site
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Division: Global R&D Centre
Category: H1
Thank You
Prepared by: Dr. S. Ekram
Div: Global R&D Centre
Category: Confidential
30

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