Leading Teaching and Learning
in the 21st Century
Kathy Fernandes
Director of CSU System-wide LMSS
“If we are learning in
new ways, why are
they still teaching us
in old ways?”
Sydni Powell,
CSSA Technology Officer
Photo courtesy of Amanda Flavin and Sydni Powell
"If we teach today's students
as we did yesterday's,
we are robbing them of tomorrow."
John Dewey, 1859 – 1952
“Don’t limit a child to your own learning,
for he was born in another time.”
Rabindranath Tagore, 1861 – 1941
“Tell me and I'll forget;
Show me and I may remember;
Involve me and I'll understand.”
– Chinese Proverbs quotes
Tell me and I'll forget  Lecture
Show me and I may remember 
Chalk board, books, audio/visual
ENGAGE me and I'll understand 
Internet, games, smartphones, social media,
virtual worlds
So What About
Teaching and Learning
in the 21st Century?
• Pedagogy is the science and art of education.
Its aims range from the full development of
the human being to skills acquisition.
- Wikipedia
Andragogy - developed into a theory of adult education by the American
educator Malcolm Knowles whose theory stated six assumptions related to motivation of
adult learning:
1. Adults need to know the reason for learning something (Need to Know)
2. Experience, including error, provides a basis for learning activities
3. Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in
the planning and evaluation of their instruction (Self-concept).
4. Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to
their work and/or personal lives (Readiness)
5. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented
6. Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators (Motivation)
Instructional Design is the practice of creating "instructional
experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more
efficient, effective and appealing.”
• The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs
of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some
"intervention" to assist in the transition.
• Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and
andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning.
• There are many instructional design models but many are based on the
ADDIE model with the five phases:
1) analysis, 2) design, 3) development, 4) implementation,
and 5) evaluation.
- Wikipedia
Historical Overview: Learning Theories
Socratic Method
Zone of Proximal Learning
[469-399 B.C]
Maria Montessori
[1870- 1952]
Booker T Washington
Virginia Randolph
Vocational Learning
Problem-Based Learning
Active Learning
Paolo Freire
Generative Themes
Slide creation thanks to Ruth Cox @ SFSU
Sum of the Parts > Whole ??
• Change! Rapid Technological Change!
• No Change! Pedagogical approaches to
teaching and learning
• Pedagogy + Technology = Some Change?
• MOOCs = Disruption of Education
Dialogic Literacy
“the ability to engage productively in
discourse whose purpose is to generate
new knowledge and understanding.”
Dialogic literacy is a fundamental literacy
for a knowledge society.
Developing 21st Century Teaching and
Learning: Dialogic Literacy
• Old pedagogy + old technology = low
performance improvement.
• Old pedagogy + new technology = mild
performance improvement.
• New pedagogy + old technology = mild
performance improvement.
• New pedagogy + new technology = high
performance improvement.
Developing 21st Century Teaching and
Learning: Dialogic Literacy
By Nicholas [email protected] Hopkins
• “…the alignment between new
pedagogies and new technologies is the
single most important factor for optimal
performance in any organization as well as
the key challenge for those seeking to
develop 21st century teaching and
CSU Quality Online
Learning and Teaching
Who at your institution knows about…
– Pedagogy and Andragogy
– Learning Theories
– Instructional Design
– Learning Technologies (pilot to full-scale prod.)
– Content as a Commodity
21st Century Learner?
What will their jobs require?
What’s different than when you
when to college?
• Industrial?
• Repetition?
• No thinking (rote)?
• Why does Procter & Gamble
repeatedly call on enthusiastic
amateurs to solve scientific and
technical challenges?
• How can companies as diverse
as iStockphoto and Threadless
employ just a handful of people,
yet generate millions of dollars in
revenue every year?
• Guessing # of jelly beans in the
We NEED diverse thinking…
The Dilemma of Non-Diversity
The Knowledge Age
In every kind of knowledge-based, progressive
organization, new knowledge and new directions
are forged through dialogue.
The dialogue in Knowledge Age organizations is
principally concerned with solving problems and
developing new ideas.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2005). Technology & literacies: From print literacy to
dialogic literacy (pp. 16–18)
The Knowledge Age
Higher-order Knowledge Age skills have to do
with collaboration, initiative, communication,
and creativity.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2005). Technology & literacies: From print
literacy to dialogic literacy (pp. 16–18)
DARPA Red Balloon Contest
• The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
• Sponsored a contest to find 10 red weather
balloons randomly placed throughout the United
• The purpose of the contest was to explore the
way that the Internet can use social networking
tools to achieve an outcome…
DARPA Red Balloon Contest
• The contest winner, a team from MIT,
found all 10 balloons in 8 hours and 52
• How long would it have taken Socrates
AASCU Red Balloon Project
• The American Association of State
Colleges and Universities Red Balloon
Project is a national initiative
– Re-imagine and then redesign
undergraduate education for the 21st
AASCU Red Balloon
Challenges We Face:
– Transformational changes in technology
– Reductions in funding
– Shifting student demographics
– Growth of the private sector in higher
– Demands for greater accountability
…and more
AASCU Red Balloon
• The Red Balloon contest serves as a
metaphor for the newly-networked
• This new way of generating,
aggregating and disseminating
information has profound implications
for higher education.
AASCU Red Balloon
• It challenges long-held practices of teaching and
learning, institutional organization and
structure, and the very notion of expertise.
• The Red Balloon contest also serves as an
analogy for how a community of higher
education institutions and their national
association can work together to promote and
support change in higher education.
And CSU Organizationally?
• Who holds the vision for 21st Century Learning?
– Provost? CIO? AVP?
• Institutional Leadership on Learning?
• Team collaboration in course redesigns
• Instructional designers, librarians, assessment
specialists, faculty developers, academic
technology specialists, media specialists
CSU Academic Tech Reporting
The Leader’s Guide to
21st Century Education
by Ken Kay and Valerie Greenhill
• The Seven Steps
– Adapt your vision to the new perspectives for a new century.
– Create a community consensus with the 21st century skills of
communication and collaboration.
– Align your system.
– Build professional capacity.
– Focus your curriculum and assessment.
– Support your teachers. (Build the structures and climate to
support significant change).
– Improve and innovate
It Takes a Village…
• To support student success to obtain a degree
• To support faculty and faculty development
• To implement 21st Century course designs
Team collaboration
– Instructional designers, librarians, assessment
specialists, faculty developers, academic technology
CSU Curriculum Redesign for the
21st Century Student
Governor Proposes $125.1 Million Budget Investment
for CSU - January 10, 2013
As part of the additional $125.1 million in proposed state funds,
$10 million has been directed in the Governor’s budget for online
strategies to get more students through so-called “bottleneck”
courses. These are courses across the system that cause many
students to slow their time to degree until they can find a “seat” in
that particular course. They are either lower-division general
education requirements, pre-requisites for majors or high demand
classes. The directed funds would be used for a multi-pronged
approach incorporating technology-enhanced learning, student
advising and course redesign to ensure student success.
Bottleneck Courses?
High Demand, Low Supply Courses
High DWF Courses
Place-bound Course Availability
Facilities Limitations
Predictive Scheduling
Goals of Course Redesign
More student through-put
Reduce students repeating courses
Offer high demand courses online
Share online courses within the CSU
Scale and develop exemplary practices
Use hybrid/hyflex models to gain capacity
How can you prepare?
• Team Up – Institutional Approach
• Create dialogue on new approaches
– Pick an article or topic like ‘MOOCs’
• Host a student panel on technology
– Record and playback for particular focus groups
• Summer Institutes focused on “21st Century
• Crowdsource solutions to “bottlenecks”
California SB 520
Draft Bill for Online Education
• SECTION 1. The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:
• (a) In recent years, California’s public higher education institutions have
faced skyrocketing demand for enrollment at a time when they lack
capacity to provide students with access to courses necessary for program
completion and success.
• (b) In the 2012 – 13 academic year, 85 percent of California Community
Colleges (CCC) reported having waiting lists for their fall 2012 course
sections, with a statewide average of more than 7,000 students on waiting
lists per college.
• (c) Similarly, impacted courses have contributed significantly to
difficulties within the University of California (UC) and California State
University (CSU) systems, with figures indicating that only 60 percent and
16 percent of students, respectively, are able to earn a degree within
four years, with lack of access to key courses a factor in increased timeto-degree.
California SB 520
Draft Bill for Online Education
• (d) With rapidly developing innovation in online course delivery models,
California’s public institutions of higher education have a unique
opportunity to meet critical demands for enrollment and reduce time-todegree by providing students with access to high-quality, alternative,
online pathways to successfully complete and obtain credit for the most
impacted lower division courses.
• (e) California could significantly benefit from a statutorily enacted, qualityfirst, faculty-led framework allowing students in online courses in
strategically selected lower division majors and general education fields to
be awarded credit at the UC, CSU, and CCC systems. While providing easy
access to these courses, these systems could also continually assess the
value of the courses and grates of student success in utilizing these
alternative online pathways.
Contact Info
• Kathy Fernandes
Email: [email protected]
Twitter: KathyFern
There is no greater joy than
the Joy of Learning.

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