Ms. Marcela Main Sancha - Second United Nations Conference on

Emerging challenges for LLDCs: Climate
Brainstorming Meeting on the Priorities of a New Development Agenda for the
Landlocked Developing Countries
20 and 21 March 2013, UNHQ, New York
Adaptation Programme, UNFCCC secretariat
Landlocked countries under the UNFCCC
Article 4, paragraph 8, element (i), of the Convention states that,
… In the implementation of the commitments in this Article, the Parties shall give full
consideration to what actions are necessary under the Convention, including actions related to
funding, insurance and the transfer of technology, to meet the specific needs and concerns of
developing country Parties arising from the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impact
of the implementation of response measures, especially on:
(a), (b), ….. , (i) Land-locked and transit countries.
Further, LDCs are specially recognized under Article 4, paragraph 9:
… Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least
developed countries in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology.
Landlocked countries under the UNFCCC
Article 4, paragraph 8:
(a) Small island countries;
(b) Countries with low-lying coastal areas;
(c) Countries with arid and semi-arid areas, forested areas and areas liable to forest
(d) Countries with areas prone to natural disasters;
(e) Countries with areas liable to drought and desertification;
(f) Countries with areas of high urban atmospheric pollution;
(g) Countries with areas with fragile ecosystems, including mountainous ecosystems;
(h) Countries whose economies are highly dependent on income generated from the
production, processing and export, and/or on consumption of fossil fuels and
associated energy-intensive products; and
(i) Land-locked and transit countries.
National Adaptation Plans:
To reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive
capacity and resilience;
To facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into
relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular
development planning
Decision 1/CP.16: process to enable LDCs. Decision 5/CP.17: Other developing
countries invited to apply the same guidelines.
Decision 12/CP.18: Guidance to the GEF for supporting LDCs through the LDC
Fund; invitation to consider how non-LDCs may be supported through the Special
Climate Change Fund (GEF’s response expected after Council meeting in June
The Adaptation Committee to consider relevant modalities for supporting non-LDC
interested developing country Parties on the NAP process
Clean Development Mechanism:
Partnership to enhance regional distribution of projects: Nairobi Framework
Partnership (NFP)
2. Specific target of helping developing countries, especially those in sub-Sahara Africa,
to improve their level of participation in the clean development mechanism (CDM).
Regional collaboration centres
Lomé, Togo, in partnership with the Banque Ouest Africaine de Développement
Kampala, Uganda, in partnership with the East African Development Bank (EADB)
Finance and support
– Africa Carbon Asset Development Initiative (ACAD)
– African Carbon Support Programme (ACSP) by the AfDB
– Carbon Fund For Africa (FCA)
– African Biofuels and Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF)
– UNDP’S MDGs Carbon Facility (LDC support)
Climate finance
• Adaptation Fund
Established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in
developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol and are
particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change
• Green Climate Fund
Representation: The Board has 24 members, composed of an equal
number of members from developing and developed country Parties.
Representation from developing country Parties include representatives
of relevant United Nations regional groupings and representatives from
A new climate agreement by 2015
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP)
– A protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under
the Convention applicable to all Parties.
– As early as possible but no later than 2015
– To come into effect and be implemented from 2020.
Secretary-General’s engagement with leaders
– To secure ambition
Accelerated and scaled-up action on the ground
Committed by 2015; implemented before 2020
To secure global participation
All major emitters
Legally binding
To scale-up climate financing
Public funding
Leverage significant private investment
Quantifiable progress by 2015
Secretary-General’s engagement with leaders
• 2013
– Climate finance
• 2014
– UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon announced he would
convene world leaders in 2014 to mobilize political will to help
ensure the 2015 deadline is met
• By 2015
– A new global and legally binding climate agreement
Marcela Main
[email protected]

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