Ground-probers Bill longer than typical insectivore, decurved, sharply pointed. Ground-probers typically have plain backs that match substrate. Furnariidae: Upucerthia, Ochetorhynchus: 8 species Mimidae: Toxostoma: 7 species Alaudidae: Alaemon: 2 species Upupidae: 1 species Two orders, at least 4 families; at least 18 species Bark-probers Like Ground-probers, but back typically with some streaks. Toes and tail often show climbing adaptations, as in these specialized climbers. Certhiidae: 8 species Dendrocolaptidae: woodcreepers ;ca. 50 species Bark-probers Like Ground-probers, but back typically with some streaks. This set of birds are not as specialized for climbing as the Dendrocolaptidae and Certhiidae – their toes have extra-dtrong and curved toenails, but their tails are not specilaized for bracing against a branch. Vangidae: Falculea, 1 species Fringillidae: Hemignathus; ca. 4 species Paradisaeidae: Epimachus, 2 species Phoeniculidae: woodhoopoes, 8 species Two orders, at least 6 families; at least 70 species Mud-probers Bill very long, typically rather blunt at tip. Legs long for wading. Scolopacidae:, ca. 85 species Ibidorhynchidae: Ibisbill, 1 species Mud-probers Bill very long, typically rather blunt at tip. Legs long for wading. Rostratulidae: painted-snipes, 2 species Threskiornithidae: 30 species Rallidae: ca. 50 species Apterygidae: kiwis, 3 species Aramidae: Limpkin, 1 species Four orders, at least 7 families; at least 170 species Flower-probers Philepittidae: Neodrepanis, 2 species 8 families, ca. 500 species Meliphagidae: honeyeaters, ca. 30 species Fringillidae: Vestiaria, 1 species Nectariniidae: sunbirds, ca. 125 species Although most flowerprobers are brightly colored, some that are not territorial are dull – you won’t be tested on a dull one. Flower-probers Thraupidae: Cyanerpes, Chlorophanes, 4 species Promeropidae: sugarbirds, 2 species Trochilidae: ca. 330 species Mohoidae: O’os, 5 species (Hawaii; extinct) Fish-eaters – dagger shape Anhingidae: 3 species Podicipedidae: 20 species The species in these 4 groups catch fish using underwater, mostly by pursuit. Alcidae: murres and guillemots, 5 species Gaviidae: 5 species Fish-eaters – dagger shape 8 orders, 9 families, ca. 180 species Ardeidae: 65 species Alcedinidae: ca. 25 species Phaethontidae: tropicbirds, 3 species Ciconiidae: ca. 15 species Herons and storks ambush fish by stalking from shore; kingfishers dive-bomb them from perches (although a couple of species also do it while hovering in flight). Laridae: terns, ca. 40 species Most kingfishers don’t eat fish but instead are landbirds that eat large insect and small vertebrates; these species are all in the Afrotropics, Indomalayan, and Australasian (e.g., Kookabura) regions, and their bills differ subtly from those of fish-eating kingfishers. Note: there are a number of fish-eaters that you will not be tested on that have bills that are basically dagger-shaped but are slightly decurved at the tip, but not really hooked: boobies, gannets, some storks, some terns, some penguins. Terns and tropicbirds dive-bomb fish from the air. Fish-eaters – hooked 3 orders, 4 families, ca. 80 species Anatidae: mergansers, 5 species Phalacrocoracidae: 36 species Fregatidae: 5 species Procellariidae: ca. 20 species Diomedeidae: albatrosses, 15 species Bark-drillers Picidae: 210 species Bark-driller bills superficially look like dagger-shaped fish-eating bills, but in cross-section they are diamond-shaped, not laterally compressed (like a knife blade), and are often blunt at the tip. Although they don’t drill bark the way woodpeckers do, note that there are several other groups that have similar bill shapes for pecking at hard substrates, e.g., nuthatches (Sittidae) and turnstones (Arenaria).