Vocabulary CEI - Colorado Education Initiative The Colorado

Report
Professional Development
Vocabulary
Literacy Design Collaborative
Outcomes
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Learn about vocabulary acquisition
Review research findings on vocabulary instruction
View instructional strategies related to vocabulary
instruction
Develop or revise a mini-task for an LDC module
Session Outline
1. Introduction
2. Reading Assignment
3. Research
4. Research to Action - Activities
5. Research to Action - Video Clip
6. Take Action - Assignment/mini-task
7. Resources
Reading Assignment
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Please go to the link below and read pp. 32-35 of
Appendix A from the Common Core State Standards
for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social
Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
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Guiding Questions on the next page
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http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf
Guiding Questions
1. What research based practice is recommended for
students to increase and retain new vocabulary?
2. Think of examples where you might provide direct
instruction for Tier one, Tier Two and Tier Three words?
3. What process is most effective for acquiring Tier Three
words in content learning?
Research
A Vocabulary Riddle
To comprehend what we read, at least 95% of the words must
be recognized automatically.
How is this possible given the number of words in English?
The Vocabulary Catch-22
Students need to learn more words to read well, but they
need to read well to learn more words.
McKenna, M.C. (2004). Teaching vocabulary to struggling older readers.
Perspectives, 30(1), 13-16.
The Importance of Vocabulary
Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant
predictor of comprehension ten years later.
Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to
experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934-945.
Why is a large vocabulary
associated with good
comprehension?
The Instrumental Hypothesis
Vocabulary aids comprehension by providing the reader
with a tool, or instrument.
The Knowledge Hypothesis
It’s not so much the words themselves that help, but
the knowledge they represent.
The Aptitude Hypothesis
Comprehension and vocabulary are correlated “not
because one causes the other, but because both reflect a
more general underlying verbal aptitude.”
– Stahl & Nagy (2005)
The Access Hypothesis
A larger vocabulary means
• deeper understanding of words (including nuances of
meaning)
• quicker access to words in the lexicon
• flexibility in deciding among multiple meanings
The Reciprocal Hypothesis
Having a bigger
vocabulary makes
you a better reader
Reading more
gives you a bigger
vocabulary
Being a better reader
makes it possible for
you to read more
Four Obstacles to Acquiring a Large
Vocabulary
1. The number of words in English is very large
2. Academic English differs from the kind of English used at
home
3. Word knowledge involves far more than learning definitions
4. Sources of information about words are often hard to use
or are unhelpful
Stahl & Nagy (2005)
How do we learn words
from experiences?
Gavagai
An aborigine points to a running rabbit and says “Gavagai.”
Can you infer the word’s meaning?
Meaning
Each encounter with a word helps a student
narrow its meaning. For example, if he hears the
word gavagai used to refer to a sitting rabbit, the
student will infer that running is not connected
with the meaning.
Meaning
Young children learn word meanings from one-on-one
interactions with parents and siblings. These interactions
may be rich or poor. Consider two examples based on
Hart and Risley’s (1995) comparison of families of
different socioeconomic levels.
Yeah.
Do I have to
eat these?
“Motherese”
Yes, because
they have
vitamins that
will help you
grow and get
stronger.
Do I have to
eat these?
What does it mean
to know a word?
A Continuum of Word Knowledge
No knowledge
A vague sense of the meaning
Narrow knowledge with aid of context
Good knowledge but shaky recall
Rich, decontextualized knowledge,
connected to other word meanings
Lexicon
That part of long-term memory devoted to word
knowledge.
For example, when we read the word cat, this word
is accessed in the lexicon, along with the various
connections we have associated with it.
How is a word stored
in the lexicon?
cat
cat
c-a-t
/kat/
“meow”
cat
4 legs
pet
c-a-t
/kat/
animal
“meow”
cat
c-a-t
/kat/
4 legs
pet
lion
animal
mammal
“meow”
cat
c-a-t
/kat/
4 legs
pet
lion
animal
mammal
“meow”
cat
c-a-t
/kat/
4 legs
pet
lion
animal
mammal
“meow”
cat
dog
c-a-t
/kat/
4 legs
pet
lion
animal
mammal
“meow”
cat
dog
c-a-t
/kat/
4 legs
pet
lion
animal
mammal
“meow”
cat
dog
4 legs
c-a-t
/kat/
pet
lion
Dual Coding Theory
Two systems are involved in learning words. One
contains verbal information, the other non-verbal
(images). When we learn a word, real-world images that
we associate with the concept are also stored.
Accessing a word in the lexicon therefore involves both
the verbal system and non-verbal (imagery) system.
~ Moral ~
When teaching new words, use pictures and other
images where possible.
New meanings and even new pronunciations of a word
may be added to a student’s lexicon over time.
prodúce
próduce
produce
Raw veggies
to make
“Lean”
For example, the word lean is initially learned around fourth grade as the act
of allowing one object to rest against another. It is typically not until eighth
grade that children learn that one person might lean on someone else for
emotional support.
lean
To rest
one
object
against
another
To rely on
another
person
for
support
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 •••
Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.),
Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28-40). New York: Guilford.
Is wide reading enough?
Why Wide Reading Is
Enough
Why Wide Reading
Is Not Enough
Vocabulary size and
the amount a child reads
are correlated.
Context is generally
unreliable as a means of
inferring word meanings.
Direct instruction cannot
possibly account for the
number of word meanings
children acquire.
Most words occur too
infrequently to provide the
number of exposures
needed to learn them.
“There is no obvious reason why direct
vocabulary instruction and wide reading cannot
work in tandem.”
– Marzano (2004, p. 112)
Robert
Marzano
What are some of the guiding
principles of teaching
vocabulary?
Guiding Principle
Pre-teach key words to
improve comprehension.
Guiding Principle
Provide more than definitions.
Definitions Are Only a Start
Some teachers fall into the trap of
assuming that if a child can match a
word to its definition, the words
meaning has been acquired.
WORD = DEFINITION
Stimulus
Response
WORD = DEFINITION
Stimulus
Response
“Truncate” = “to cut off”
WORD = DEFINITION
Stimulus
Response
“Truncate” = “to cut off”
“She truncated the lights.”
Guiding Principle
Combine definitions and contextual
examples.
Guiding Principle
Minimize rote copying of definitions.
Guiding Principle
Introduce new words in related clusters.
antennae
leg
thorax
wing
abdomen
In content areas, clustering words is natural!
But general vocabulary words
can be clustered too!
Guiding Principle
Provide brief, periodic review.
A Thought Experiment
Group 1
• Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words
• Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words
• This hour is uninterrupted
Group 2
The second group receives the same instruction
Group 1
• Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words
• Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words
Group 2
• Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words
• Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words
• This hour is broken into 6 10-minute sessions, 1 per
month for 6 months
Assuming that no one
encountered any of the 20
words again, which group
would do better on a test
after a delay of 10 years?
Group 2 will do far better on
any delayed test.
Massed vs. Distributed Practice
What did the National Reading Panel
conclude about teaching vocabulary?
NRP Findings on Vocabulary
• Teaching vocabulary improves general
comprehension ability
• Pre-teaching vocabulary helps both word
learning and comprehension of a selection
• Much vocabulary is acquired through incidental
exposure
• Repeated exposures in a variety of contexts
are important
NRP Findings on Vocabulary
• A combination of definitions and contextual
examples works better than either one alone
• Many instructional methods can be effective in
teaching vocabulary
• Instructional methods should result in active
engagement
• Both direct and indirect methods should be
used
NRP Findings on Vocabulary
• The more connections that are made to a
word, the better the word tends to be learned
• Computer applications can be effective
• The effectiveness of some instructional
methods depends on the age or ability of the
student
What the NRP Doesn’t Know About
Vocabulary Instruction
• Which methods work best with students of
different ages and abilities?
• How can technology best be used to teach
vocabulary?
• How is vocabulary best integrated with
comprehension instruction?
• What combinations of instructional methods
tend to work best?
• What are the best ways to assess vocabulary?
What are some of the most
effective ways to teach
vocabulary?
Some Research-Based Techniques
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Read-Alouds
Semantic Feature Analysis
Graphic Organizers
List-Group-Label
Semantic Maps (word webs)
Word Lines
Word Sorts
Possible Sentences
A Closer Look at Definitions
golf n.
1.
•
a good walk spoiled (Mark Twain)
2. a game in which a player using special clubs
attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible
into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course
(Webster)
golf n.
…a game in which a player using special clubs
attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as
possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on
a course
This definition, like nearly all definitions of nouns,
has two components.
class
distinguishing features
a game in which a player using special
clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few
strokes as possible into each of the 9 or
18 successive holes on a course
class
distinguishing features
a game
in which a player using special clubs
attempts to sink a ball with as few
strokes as possible into each of the
9 or 18 successive holes on a
course
Graphic Organizers
A graphic organizer is a diagram that
shows how key terms are related.
Why Use Graphic Organizers?
• They are easy to construct and discuss
• Technical terms can be taught in clusters
• They help kids “see” abstract content
• They enhance recall and understanding
• They have an impressive research base
Act 1
Act 2
Act 3
Act 4
Act 5
Exposition
Complication
Climax
Resolution
Conclusion
Shakespearean Tragedy
Exposition Complication
Climax
Resolution
Conclusion
Exposition Complication Climax
Resolution
Conclusion
Complication
Exposition
Conclusion
Complication Climax
Resolution
Climax
Complication
Exposition
Complication Climax
Resolution
ResolutionConclusion
Rising
Action
Exposition
Climax
Complication
Resolution
Complication Climax
ResolutionConclusion
Rising
Action
Climax
Complication
Exposition
Complication Climax
Falling
Action
Resolution
ResolutionConclusion
egg
• pupa
adult
larva
Tree Diagrams
drugs
stimulants
depressants
alcohol
barbiturates
caffeine
Dexedrine
drugs
stimulants
caffeine Dexedrine
depressants
alcohol
barbiturates
Musical Instruments
Musical Instruments
wind
nonwind
Musical Instruments
wind
brass
woodwind
nonwind
Musical Instruments
wind
brass
woodwind
nonwind
string
percussion
Musical Instruments
wind
brass
trumpet
woodwind
clarinet
nonwind
string
violin
percussion
drum
Venn Diagrams
Frog and Toad
Curious George
No people
Animal
Characters
Animals
talk
Could
happen
Sociograms
Sara
Delano
(1855-1941)
James
Roosevelt
(1828-1900)
Elliott
Roosevelt
(1860?-94)
Franklin
Delano
Roosevelt
(1882-1945)
Anna
b. 1906
James
b. 1907
Anna
Hall
(1863-92)
Anna
Eleanor
Roosevelt
(1884-1962)
Elliott
b. 1910
FDR, Jr.
b. 1914
John
b. 1916
List-Group-Label
Hilda Taba’s idea later led to many related techniques.
List
Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the
end of a unit.
Group
Students suggest logical ways to group the words.
Label
Students suggest a label for each group they form.
List
Students brainstorm all the words they can recall
at the end of a unit.
Group
Students suggest logical ways to group the words.
Label
Students suggest a label for each group they form.
List
Students brainstorm all the words they can recall
at the end of a unit.
Group
Students suggest logical ways to group the words.
Label
Students suggest a label for each group they form.
no legs
boa
venom
garter
cobra
fang
scales
coral
tail
rattle
copperhead
trees
holes
ground
no legs garter
boa
venom
cobra
fang
scales
coral
tail
rattle
copperhead
trees
holes
ground
no legs
boa
venom
garter
cobra
fang
scales
coral
tail
rattle
copperhead
trees
holes
ground
garter
boa
copperhead
cobra
coral
Thing Snakes Might Have
rattle
scales
fang
no legs
venom
tail
trees
holes
ground
no legs
boa
venom
garter
cobra
fang
scales
coral
tail
rattle
copperhead
trees
holes
ground
Kinds of Snakes
garter
boa
copperhead
cobra
coral
Things Snakes Might
Have
rattle
scales
fang
no legs
venom
tail
Where Snakes Are
Found
trees
holes
ground
Semantic Maps
• (Word Webs)
Brainstorming
Students offer ideas related to a topic
Mapping
Teacher and students form categories and map the words
into a diagram
Reading
Students read a nonfiction selection
Completing the Map
Teacher and students revisit the map and together refine
and expand it
rattle
scales
fang
no legs
venom
tail
Things Snakes
Might Have
Snakes
garter
boa
copperhead
cobra
coral
Kinds
Where
trees
holes
ground
Semantic maps have the
advantage of mirroring how
words are stored in the
lexicon.
animal
mammal
“meow”
cat
dog
4 legs
c-a-t
/kat/
lion
pet
Word Lines
hot
cold
hot
tepid
cold
hot
tepid
sweltering
cold
hot
tepid
sweltering
cold
chilly
hot
tepid
sweltering
cold
chilly
Word Sorts
Open Sort
Categories are not given
thorax
abdomen
wing
adult
egg
pupa
antennae
larva
head
leg
Closed Sort
Parts
Stages
Closed Sort
Parts
thorax
abdomen
wing
head
leg
antennae
Stages
pupa
Egg
larva
adult
Possible Sentences
•
Present a list of 8-12 words the students will encounter in
the new text
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Add a few familiar terms
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Ask for sentences containing at least two of the words
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Teach the text
•
Return to the sentences
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Together decide whether they are correct or can be
edited to make them so
Word Cards
• Students need to focus on words for more than a few
seconds to increase understanding
• Students “do the work!”
• Provide 5x7 note cards and have students divide in 4
quadrants
Vocabulary Card: Frayer Model
Essential Characteristics
Nonessential Characteristics
word
Examples
Non-exemplars
Marzano’s 6-step Process for Direct
Vocabulary Instruction
1. Teacher provides a description and example of the
new term
2. Students restate the explanation in their own terms
3. Students create a non-linguistic representation of the
word
Marzano’s 6-step Process for Direct
Vocabulary Instruction
4.
5.
6.
Students do activities with the identified words to
ensure distributed practice and multiple exposures
Students discuss the terms with one another
Students use games to “play” with the words.
In addition, he recommends the use of a vocabulary
notebook for each student.
Marzono, R. (2004) Building BackgroundKnowledge for Academic Achievement. Alexandria, VO:
ASCD.
Research in Action
Integrating Vocabulary Instruction in the
Content Area
1. Intentionally select words that are worth teaching
2. Model use of the selected words
3. Allow time for students to use the words immediately
after modeling
Integrating Vocabulary Instruction In the
Content Area
4. Give tasks that promote application and personalization
5. Engage students in authentic reading tasks, daily,
focusing on high-frequency prefixes, suffixes and root
words
(Fisher & Frey, 2008)
Selecting Words to Teach
“Research shows that some words can be learned from
reading, but not until students encounter the new words
repeatedly-through reading many other texts, verbal
discussion,….”
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2008)
Word Selection
With the idea that students can learn (successfully) eight
to ten words a week, how can we select the words that
are worth teaching?
Isabel Beck (2002) and Fischer and Frey (2008) suggest
choosing words from Tier 2 & Tier 3 that fit the following
guidelines….
Representation
• Is the word critical to understanding the text?
• Is the word representative of a family of words?
• Does the word represent an idea that is necessary to
understand related concepts?
Repeatability
• Does the word occur repeatedly in the text?
• Will the word be used again this year?
Transportability
• Will the word be used in discussion?
• Will the word be required in writing?
• Will the word be used in other content areas?
Contextual Analysis
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Will students be able to figure out the meaning using
context clues or is direct instruction needed?
Structural Analysis
• Will students use structural analysis to determine the
meaning or do they need direct instruction?
Cognitive Load
•
Have I identified an appropriate number of words that
students will be able to integrate and apply the
meanings of the words?
Choice Literacy Podcast
Learn more about vocabulary instruction and how it is connected to the Common
Core Standards and reading comprehension.
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/doug-fisher-onvocabulary/id488875239?i=111953207
Tier 1 Words
Some learners new to English may also need background
knowledge and support in Tier 1 words. This is a link to a
word list that includes 850 words that are phonetically
regular, easy to pronounce and could be a boost for
English learners.
Ogden’s Basic English Word List
http://ogden.basic-english.org/words.html
More Vocabulary Resources
“In the long run, effective intervention will involve
extended vocabulary work as a normal part the
curriculum.”
Andy
Biemiller
Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.),
Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28-40). New York: Guilford.
Online Dictionaries
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General Words: www.merriam-webster.com
Visual Dictionary: www.infovisual.info
Rhyming Words: www.rhymezone.com
Spanish Language: www.spanishdict.com
World Languages: www.wordreference.com
Thesaurus: www.bartleby.com/thesauri
References
• Baumann, J.F., & Kame’enui, E.J. (2004). Vocabulary instruction:
Research to practice. New York: Guilford.
• Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S.R., & Johnston, F. Words
their way (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
• Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to
life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.
• Beck, I.L., McKeown, (2008). Rev It Up: Robust Encounters with
Vocabulary. Orlando, Florida: Steck-Vaughn.
• Blachowicz, C., & Cobb, C., (2007). Teaching Vocabulary Across
the Content Areas. Alexandria, VA : ASCD.
References
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Fisher, D. & Frey,N. (2008). Word Wise Content Rich: Five Essential Steps
to Teaching Academic Vocabulary. Porstsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
•
Marzano, R. (2004) Building Background Knowledge for
Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
•
Nagy, W.E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension.
Newark, DE: IRA.Erlbaum.
•
Stahl, S.A. (1999). Vocabulary development. Cambridge, MA: Brookline
Books.
•
Stahl, S.A., & Kapinus, B.A. (2001). Word power: What every educator
needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: NEA.
•
Stahl, S.A., & Nagy, W.E. (2005). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum.
Academic

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