Exploring a theoretical framework for interpreting student teachers

Report
John McCullagh
Irene Bell
Stranmillis University College Belfast
TEAN Conference
16th May 2014
Content
 Introduction
 Project details and Methods
 Findings
 Conclusion
Introduction and Background
McCullagh, J.F., Bell, I.,
Corscadden, F. (2013) ‘How does
video analysis support student
teachers in the
very early stages of their initial
teacher education?, Tean Journal
5(3), pp.38- 51.
Our previous research on video within ITE showed …
 Video greatly supports learning to teach.
 Interaction with video (and each other),enriches
learning.
 Even limited experience has significant impact on
students’ future practice.
 Students would welcome further use of video.
Research Aims
 To access students’ first
hand experience of using
video.
 To explore a theoretical
framework to explain
why video is such an
effective tool within ITE.
Project Details
 A cohort (N=19) Year 1 Maths/Science students on B.Ed
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Programme.
Two sessions of micro-teaching and group video analysis (at
Stranmillis)
Observation and video recording of exemplar lessons in
partner school
Video analysis of exemplar lesson
Video analysis of own teaching
Evaluate and edit group video
Project included within module assessment
Research Design
Look for evidence of ‘activity’ across a range of video
activities.
 Micro-teaching
 Viewing video of exemplar Maths and Science Lessons
 Students’ own first attempts at classroom teaching
Data Collection
Student voice accessed via;
 Questionnaires after each task
 Questionnaire on completion of teaching placement
(separate to project).
 Focus group interviews (six groups)
Theories on the use of video
focus more on the cognitive than affective
Why might video support student learning?
 Enhances observation- (detail, perspective, multiple
viewings, structure, objectivity)
Sherin,M.G. & van ES,E. (2005),
 Captured actions (video) sustain internal conversation
and therefore thought
Hung,H.(2009)
 Facilitates collaboration- peers, tutors, community of
learners
Newton & Sorenson (2010), Rickard et al.(2009)
 ‘Tasks’ make reflection more interactive, less rooted in
the past, more proactive.
Yerrick et al (2005)
Developing Professional Competence
Video assists with the development of ‘professional vision’ (Goodwin,
2007) – Sezen-Barrie et al (2013) describe this as comprising
‘Highlighting’ – labelling the parts of the activity that need attention in order to
help professionals understand a complex activity.
‘Coding’- uncovering the values and cultural significance that are attached to the
highlighted aspects of activity.
Similar to van Es and Sherin’s (2002) conceptualisation of ‘noticing’
-identify what is important
-make connections between the specific to broader principles
-use context knowledge to reason.
Developed Practice
Practice matches student’s
concept of ‘ideal’
Video Supported
Zone of Proximal Development
Cognitive Activities
Emotional Aspects
Observing
Comparing
Challenging ideas
Testing
Questioning
Explaining
Motivation
Confidence
Excitement
Empathy
Reassurance
Resilience
Student drawn into the VSPD by
dissatisfaction with current practice
Basic Practice
Adapted from Murphy’s model for Co-teaching (2012)
Progression
through areas
and levels of
competence
requires
repeated
cycles of
development
Micro-teaching- Individual Evaluation
 After watching the video students’
evaluations were less ‘neutral’
 Comments were more detailed and
precise
 ALL reported ‘increase’ or ‘large
increase’ in motivation‘want to work on weaknesses’
‘I can see the potential in me’
‘I can see I need to be better
prepared so I am motivated to
plan better’
Micro-teaching 1: Rating before watching
video
12
Neutral, 11
10
Students (N=19)
8
6
Sat, 5
4
Unsat, 3
2
Very Sat, 0
Very unsat, 0
0
Very Sat
Sat
Neutral
Unsat
More than half rate lesson as ‘neutral’
Very unsat
Change in rating after watching video
Better, 9
9
8
Worse, 7
No of students N=19)
7
6
5
4
No change, 3
3
2
1
Much better, 0
Much worse, 0
0
Much better
Better
No change
Worse
Axis Title
Watching video changed students rating
Much worse
Was it useful?
• ALL reported ‘yes’
• It provided detailed feedback
• Reassurance- I could see that I could do it
• It was a ‘real’ activity
Micro-teaching- Group Evaluation
How did video alter group discussion?
• Collectively more is noticed and therefore discussed
• Peers balance weaknesses with strengths
• Reassurance- ‘we are all in this together’
• Feedback is honest and direct
• After discussion 11 students reconsidered
lesson as ‘better’; 8 unchanged
• ALL reported increase in motivation
- ‘positive vibe within the group’
• Concrete evidence challenges perspectives
- greater certainty and richer discussion
• Watching sparks ideas for issues to explore, so we
see more and more.
Micro-teaching 2
17 of 19 students felt lesson was better
• Better prepared
• More confident
• Improved on a specific weakness
16 of 19 report greater confidence
• ‘I can see I have improved’
• All referred back to first video
13 of 19 students cited future teaching of pupils
- Concerns with managing a real class?
-Excitement, enthusiasm at classroom teaching
Students ‘ready’ for next stage
Viewing video of exemplar Maths and Science Lessons
How did video support?
• Repeated viewing and fine detail
• Access to others’ views on observed practice
• Discussion could happen throughout viewing
• Representation of lesson structure
Impact on motivation
• 17 of 19 students were ‘more motivated’
- ‘I want my pupils to be that engaged’
- ‘I could see how fine detail of planning pays
off’
- ‘I could see what I can aspire towards’
Anxiety
10 students reported increase in anxiety, 7 decrease
- Intimidated by knowledge level of pupils
- ‘I will not be at this standard’
- ‘Conversation with teacher and planning support was reassuring’
Students’ own first attempts at classroom teaching
• All students reported that video led to More Discussion and a Higher Level of
discussion.
- Not focusing only on partially recalled incidents
- Reality firmed up opinions
- Evidence to support judgements on strengths and weaknesses
- Access a shared perspective and contest it
- Simultaneously watch a peer and explore their thinking
- Only two students did not change their rating ( 13 ‘Better’, 4 ‘Worse’)
- Peers identified things I took for granted as ‘Strengths’
‘ The video has put my analysis on a higher level- I now know better what to watch
out for when teaching and what to think about afterwards.’
‘ I couldn’t analyse things as I went along because I was too busy teaching, but
now I could watch the video, and watch again and again.’
‘ I found seeing myself teaching in front of a real class so encouraging. I was alike a
real teacher!’
- Simultaneously watch a peer and explore their thinking
- Only two students did not change their rating ( 13 ‘Better’, 4 ‘Worse’)
- Peers identified things I took for granted as ‘Strengths’
‘ The video has put my analysis on a higher level- I now know better what to watch
out for when teaching and what to think about afterwards.’
‘ I couldn’t analyse things as I went along because I was too busy teaching, but now I
could watch the video, and watch again and again.’
‘ I found seeing myself teaching in front of a real class so encouraging. I was alike a
real teacher!’
Developed Practice
Practice matches student’s
concept of ‘ideal’
Video Supported
Zone of Proximal Development
Cognitive Activities
Emotional Aspects
Observing
Comparing
Challenging ideas
Testing
Questioning
Explaining
Motivation
Confidence
Excitement
Empathy
Reassurance
Resilience
Student drawn into the VSPD by
dissatisfaction with current practice
Basic Practice
Adapted from Murphy’s model for Co-teaching (2012)
Progression
through areas
and levels of
competence
requires
repeated
cycles of
development
Conclusion
• All three contexts of video use are hugely beneficial
- (Possible parallel with Vygotsky’s Social Situation of Development and the
notion of the conflict between ability and desire.)
• Video impacts on both affective and cognitive aspects of learning
• Don’t underestimate the importance of affective aspects of learning to be a
teacher- we are how we feel.
References
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Goodwin,C. (1994) Professional vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606-633.
Hung,H. (2009) Learners’ perceived value of video as mediation in foreign language learning, Journal of
Educational Multimedia & Hypermedia,18 (2), 171-190.
Murphy, C. (2012) Personal Communication
Newton,L. & Sorensen,P. (2010) Research into practice: using digital video to foster pre-service
teachers’ collaborative reflection around scientific inquiry. Paper presented at National Association of
Research in Science Teaching Annual Conference, Philadelphia 2010.
Sezen-Barrie, A., Tran, M., McDonald, S., & Kelly, G.J (2013) A cultural Historical Activity Theory
perspective to understand preservice science teachers’ reflections on and tensions during a
microteaching experience. Cultural Studies of Science Education. In Press.
Van Es, E. A. & Sherin, M. G. (2002) Learning to notice: Scaffolding new teachers’ interpretations of
classroom interactions. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10, 571-596.
Contact details
[email protected]

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