M2M Communications

Impact of M2M Communications to
E.212 Resources (IMSI)
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
19 April 2012
M2M Communications
• M2M Communications
Example of M2M scene setup
– Machine to Machine
– understood as a fully or
largely automated
communication (data
transfer) between two or
more information and
communications (ICT)
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
Subscriber to a M2M service
M2M service provider
Subscriber’s communication line
Telecom operator’s switch
M2M service provider’s communication
line to the telecom operator
Features of M2M Communications
• Between 2010 and 2020 demand of M2M Communications
identifiers will increase about 20% annually – in 2020 we will
need 6 times as many identifiers as in 2010
• Because of the nature of M2M Communications, mobile
telephone numbers are the best numbering options for M2M
• According to the ECC / WG NaN report six European
countries would run out of mobile telephone numbers before
2020 because of M2M
ECC = Electronic Communications Committee within CEPT
WG NaN = Working Group Numbering and Networks within ECC
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
Examples of M2M Communication
Home security
– Automatic alarm to supervision center
– Typical technology: 2G/3G/4G
e-Calls in cars
– EU Directive: all cars manufactured in Europe need to have eCall feature by 2015
– Typical technology: 2G/3G/4G/satellite
Smart metering (e.g. at home)
– Electricity, distant heating, etc.
– Typical technology: short range radio
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
International Mobile Subscription Identity
In addition to E.164 numbers
mobile connections require
E.212 codes to operate
Technical call setup codes
(IMSI) are defined in ITU-T
Rec. E.212 ”The international
identification plan for public
networks and subscriptions”
IMSI = International Mobile
Subscription Identity, the code
invisible to a mobile network
user, resides in a SIM card
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
Structure of IMSI
3 digits
2-3 digits
max of 10 digits
max of 15 digits
• MCC = Mobile Country Code (DK = 238)
• MNC = Mobile Network Code
• MSIN = Mobile Subscription Identification Number
• MNCs can only be assigned to
”Recognised Operating Agencies”,
i.e. Network operators
What is the problem?
Mobile telephone numbers are the best alternative to address M2M
– E.164 numbers and E.212 IMSI are needed in huge amounts
Not only network operators work in field of M2M
– Need to change rules on who is eligible to an MNC
E.212 Recommendation was drafted before GSM networks started
operation (in 1980’s)
– Competition was gradually beginning
– E.212 predicted that 100 or 1000 codes for operators would be
enough (MNC is either 2 digits [102] or 3 digits [103] long)
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
What is the problem?
MNC assignments started with 2 digits allowing 100 operators
Technology has not allowed mixing 2 and 3 digit MNCs within the
same MCC
General principle in numbering administration:
– Exhaustion of numbering resources CANNOT happen
With E.212 resources there are very little possibilites to adapt the
plan with the demand
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
How to solve the problem?
At the recent ITU-T SG2 meeting India came with a proposal how to
mix 2 and 3 digit MNCs
– Proposal is now on a consultation round
– Even 1000 MNCs (operator codes) are not likely to be enough
Each country in the world could be assigned the 2nd MCC with the
demand to assign MNCs as 3 digits long
As M2M applications continue to grow, and new M2M like application
families will certainly be developed, current E.212 resources are
likely to exhaust within next 20 years (maybe even sooner than that!)
The international players have understood the situation
– A brand new ”E.212bis” could be developed to solve the problem, but...
– International cooperation takes time...
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO
Thank you!
Jukka Rakkolainen / ECO

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