Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and their place in therapy Katee Lira, PharmD PGY2 Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Resident St. Vincent Joshua Max Simon Primary Care Center September 18, 2014 This speaker has no actual or potential conflicts of interest to disclose in relation to this presentation. Objectives • Recall the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors • List potential benefits and concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors • Recognize available SGLT2 inhibitors and appropriate dosing • Identify place in therapy for SGLT2 inhibitors 2 Components that Affect Hyperglycemia 3 DeFronzo RA. Diabetes. 2009;58:773-795. How Do SGLT2 Inhibitors Work? Glucose in blood Glucosuria 4 Chao EC, et al. Nat Rev Drug Discovery. 2010;9:551-559. What % A1c Reduction will SGLT2 Inhibitors Have? 0.5% DPP4 inhibitors 5 Diabetes Care 2014;37: S14-79. 1% SGLT2 inhibitors 1.5% TZDs 2% Metformin Sulfonylureas Highlights of SGLT2 Inhibitors • Indication: adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) •Not approved for <18 years old, T1DM, or DKA • Ongoing studies •Pediatrics •CV outcomes • Benefits •Weight reduction: ~2-3kg •Systolic blood pressure lowering: ~3-5mmHg •Low risk of hypoglycemia 6 List JF, et al. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:650-657. Stenlof K, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. Published online January 24, 2013. Invokana® [package insert]. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2013. Farxiga™ [package insert. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca. 2014. FDA Approved SGLT2 Inhibitors Agent Canagliflozin INVOKANA® Dapagliflozin FARXIGA™ Dosing Initial: 100mg daily Initial: 5mg daily Max: 300mg daily Max: 10mg daily Empagliflozin JARDIANCE® Initial: 10mg daily Max: 25mg daily Administration Before the first meal of the day In the morning with or without food In the morning with or without food Renal Dose Adjustments Yes Yes Yes Cost ~$350 for 30 tablets ~$350 for 30 tablets TBD Patient Assistance Available Available TBD 7 Invokana® [package insert]. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2013. Farxiga™ [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca. 2014. Jardiance® [package insert]. Ridgefield, CT. Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2014. Warnings for SGLT2 Inhibitors Adverse drug reactions • • • • Increased urination Vaginal yeast infections Urinary tract infections Nasopharyngitis (dapagliflozin) Precautions • • • • • • • Hypotension Impairment in renal function Hyperkalemia Hypoglycemia Hypersensitivity Increase in LDL Bladder cancer (dapagliflozin) ISMP High Alert Medication – Dispense with Medication Guide 8 Invokana® [package insert]. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2013. Farxiga™ [package insert. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca. 2014. Place in Therapy – Monotherapy • Recent-onset diabetes and mild hyperglycemia (A1c≤7.5%) • Metformin is preferred • If intolerance or contraindication to metformin • SGLT2 inhibitors compared to placebo •Decreasing A1c •Decrease fasting glucose 9 Diabetes Care 2014;37: S14-79. Ferrannini E, et al. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(10):2217-2224. Place in Therapy – Combination Therapy • Initial A1c >7.5% – start dual therapy • Target A1c not reached in 3 months with metformin – add second agent • No preferred agent to be combined with metformin • SGLT2 inhibitors studies have demonstrated improved glycemic control with combination and add-on therapy •Metformin •Sulfonylurea •Thiazolidinedione •Insulin 10 Diabetes Care 2014;37: S14-79. Bailey CJ, et al. Lancet. 2010;375(9733):2223-2233. Strojek K, et al. Abstract 870. EASD 2010. Wilding JPH, et al. Abstract 78-OR. ADA 2010. Bailey CJ et al. Abstract 988-P. ADA 2011. Patient Centered Approach When Considering SGLT2 Inhibitors Pros • Effectiveness independent of insulin • Can ↓ A1c by ~1% • Combine with other oral anti-diabetics and insulin • Low risk for hypoglycemia • Small amount of weight loss • Small ↓ in blood pressure 11 Diabetes Care 2014;37: S14-79. Cons • Adequate renal function required • ↑ urinary frequency • Electrolyte disturbances • ↑ risk of UTIs and vaginal yeast infections • Orthostatic hypotension • Lipid abnormalities (↑ LDL) • Cost Assessment Question Which of the following is a counseling point to tell a patient being started on canagliflozin? A. Will cause significant weight loss B. Take before the last meal of the day C. May increase your risk of urinary tract infections D. Has a high risk of hypoglycemia in combination with metformin 12 Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and their place in therapy Katee Lira, PharmD PGY2 Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Resident St. Vincent Joshua Max Simon Primary Care Center September 18, 2014 This speaker has no actual or potential conflicts of interest to disclose in relation to this presentation.