Energy Efficiency of Lighting

Report
Main Goal of Efficient Lighting
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The main goal of efficient lighting is to help cut lighting
operational costs 30% to 60% while enhancing lighting
quality, reducing environmental impacts, and
promoting health and work productivity.
Fluorescent lamps, low-mercury fluorescent lamps,
high-intensity discharge lamps, incandescent lamps,
LED lamps, fluorescent ballasts, electronic highintensity discharge ballasts, and luminaries are all
different sources of energy-efficient lighting.
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Making a Difference in the World
• An example of how energy efficient lighting
impacts the world: By using a new energy
efficient light fixtures called, The Illuminator from
Orion Energy Systems of Plymouth, Wisconsin,
Cabela's, of Prairie du Chien, a world leader in
hunting, fishing, and outdoor gear, will save over
4.05 million kilowatt hours (kWh) per year. Along
with that, Cabela's will reduce demand by over a
1/2 Megawatt. Carbon dioxide, which is linked to
global warming, will be reduced by 3,038 tons;
Carbon reduction by 828 tons, sulfur dioxide,
which is related to acid rain, by 11 tons; and
nitrogen oxide, which has an effect on acid rain
and smog, by 26 tons per year; and a Mercury
reduction of .47 pounds
Incandescent, Compact
Fluorescent, and LED
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Fluorescent Light Bulbs
• Replace 100 watt standard incandescent
• Savings of 75% per bulb
• Paying 12 cents per kwh for lighting and you
replaced 6 100 watt incandescent bulbs with 6
fluorescent bulbs, savings of $554 per year
• Power rate of 12 cents per kwh
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Natural Lighting
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Locate windows with daylighting in mind
Low-E glazing
Seasonal window shading
Tubular skylights
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Fiber Optics
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Technological Obstacles
 Energy prices
 Current tax policies
 Utilities’ profits up for electricity or natural gas, and
down by encouraging efficiency.
 The decision about whether to invest in energy
efficiency is often made by someone other than the
person paying the energy bill.
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Political/Economic Obstacles
• Energy-saving light bulbs are so dangerous
that everyone must leave the room for at
least 15 minutes if one falls to the floor and
breaks
• Energy efficient bulbs are more expensive
• LED’s has a very direct field of light
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Benefits of LED Light Bulbs
• Long-lasting - LED bulbs last up to 10 times as long as compact
fluorescents, and far longer than typical incandescents.
• Durable - since LEDs do not have a filament, they are not damaged
under circumstances when a regular incandescent bulb would be
broken. Because they are solid, LED bulbs hold up well to jarring
and bumping.
• Cool - these bulbs do not cause heat build-up; LEDs produce 3.4
btu's/hour, compared to 85 for incandescent bulbs. This also cuts
down on air conditioning costs in the home.
• Mercury-free - no mercury is used in the manufacturing of LEDs.
• More efficient - LED light bulbs use only 2-10 watts of electricity
(1/3rd to 1/30th of Incandescent or CFL) Small LED flashlight bulbs
will extend battery life 10 to 15 times longer than with incandescent
bulbs. Also, because these bulbs last for years, energy is saved in
maintenance and replacement costs. For example, many cities in
the US are replacing their incandescent traffic lights with LED arrays
because the electricity costs can be reduced by 80% or more.
Benefits of LEDs Contd.
• Cost-effective - although LEDs are expensive, the cost
is recouped over time and in battery savings. For the AC
bulbs and large cluster arrays, the best value comes
from commercial use where maintenance and
replacement costs are expensive.
• Light for remote areas - because of the low power
requirement for LEDs, using solar panels becomes more
practical and less expensive than running an electric line
or using a generator for lighting.
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Benefits of CFL Light Bulbs
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Efficient: CFLs are four times more efficient and last up to 10 times longer
than incandescents. A 22 watt CFL has about the same light output as a 100
watt incandescent. CFLs use 50 - 80% less energy than incandescents.
Less Expensive: Although initially more expensive, you save money in the
long run because CFLs use 1/3 the electricity and last up to 10 times as
long as incandescents. A single 18 watt CFL used in place of a 75 watt
incandescent will save about 570 kWh over its lifetime. At 8 cents per kWh,
that equates to a $45 savings.
Reduces Air and Water Pollution: Replacing a single incandescent bulb
with a CFL will keep a half-ton of CO2 out of the atmosphere over the life of
the bulb. If everyone in the U.S. used energy-efficient lighting, we could
retire 90 average size power plants. Saving electricity reduces CO2
emissions, sulfur oxide and high-level nuclear waste.
High-Quality Light: Newer CFLs give a warm, inviting light instead of the
"cool white" light of older fluorescents. They use rare earth phosphors for
excellent color and warmth. New electronically ballasted CFLs don't flicker
or hum.
Versatile: CFLs can be applied nearly anywhere that incandescent lights
are used. Energy-efficient CFLs can be used in recessed fixtures, table
lamps, track lighting, ceiling fixtures and porch lights. 3-way CFLs are also
now available for lamps with 3-way settings. Dimmable CFLs are also
available for lights using a dimmer switch.
Limitations of CFL Light Bulbs
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On/Off cycling: CFLs are sensitive to frequent on/off cycling. Their rated
lifetimes of 10,000 hours are reduced in applications where the light is
switched on and off very often. Closets and other places where lights are
needed for brief illumination should use incandescent or LED bulbs.
Dimmers: Dimmable CFLs are available for lights using a dimmer switch,
but check the package; not all CFLs can be used on dimmer switches.
Using a regular CFL with a dimmer can shorten the bulb life span.
Timers: Most CFLs can be used with a timer, however some timers have
parts which are incompatible with CFLs; to check your timer, consult the
timer package or manufacturer. Using an incompatible timer can shorten the
life of a CFL bulb.
Outdoors: CFLs can be used outdoors, but should be covered or shaded
from the elements. Low temperatures may reduce light levels - check the
package label to see if the bulb is suited for outdoor use.
Retail lighting: CFLs are not spot lights. Retail store display lighting usually
requires narrow focus beams for stronger spot lighting. CFLs are better for
area lighting.
Mercury content: CFLs contain small amounts of mercury which is a toxic
metal. This metal may be released if the bulb is broken, or during disposal.
New 'Alto' CFL bulbs are now available with low-mercury content.
Negative Impacts
• Fluorescent lamps contain small amounts of
mercury as vapor inside the glass tubing
• We don’t really know how to safely recycle CFLs
• Negative health effects of CFLs on people who suffer
from eye disorders, migraines, and epilepsy
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Bibliography
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http://www.pathnet.org/sp.asp?id=16591
http://www.productdose.com/article.php?article_id=1142
http://www.sunlight-direct.com/news.php
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-506347/Anenergy-saving-bulb-gone--evacuate-room-now.html
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1680059/are_energy_
efficient_light_bulbs_good_pg2.html?cat=57
http://www.wbdg.org/resources/efficientlighting.php
http://www.energyvortex.com/pages/headlinedetails.cfm?id=70
8&archive=1
http://www.eartheasy.com/live_energyeff_lighting.htm

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