Revolution in China © Student Handouts, Inc. Fall of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty • Empress Dowager Cixi (18351908) – De facto Chinese monarch (18611908) – “Make me unhappy for a day and I will make you unhappy for a lifetime.” – Conservative and anti-foreign – Blamed by many Chinese for foreign imperialist power in China Fall of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty • Emperor Puyi – the “Last Emperor” – Lived 1906-1967 – Ruled China 1908-1912, and as a puppet for 12 days in 1917 – Puppet emperor of Manchukuo (Japanese-ruled Manchuria), 19321945 – Spent ten years in a Soviet prison after WWII – Lived a quiet life as a regular citizen in communist China – Died of disease during the Cultural Revolution (1967) Republican Revolution (1912) • Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian) – Founded Kuomintang (KMT) – Nationalist party • Overthrew Manchu (Qing) dynasty • Established a republic • President of Chinese Republic who succeeded him – Yuan Shih-k’ai Kuomintang symbol Republic of China: Weaknesses • Disunity – Local warlords fought Kuomintang for control – Wars raged between 1912 and 1928 • Foreign imperialists – Americans, Europeans, and Japanese • Poor transportation – 1914 – only 6,000 miles of railroad track • 225,000 miles in the smaller United States – Few decent roads Questions of Definition • Definition: CIVIL WAR – Armed disputes between rival factions with radically different ideas about the future shape/direction of a country – Differences do not cause the civil war itself – Lack of a political system with legitimacy or monopoly of force to manage the competing claims in a society – Deeply divided society can erupt into civil war when there is no mechanism to manage those divisions. Questions of Definition II • • • Long” Civil War – 1912-1949 – Starting with the collapse of imperial power – Mao's ultimate victory in 1949 allowed a single ruler of the country to emerge – Sustained 37 year period of conflict. “The First” Civil War – 1927-1937 – Started with the “white terror” • Decade of Chaing Kai Shek and the KMT trying to root out the Communists – Interrupted by the Japanese invasion and World War 2 “Second” Chinese Civil War – After World War 2: 1946-1949 Causes: Long-term Timeline • Peasant Poverty – • • • • • • • • • • • • Demographic Crisis: Population grows from 120 to 440 Million 1712 to 1900 White Lotus Rebellion Opium Wars 1839-42 (Unequal Treaties and Spheres of Influence Taiping Rebellion 1850-64 Boxer Rebellion 1898 Boxer Protocol 1901 Hundred Days 1898 Revolution of the Double Tenth 1911 Yuan Shi Kai 1912-16 Warlord Era 1916-27 Treaty of Versailles and the May 4 Movement 1919 CCP formed 1921 First United Front 1924-27 Causes: Long-term • Collapse of imperial power (19th century) – in 19th century played a fundamental role in creating the conditions for the later civil war. – Manchu Qing dynasty weakened due to major external and internal threats » increase in foreign interest in China after defeated by Britain in Opium wars 1839-42 » The superpowers wanted to form spheres of influence and control Chinese trade Causes: Long-term II • • • • • • • • • emperor unable to resist foreign invasion rising of nationalist resentment and internal opposition to the imperial power China’s self-image was distorted nationalists were convinced that the abdication of the emperor was necessary to modernize the country (regain power and reputation) late attempts at reform dynasty was overthrown in 1911 in the Double Tenth Revolution (a military nationalistic uprising) power vacuum arose KMT and CCP fight over power in the civil war collapse of imperial power created the conditions for the later civil war Warlords Causes: Warlords • Warlords and regionalism – failure to fill the power vacuum in 1911 divided up China into different regions • warlords brutally exercised their power over peasants • internal chaos in China due to regionalism • fueled the social and political conditions for the civil war. Causes: Warlords II • Warlords and regionalism – Yuan Shikai • • • • set up a military dictatorship failed to resolve any major problems could not stop foreign control died in 1916 -country descended into chaos as he had not appointed a successor Causes: Warlords III • Warlords and regionalism – powerful warlords divided up the country into independent regions • As country was divided up, more people became nationalistic and wanted to unify China • The social conditions under the warlords were very poor, and the exploitation of peasants would lead to later significant support for the CCP. • As China was internally weak, it had to accept the TOV and grant the former German colony of Shangdong to China’s greatest enemy, Japan (more nationalistic pride) • Chinese desire for change and modernization was very intense: KMT and the CCP formed, offered a solution to China’s problems; both willing to fight for it Foreign Imperialists • Twenty-One Demands (1915) – Japan attempted to make China a Japanese protectorate – Action condemned and stopped by other leading world powers • World War I and the Treaty of Versailles – China attempted to abolish concessions and extraterritoriality • Attempt failed – China did not sign the Treaty of Versailles – Japan gained mandate over most of Germany’s Asian possessions and rights Three Principles of the People • Book published by Sun Yat-sen before his death in 1925 1. Principle of Mínquán • Democracy – the people are sovereign 2. Principle of Mínzú • Nationalism – an end to foreign imperialism 3. Principle of Mínshēng • Livelihood – economic development, industrialization, land reform, and social welfare – elements of progressivism and socialism Growth of Communism • Sun Yat-sen appealed for Russian (Soviet) aid following the Versailles Conference – 1921-1925 – China received advisors, arms, communist propaganda, and loans – Russia revoked its imperialist rights in China Chinese flag, 1912-1928 The Kuomintang (KMT) is Split • Right wing – Business people – Politicians • Left wing – Communists – Intellectuals – Radicals – Students Nationalist Revolution • Sun Yat-sen succeeded by Chiang Kaishek • Communists expelled by Kuomintang • 1926-1928 – war to control the warlords • Capital moved from Peiping (a.k.a. Peking, today’s Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing) Presidential Palace under Kuomintang Government in Nanjing The Ideological Divide – Ideological Divide • played crucial role in bringing about war (how was China to be united?) – Positions of the belligerents • CCP (Mao) – Communist ideology (classless society, state withered away) – Soviet communism (Chinese conditions) → peasant class is revolutionary class – revolutionize Chinese society » eradicate rural poverty through collective ownership » replace traditional values with CCP powers » abolish foreign (esp. western) influence – centralized economy The Ideological Divide • Kuomintang (KMT) (Sun Yatsen) – Main principles » Nationalism (eradicate foreign influence) » people’s democracy » people’s livelihood (socialism, poor benefitted) – Chiang Kai-Shek » shifts more to right » more on nationalism, less on socialism » capitalist government – Parties initially work together to defeat regionalism: The First United Front Short term Causes – End of WWII and failure of U.S. diplomacy • US failure to secure peace allowed conflict to break out – Japan withdraws from China, allows CCP and KMT to fight » no longer need to be united against foreign enemy – US seeks to create coalition government with both CCP and KMT → fails » wants to stall communism in China » no one obeys this » KMT and CCP begin fighting again, civil war breaks out Civil War in China • 1927-1932 and 1933-1937 – war between Communists and Nationalists • Communists – Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) • Nationalists – Chiang Kai-shek • War halted 1932-1933 and 1937-1945 to fight Japanese aggression • Communists were victorious in 1949 • Nationalists retreated to Formosa (Taiwan) • End of imperialism in China – Hong Kong returned to China in 1997 Mao’s Definition of Guerilla War • Organization Phase: • Build up a structure of ‘cadres’ to organize population support (‘agit-prop’ teams to develop popular awareness) • Use of ‘selective terror’ against government officials, to eliminate landlords and others the population disliked, and to deter informers. • Guerilla Phase: • Introduce guerilla attacks and ambushes (to acquire weapons and blow up infrastructure) and make it difficult for governments to maintain a military presence (creation of ‘liberated areas’) Mao’s Definition of Guerilla War • Mobile War (Third Phase) • Amounted to civil war / force government forces to retreat to major cities until these were surrounded by a hostile countryside. • • • • • • • Used where to engage in conventional warfare would mean defeat. Developed in rural societies where Marxist style revolution was not possible b/c of the lack of a proletariat. Guerrilla tactics are the ‘practical methods of achieving the strategic objectives’ (Che Guevara) including mobility, self-sufficiency, sabotage… Must establish parallel structures of government Aim must be the changing of an unjust society / shouldn’t be used until all peaceful methods of obtaining change have been exhausted (Che Guevara) Must have support of people. (Mao’s metaphor of the guerilla fighter being the fish and the people the sea) Most movements have a middle class leadership. Civil War in China • Chiang‘s shift to right → white terror – Killing of CCP officials, “civil war” ensues – divisions foundation of conflict for civil war in 40s – Failure of KMT to secure single party state • Chiang fails to secure single party state, makes conflict inevitable • failed to defeat CCP in 20s even though severely weakened – could have established control but did not – allowed for CCP to rebuild strength, – Stronger position than KMT when fighting resumes Civil War in China • Background – Northern Expedition – Sun Yat Sen (SYS) dies 1925 and Chiang Kai Shek (CKS) former Cmdr of Whampoa Military Academy rises to Power – 50,00 KMT only 1500 CCP Members – Form 1st United Front v. Warlords – CKS limits CCP at high levels of GMD and is supreme in KMT by 1926 • Attacks War Lords Zhang Zuo Lin (Manchuria), Wu Pei Fu (Central Plains and Sun Chuanfang (East Coast) • Crushes Wu and Sun in 6 months and army grows to 250,000 • Deeply distrustful of Communists CKS now decides to Purge them • Shanghai Massacre Apr. 12, 1927 and then spreads throughout China • KMT Splits And Left KMT forms gov’t at Wuhan under Wang Jing, CKS is based at Nanjing Warlords Civil War in China White Terror and 10 Years Civil War • Consequences of the Terror – – – – Split of KMT results in Warlord Counter-attack KMT crushed and driven South of Yangtze River, CKS resigns Li Zogren (new leader) can’t stop WL’s Left KMT purges CCP after revolt and rejoin KMT • 8000 KMT dead in attempted CCP Coup d’etat • United KMT defeats Warlord Sun and saves Nanjing • Second Expedition • • • • CKS reinstated moves north to Yellow River Apr.1928 Some WL’s assassinated by Japan others join KMT to resist Japan Still a lot of Warlords but centralization begun and capture Beijing Result CCP expelled and KMT controls East China and allies in most of the South KMT v. CCP • CCP retreats to countryside 1927-37 “Ten Years Civil War” – Mao builds up Soviet in Jiangxi – Mao has army but is not yet on the politburo • Encirclement Campaigns after CKS defeats WL’s – #1 100,000 troops, #2 200,000, #3 300,000 – First 4 attacks fail (guerilla tactics) but Li Lisan is removed from Politburo, and Mao replaced as the head of the Army (Comintern uses 28 Bolshevik group to do this) – Stand and Fight Policy implemented by CCP – KMT with German advisors adopts gradualist strategy • Build blockhouses/forts in ring around Jiangxi, advance slowly and build smaller ring inside the first • Red Army crushed at Ruijin The Long March The Long March • Mao escapes with 90,000 through Warlord manned section of forts, Zheng Guotao also gets out with large army • The March – Zhang stays in central China follows 28 Bolshevik policies and is largely destroyed (50,000 dead at Xiang River) – Mao heads West then North crosses upper Yangtze – Tricks KMT and crosses dismantled bridge at Ludin – Traveling light Mao evades pursuers in Song Pan Marshes and finally arrives in Shaanxi (Estimates of 6000 to 20,000 survivors) – Zunyi conference during march purges 28 Bolshevik/Urban faction and Mao is firmly in command Japanese Occupation WWII: The Second United Front (SUF) • • CKS kidnapped by Zhang Zu De to force alliance with CCP Japan invades China July 1937 – Marco Polo Bridge Incident leads to full scale attack – SUF never really unified – CKS knows foreign aid is vital so he defends Shanghai • 200,000 of best German trained troops killed, but battle convinces allies to send aid • Now trade “space for time, loose Nanjing then major battle at Wuhan – Wuhan 1938 is high point of SUF but it falls with heavy casualties for all armies – CKS retreats to Chongqing (Chunking) and uses scorched earth policy (dams, cities, crops destroyed and civilian casualties huge) WWII: The Second United Front (SUF) II • Stalemate develops with Japan controlling only the North, some major cities and the rail lines – KMT loses many battles but exhausts Japan and CCP continues to harass and sabotage areas “lost” by the KMT – SUF breaks down 1939-40 both sides harass each other • New 4th Army Incident 1941 – KMT force surrounds CCP New 4th Army (possibly as the result of attacks on its troops by the CCP) – Kill most of them and alliance disintegrates – Mao and CKS are both now clearly planning to destroy each other when WWII ends – Each tries to set up the best conditions to achieve their goals WWII and post-war period (FDR) 1942 -- General Stillwell, US commander, China operations • critical of Chiang for his lack of cooperation with communists, and unwillingness to attack Japanese • Chiang saving his forces for renewal of civil war State Dept. John Davies, John Service • will be labeled as “pro-communist” and forced out—they knew China, but FDR did not want an angry Chiang on his hands 1944 -- Dixie Mission • US military leaders visit CCP base at Yenan and favorably report • Some have speculated that if war with Japan had continued after 1945, US would have worked with them WWII and post-war period 1944 -- Patrick Hurley • became US ambassador to China; he removed Davies and Service from China duties and favored Chiang (FDR/TRUMAN) General Wedemeyer • pro-Chiang 1946-47 -- General Marshall – China Marshall Plan • sought to establish coalition government having shared power by all parties; Chiang makes demands that CCP cannot accept • Becomes frustrated with Chiang too as he seems less willing to cooperate than do communists End of WWII Important historical terminology • • • • • Political Consultative Conference (Jan 1946): proposed by US, brought KMT and CCP together to discuss proposed National Assembly as China’s official post-war government, based on principles of democracy and unity Truce teams: (est’d early 1946) KMT and CCP representatives assigned to major cities to handle transitions under US supervision; Chiang expelled all CCP members from these (and cities) in Dec. 1947 Five Demands (June-Aug 1946): made by Chiang on CCP, essentially, demanded CCP leave resource and strategically important territories under their control after war in exchange for ending the civil war that had recently broken out again; Mao rejected National Assembly: initially agreed upon in 1946 to be open to all parties, Chiang quickly violated by creating his own, KMT National Assembly (Oct 1946); the communists boycotted it “democracy, peace, end famine”: focus of communist propaganda against the KMT during the 1946-1949 civil war Post War 1946 • Marshall talks break down – US troops garrison ports and Japanese troops kept in place until KMT Arrives – Massive aid in US equipment sent in – USSR agrees not to leave Manchuria until KMT arrives (US airlifts KMT troops there) – Mao moves into Manchuria while Russians delay withdrawal • Mao uses standard tactics, avoids battle and even abandons Yenan to withdraw to Manchuria(1947) • Mao key advantage is land reform policy • Orders all commanders to avoid battle unless victory is certain Post War 1947-48 • • • CKS key error: Concentrates too many troops in Manchuria without full control of North and Central China GMD holds cities but too spread out and PLA in countryside cuts communications between GMD Units and towns Summer of 1947 – – – – – – • • Lin Biao launches 3 prong assault in Manchuria Controls railroads 640,000 GMD casualties, 1 million surrender and most absorbed into PLA Full control of Manchuria by 1948 Best remaining force, the New 1st Army surrenders after 6 month siege at Chanchun Tanks, artillery captured but best weapons are peasants, 5 million mobilized for one assault Offensive in North China begins GMD best forces destroyed in Manchuria PLA rapidly seizes North China between Beijing and and Yangtze River Post War 1948-49 • • With fall of Manchuria Lin Biao takes troops 600 miles to link with PLA Northeast Armies Tianjin and Beijing surrounded – – • Huaihai Campaign – – • Tianjin stormed and Beijing then surrenders North China GMD is now split and quickly collapses Northeast is absorbed first with .5 million troops on both sides. Peasant militias are huge Mao concentrates on small GMD forces first and by January 1949 GMD force killed or captured CKS resigns Conquest of the South – – Stalin urges Mao to pause to avoid US intervention (Also fears united China) Mao ignores him Nanjing falls in April, Shanghai in May and Chiang flees to Taiwan in October 1949 • Why do the Communists win? Or does the GMD lose??? Chiang’s Offensive Mao Counter-Offensives Communist Offensives 1948-49 Final Victory Japanese Aggression • Japan was a threat to China – 1894-1941 • 1937 – Japanese invasion – Japanese took control of north and areas along the coast – Rape of Nanking – Chinese Communists and Nationalists • Intermittently were at peace as they united to fight against the Japanese • Guerrilla and scorched earth tactics • Received American aid against the Japanese World War II • U.S. interest in China increased after Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 • Cairo Conference (1943) – Chiang Kai-shek met with Allied leaders – Discussed war in eastern Asia • Westerners gave up imperialist rights in China • U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 repealed in 1943 Communists in Control – 1949 • Communists and Nationalists resumed civil war following World War II • Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist government wasted foreign economic aid • Many Kuomintang deserted to Communists • Manchuria – taken over by Communists in 1948 • December, 1949 -- Communists in control • Chiang Kai-shek and Nationalists retreated to Formosa (Taiwan) Geographical Changes • Communist China gained control over: – Chinese – Turkestan (Xinjiang) – Inner Mongolia – Manchuria – Tibet PRC = People’s Republic of China (Communists) / ROC = Republic of China (Nationalists) Political Changes under Mao • Communist government on mainland China • Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) – Chairman Mao – chairman of the Communist party and leader of China – 19431976 Mao Zedong 毛泽东 Economic Changes under Mao • First Five-Year Plan (1953-1957) – Advances in agriculture and coal, electricity, iron, and steel production • Second Five-Year Plan (1958-1962) – – – – “Great Leap Forward” China became a leading industrial country Peasants organized into communes Widespread catastrophe – famine – at least 14,000,000 deaths Propaganda Poster for the Great Leap Forward Foreign Relations • Russia (Soviet Union) – Growing split between USSR and China • “Peaceful coexistence” policy of USSR viewed as surrender – 1960 – end of Soviet economic aid • Tibet – Seized in 1962 • Korea – Aided North Korea in the Korean War (1950-1953) • Vietnam – Supported North Vietnam and aided Viet Cong during Vietnam War (1959-1975) Foreign Relations • Cold War – Economic aid to Africa, Asia, and Latin America • “Atomic Club” (1964) – Fifth overall, and first non-white, country to develop nuclear weapons • United Nations – One of five permanent members of U.N. Security Council (1971, replacing Taiwan) • Relations with United States – 1972 – U.S. President Richard Nixon opened diplomatic relations with China Mao’s Little Red Book • The Chinese Communist Party is the core of the Chinese revolution, and its principles are based on Marxism-Leninism. Party criticism should be carried out within the Party. • The revolution, and the recognition of class and class struggle, are necessary for peasants and the Chinese people to overcome both domestic and foreign enemy elements. This is not a simple, clean, or quick struggle. • War is a continuation of politics, and there are at least two types: just (progressive) and unjust wars, which only serve bourgeois interests. While no one likes war, we must remain ready to wage just wars against imperialist agitations. Mao’s Little Red Book • Fighting is unpleasant, and the people of China would prefer not to do it at all. At the same time, they stand ready to wage a just struggle of selfpreservation against reactionary elements, both foreign and domestic. • China's road to modernization will be built on the principles of diligence and frugality. Nor will it be legitimate to relax if, 50 years later, modernization is realized on a mass scale. • A communist must be selfless, with the interests of the masses at heart. He must also possess a largeness of mind, as well as a practical, farsighted mindset. • Women represent a great productive force in China, and equality among the sexes is one of the goals of communism. The multiple burdens which women must shoulder are to be eased. Cultural Revolution (1966-1969) • “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” – Effort to revive interest in Mao’s ideas (and for Mao to regain power) after the failed Great Leap Forward – Mao claimed that reactionary bourgeoisie elements were taking over the party – Call for youths to engage in post-revolutionary class warfare – Red Guards (consisting of young people) marched throughout China – Older alleged reactionaries removed from positions of power China after Chairman Mao • Mao died in September, 1976 • “Gang of Four” – Failed at a coup d’état in October, 1976 • China continued to industrialize • One-Child Policy adopted – 1979 • Tiananmen Square Massacre – 1989 • Today – issues include: – Balancing limited capitalism with communist ideals – Environmental pollution – Unequal male-to-female ratios resulting from One-Child Policy – Control of Tibet Review Questions 1. Which group led the Republican Revolution of 1912? 2. What common enemy united the Nationalists and Communists? 3. Who led the Communist Revolution? 4. Describe the Great Leap Forward. 5. Describe the Cultural Revolution. 6. What issues face China today?