data handling

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CHAPTER-DATA HANDLING
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Data types-data types are means to identify the type of
data and associated operation of handling it.
Data type are three type:
Fundamental data types
2.derived data types
3.User defined data types
fundamental data type –fundamental data types are
those that are not composed of other data types
Five fundamental are: int,char,float,double,void.
FIVE FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES ARE:
1.Int data types(for integers)-integer are whole
numbers. They have not fractional part. integer
data types are represented in c++ by int data
types.For examples-32,87,-9 etc.
 2. Char data types(for characters)-character can
store any member of the c++ implementation’s
basic character sets. Character are represented
in c++ by char data types.For examples-any
name,ASCIIcode ,sybbolsetc.
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3.FLOAT DATA TYPE(FOR FLOATING POINT NO.)-A NO. HAVE
FRACTIONAL PART IS FLOATING POINT NUMBER. FOR
EXAMPLES-45 IS INTEGER BUT 45.0 IS FLOATING NO.,8.9,7.7
ETC
ADVANTAGES- THEY CAN REPRESENTED VALUES BETWEEN
THE INTEGER AND THEY CAN REPRESENTED A MUCH
GREATER RANGES OF VALUES.
DISADVANTAGES-OPERATION ARE SLOWER THAN INTEGER
OPERATION.
4.DOUBLE DATA TYPE(FOR DOUBLE PRECISION FLOATINGPOINT NUMBER)-THE DATA TYPE DOUBLE IS ALSO USED FOR
HANDLING FLOATING-POINT NUMBER.IT OCCUPIES TWICE AS
MUCH MEMORY.
5.VOID DATA TYPE(FOR EMPTY SET OF VALUES AND NONRETURNING FUNCTIONS)-IT IS USED AS THE RETURN TYPE
FOR FUNCTIONS THAT DO NOT RETURN A VALUE.
DATA MODIFIERS-THE KEYWORDS WHICH, WHEN APPEAR
BEFORE A DATA TYPE, CHANGES ITS MEANING ARE
MODIFIERS. THESE ARE FOUR TYPE:
1. SIGNED
2.UNSIGNED
3.SHORT
4.LONG
* INT DATA TYPE(FOR INTEGER)
- INTEGER REQUIRED 2 BYTES TO STORE A NUMBER.
- THE RANGE OF INTEGER IS -37768 TO 32767
*FOR FLOAT DATA TYPE:
-FLOAT REQUIRED 4 BYTES TO STORE A NUMBER.
- RANGE OF FLOAT IS 3.4*10POW(-38) TO 3.5*10POW(38)
* CHAR DATA TYPE(FOR CHARACTER):
-CHARACTER REQUIRED 1 BYTES TO STORE A CHARACTER.
-RANGE OF CHAR IS -128 TO 127
DERIVED DATA TYPE-THESE ARE THE DATA TYPES THAT
ARE COMPOSED OF FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES.
FOR EXAMPLE –ARRAY, STRUCTURE, POINTER,
REFERENCE, CONSTANT.
Array- array is a collection of similar of same data types in
which memory a locate continues manner.
Syntax-: Data type
name of array[size];
Example-int a[3] (total bytes 3)
Base address-first element in array is called base
address of an array
A[0] A[1]
base address
Function-function is a piece of code or sub program
that act on some data and after processing return a
single value.
Syntax-:
Type*ptr;
Example-char*b;
Type &ref-var=var-name;
Example-int total ;
Int&sum= total;
Total=50;
Cout<<“sum=“<<sum<<“\n”;
Cout<<“total=“<<total<<“\n”;
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constant- the keyword const can be added to the declaration of an object a
constant rather than a variable
Syntax -:
Const type name = value;
Example:
Const int sum=80;
USER DEFINED DERIVED DATA TYPES
There are some derived data types that are defined by the user. Example:-class,
structure, union, enumeration.
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Class- a class represents a group of similar object. Like group of student ,
department, employee etc.
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Structure –a collection of variable referenced under one name, provided a
convenient means of keeping related information together. Like a student
record of rollno., name, class, grade etc.
Example-:
struct stud
{ int rollno. ;
char name[10];
int class;
float marks;
};
Union- a union is a memory location tjat is shared by two or more
different variable,generally of different types at different times.
 Enumeration- an alternative method for naming integer constants is
often more convenient const.
 enumeration using keyword enum
 For Example-:
Const int start = 0;
Const int pause =1;
Const int goo= 2;
Enum{ status, pause, goo};
variable-variablerepresent named storage location,whose valuescanbe
manipulated during run.
The variables are called symbolic variables because these are named
location.
Two associated with a symbolic variable :
rvalue in which stored at some location in memory.
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lvalue in which the addressin memory at which its data value is
Stored.
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constant values and constant identifiers are not lvalues and can only
appear to the right side of an assignment operater .
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Declaration of variable-:
WHERE TYPE IS ANY C++ DATA TTYPE AND NAME IS THE NAME OF A
VARIABLE. A VARIABLE. ALL RULES OF IDENTIFIER NAMING APPLY TO THE
NAME OF A VARIABLE.
WHEN MORE THAN ONE IDENTIFIER OF A TYPE IS BEING DEFINED, A
COMMA SEPARATED LIST OF IDENTIFIER MAY FOLLOW THE TYPE
SPECIFIER.
FOR EXAMPLE-:
INT MONTH,DAY, YAER;
DOUBLE SALARY, WAGES;
DYNAMIC INITIALIZATION-:
INITIALIZATION OF A VARIABLE AT RUNTIME USING THE INFORMATION
AVAILABLE, IS CALLED DYNAMIC.
FOR EXAMPLEFLOAT AVG=SUM/COUNT;
IF WILL INITIALIZATION AVG USING THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE AT RUNTIME .
USING THE VALUE OF SUM AND COUNT KNOWN AT RUNTIME.
Formatting output:Formatting output is important in the development of output
screens,which can be easily read and understood++ offers the
programmer several output/input manipulators.two of these I/o
manipulators are sete() and setpreciasion().
Stew() manipulator-:
The setw() manipulator sets the width of the field assigned for the
output.it takes the size of the field (in no. of character)as a
parameter.
For Example:
 Cout<<setw(6)<<“r”;
Setprecision()manipulator-:
The setprecision() manipulator sets the total number of digits to be
displayed when floating point numbers are printed.For example:cout << setprecision(5) << 123.456;
 The setprecision()manipulator can also be used to set the number
of decimal places to be displayed.
TYPE A
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Q.What are the main types of c++ data types?Write data types of each type.
Ans.Main two types of c++
(i)fundamental types
(ii)derived types
Fundamental are five types:
(i)int data type(for integer)
(ii)char data type(for character)
(iii)float data type
(iv)double data type(for double precision floating-point numbers)
(v)void data type(for empty set of values and non-returning function)
Derived type are divided into five types:
(i)array
(i)function
(iii)pointer
(iv)references
(v)constants
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Q.What do you mean by fundamental data types?How many
fundamental data does c++ provide.
Ans.These are the data types that are not composed of any
other data type.C++ provide five fundamental data
types:char,int,float,double and void.
Q.The data type char is used to represent character.Then
why is it often termed as an integer type?
Ans.Char type is often said to be an integer type.It is said
because letters,symbol etc. are represented in memory by
associated number codes.It is very easy to code number
into binary.
Q.What are the advantages of floating-point number over
integers?
Ans.Advantages of floating number:
(i)They can represent the values between the integers.
(ii)They can represent a much greater range of values.
Q.How many ways can a floating-point written into?
 Ans.Floating-point numbers can also be written in
exponent notation.
 Q.Write 147.9205 into exponent form and 2.4301E04
into fractional form:
 Ans.147.9205- 0.1479205*10pow (3 )
=0.1479205E03
2.4901E04=2.4901*10pow (4 )
 Q.Why is float type preferred for real quantities?
When should the type double be preferred over the
shorter type float.
 Ans.Floating point variables represent real
numbers,which are used for measurable quantities
like distance,area,tempreture etc.It is used when type
float too small or insufficiently precise.
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Q.The data type double is another floating type.Then why is
it treated as a distinct data type?
 Ans.Because double data type occupies twice as much
memory as type float and stores floating-point number with
much larger range and precision.
 Q.What is use of void data type?
 Ans.It is used as the return type for function that do not
return a value.No object of type void may be declared.
 Q.why does c++have type modifier?
 Ans.Modifier are used in c++ to alter the meaning of the
base type to fit various situation more precisely.
 Q.what is wrong with the following c++ statement long float
x;?
 Ans.Long float x;
Long is never used with float.
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Q.on a machine, short integer is 2 bytes long. What can be the possible size for
unit integer short integer and long integer on the same machine,keeping in mind
c++ standard?
Ans.int integer – 2 bytes
short integer – 2 bytes
long integer – 4 bytes
Q.if short integer on a machine is 4 bytes, what will be the size on the machine?
Ans.unsigned short- 2 bytes
signed short short – 2 bytes
Q.what are the variation char type? How are the of char type different from one
another?
Ans.character from this set is shorted in a character variable.
The memory implementation of char data type is in the number code it is said to
be another integer data type.
Q.what are the variation in floating point type ? How are the variation of floating
point type different from one another?
Ans.i) floating point number can written into exponent notation.
ii) floating point number are represent real number but floating point number
are slower than integer operation .
iii) double data type are used for handling floating point number .double data
type occupies twice memory as munch memory as type float. Double is larger
and slower than type float.
Q.arrange the following data type from smallest to largest ?
Ans. char , short =int , long =float , double, long double.
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Q.Explain the different among o, ‘o’, “o”and ‘/o’?
Ans. o – integer constant
‘o’ – character constant
‘/o’ – character constant
“o” – string constant
Q.What is the distinction between 33L and 33?
Ans.An l or L suffix indicates it is long integer contant.Thus 33L is a long
integer constant and 33 is an integer constant.
Q. What do you understand by the following-:
i)array:-Named list of finite number of similar data element.
ii)Structure:-Collection of variables of different data types referenced
under one name.
iii)Function:-A function is a named part of a program that can be invoked
from the other parts of the program.
iv)pointer:-A variable that holds a memory address.
v)Union:-Memory location that is shared by two or more different
variables.
vi)enumeration:-Method of association integer constant to name.
Q.what is a reference variable?How is it defined in C++.
Ans.A reference variable is an alias for a preciously defined variable.
Q.What is wrong with the following statement constantly?
 Ans.Y being a constant is not initialized correct version is const int Y=5.
 Q.what do you understand by a class in C++?What does a structure represent in
C++?
 Ans. Class-:Group of similar objects structure represent in C++.Example:-struct
sturec
{int roll no;
char name [zo];
int class;
};
sturec newstu
 Q.Find errors, if any, in the following C++ statement:
i)int code = three
ii)enum (green,yellow,red)
iii)const int size;
iv)size=10
 Ans.i)It is valid only when enumeration are treated as integer.
ii)Wrong brackets, it should be:
enum {green,yellow,red};
iii)initialization not done.It should be const int size=20;
iv)No, We can’t assign a value to a constant variable.
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Q.What are derived data types?Name the user defined data
types in C++?
Ans.These are the data type that are composed of fundamental
data type.These are array,function,pointer,reference and
constant.User defined data types in C++ are
class,structure,union and enumeration.
Q.what is variable?In C++ two values are associated with a
symbolic variable.What are these?
Ans.Named storage location whose values can be manipulated
during program run.Two values associated with a symbolic
variable are: rvalues that gives its contents and Ivalue that gives
its address.
Write declaration for:i)a pointer to a character and an array of 10 integer.
ii) a reference to a floating point variable.
iii) a constant character and a constant integer.
Ans.char*a and char n[10]
ii) float& ref –var=var name
iii) const char a
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Q.Define the following :
A short integer with the value 90.
An unsigned int integer with the value 31240.
An integer with the value 3000000000.
Ans.i) short int a =90;
ii) unsigned int b=31240;
iii) unsigned long c=3000000000;
Q.what is the impact of access modifier const over a variable?
Ans.use this keyword before a variable’s definition, it modifiers
its access type. The access of the constant variable is readable
only; it can no more be written on to.
TYPE B
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Q.What is different between fundamental data types and derived data types?
Ans.Fundamental data :-These are the data types that are not composed of any
other data type.These are five fundamental data types:char,Int,float,double and
void.
Derived data types:-These are the data types that are composed of
fundamental data types.These are:-array,function,pointer,reference,constant.
Q.What main integer types are offered by C++?
Ans.Five main integer types are offered by C++:i)int data type(for integer):-integer are whole number.
ii)char data type(for character):-characters can store
any member of the C++ implementation’s basic character set.
iii)float data type(for floating-point number);-A number having
fractional part.
vi)double data type(for double precision floating-point number):-The data type
of double is also used for handling floating-point number.
v)void data type(for empty set of values and non returning function).
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Q.Explain floating types offered by C++ along with the minimal ranges and
digits?
Ans.Double data type occupies twice as much memory as type float and stores
floating-point numbers with much larger range and precision.It stands for double
precision floating-point.It is used when type float is too small or insufficiently
precise.
Q.Write declaration for a structure that holds information of a student like roll
number, name,class,marks and grade.
Ans. Struct stude
{
int rollno.;
char name [20];
int class;
float marks;
char grade [10];
};
Q.why are Providing so many data types provided in C++?
Ans. So many data type is to allow programme to allow to take advantage of
hardware characteristics. Machines are significantly different in their
requirement memory access time and computation.
Q.write
program to find area of a triangle?
Ans.#include< iostream,h>
#include<conio.h>
Void main()
{
Clrscr();
Int b,h;
Cout<<“enter the value of base and height of triangle?
Cin>>b;
Cin>>h;
Ar =1/2*b*h;
Cout<<“area= “<<ar;
Getch();
Q.write aprogram to find whether a given number is even or odd?
 Ans.# include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
Void main( )
{
Clrscr( );
Int a;
Cout<<“enter the value of a”;
Cin>>a;
If ( a% 2=0)
{ cout<<a<<“ is even number “;
} else
cout<<a<< “is odd number “;
}
getch( )
}
 Q.write a program to convert given inches into its equivalent yards ,feet and
inches.
 Ans.# include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h.>
Void main ( )
{
Clrscr ();
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float yards , feets , inches, num ;
Cout<<“enter inches”;
Cin>>inches ;
Feet=inches/12;
Num=inches%12;
Yards=inches/36;
inches=num%12;
Cout<<“/n feet are”<<feet<<“/n inches “<<inches;
<<“/n yard are”<<yard;
getch ( );
}
Q.write a program compute simple interest and compoud interest?
Ans. #include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
Void main ()
{
Clrscr ( );
Float sI , p ,r , t , I ,x;
Cout<<“enter the value of p,r,t”;
Cin>>p>>r>>t;
sI=( p*r*t)/100;
X=(1+r/100);
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Cout<<“value of sI=“<<sI;
Cout<<“value of cI =“<<cI;
getch ( );
}
Q- explain the function and variable with example.
Ans- function is a subprogram that act on data and
Often returnsa single value.
Variable- variable represent named storage location,
Whose value can be manipulated during program
run. For exampleint i ;
float a;
FROM:- POOJA
Class:- XI-B
 Roll no.:- 7
 Subject:- computer science
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