Introduction: Cro-Magnons were hunters and gatherers that looked a lot like us today. They were famous for their cave paintings, shelters, and tools. Today you will learn all about their food, religion, clothing, tools, and more. By : Cole , Dana , Spencer , and Meghan Cro-Magnon lived up to 40,000 years ago, towards the end of the Ice-Age. At the beginning of their existence, they lived in France. Then they migrated to Asia, Africa, and Europe. Cro-Magnons only lived during the Ice-Age.  Cro-Magnons were the first people to have the same shape and bodies and skulls as we do. CroMagnons had more rounded brain cases and pointed chins. They had very slight eyebrow ridges, and their foreheads were flat rather than sloping. Their teeth, noses, and jaws were smaller than previous early humans. This made their faces straight rather than jutting forward. The average male height was 70.4 inches. The females was 64.8 inches. The average male weight 186 pounds. The female was 148 pounds.  Cro-Magnons lived in huts or underground caves. Huts had grass roofs, and they were held up (supported) by sticks. Their huts were made from rotten wood or animal hide. The only time Cro-Magnons lived in caves is when the cold winter came.  Wild carrots, beets, onions, turnips, cabbage, and fruit were some of the foods women gathered. Women also gathered shellfish and eggs.  The men hunted small animals and fish. They stored food for when winter came. Cro-Magnons also ate ants! They would eat the leftovers of a leopard’s prey that had been left up in a tree. They started drinking milk around 40,000 B.C.  Cro-Magnons had very busy and difficult days. When they had good weather, they were in festive moods. Sometimes after a hard day’s work, they would have time to relax, which they barely got to do with all the hunting and gathering they did during the day.  Cro-Magnons were hunters and gatherers. One of their tools was an awl. The awl was created to make better holes in animal hides. The Cro-Magnon also created burins that were created to make weapons. They used animal hides to create robes, shelters, bedding, and clothing. After a hunt, Cro-Magnons would skin the animal, and then they would lay the animal hide on the ground with the hair touching the ground. After that, they would use special tools to scrape the flesh and fat of the animal hide . Cro-Magnons are the ones who created the bow and arrow.  Cro-Magnon lived in the end of the Ice Age. That means it was extremely hard to get a lightning strike. They did know how to make fire, using flint and stone to make a spark. It was hard to start a fire, so Cro-Magnons were really excited when a lightning strike occurred because a branch or a tree would catch on fire . Then the CroMagnons would pick it up and bring it back to camp.  When a Cro-Magnon died, all the CroMagnons participated in the funeral. The body was put in a grave with tools and weapons. The Shaman (religious leader) put some ingredients on the dead body and requested the body to have a happy afterlife. For ceremonies, they made flutes then played music.  Based on the position of the larynx, CroMagnons were the first of our ancestors to be capable of pronouncing clear speech so they could develop more understanding with language. This allowed them to have a more productive day. Cro-Magnons had the ability to share knowledge of hunting, gathering, and more.  The Cro-Magnons wore and made robes from thin animal hide. Their belts were made of thicker material. They wore animal fur and shells for jewelry. Their necklaces were made of stones, shells, fish bones, and bits of eggshell. In the winter, they wore very thick fur to keep them warm.  Cro-Magnon cave paintings mostly focused on animals and hunters . Natural colors were the only colors they used. They were made of minerals, such as oxide or black manganese. Their people drawings were stick figures, but the animal drawings were more accurate.  1. Did Cro-Magnons always live in caves? Why or why not? 2.Name two of the things from which CroMagnons made necklaces. 3.What was one of the two minerals the CroMagnons used to paint? 1. No, only during the winter. They also had to be careful to make certain that no wild animals were inhabiting the caves. In the winter, the CroMagnons didn’t move around as much. 2.Fish bones and stone were two items used to make necklaces. 3. Iron oxide and black manganese are two things used to make paint. In conclusion , Cro-Magnons were the most evolved of our ancestors. They were hardworking people who lived normal lives. They were very outgoing during their ceremonies. Additionally, until modern humans, they were the most intelligent of the early humans. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Kearns, Marsha, “Homo Sapien: Cro-Magnons,” Early Humans, Creative Teaching Press, CA,1993, p. 1. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid, p. 3. Ibid, p. 1. Ibid, p. 4. Ibid, p 3. “Otzi the Iceman,” Early Human Class Presentation by Lonnie Johnson on October 28, 2010. Ibid. “Cro-Magnon,” http://kidspast.com. Ibid. “Cro-Magnon,” http://mrdonn.org. “Cro-Magnon,” http://studyingsocieties.com. Kearns, p. 4. California Visits Ancient Civilizations. Macmillan/MacGraw Hill: New York, NY, 2007. “Cro-Magnon.” Cro-Magnon. http://www.earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/. “Cro-Magnon.” Cro-Magnon. http://www.kidspast.com. “Cro-Magnon.” http://www.studyingsocieties.com. Http://www.heathersanimations.com Kearns, Marsha.“Homo Habilis.” Early Humans. Creative Teaching Press: CA, 1993. “Otzi the Iceman.” Early Human Class Presentation by Lonnie Johnson on October 29, 2009.