spectral clustering

Report
Spectral Clustering
Jianping Fan
Dept of Computer Science
UNC, Charlotte
Lecture Outline
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Motivation
Graph overview and construction
Spectral Clustering
Cool implementations
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Semantic interpretations of clustering clusters
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Spectral Clustering Example – 2 Spirals
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Dataset exhibits complex
cluster shapes
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 K-means performs very
poorly in this space due bias
toward dense spherical
clusters.
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In the embedded space
given by two leading
eigenvectors, clusters are
trivial to separate.
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Spectral Clustering Example
Original Points
K-means (2 Clusters)
Why k-means fail for these two examples?
Lecture Outline
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Motivation
Graph overview and construction
Spectral Clustering
Cool implementation
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Graph-based Representation of Data Similarity
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similarity
Graph-based Representation of Data Similarity
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationship
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Manifold
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
Manifold
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
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Data Graph Construction
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
Graph Cut
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Lecture Outline
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Motivation
Graph overview and construction
Spectral Clustering
Cool implementations
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
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Graph Cut
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Graph-based Representation of Data Relationships
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Graph Cut
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Eigenvectors & Eigenvalues
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Normalized Cut
A graph G(V, E) can be partitioned into two disjoint sets A, B
Cut is defined as:
Optimal partition of the graph G is achieved by minimizing the cut
Min (
)
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Normalized Cut
Normalized Cut
Association between partition set and whole graph
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Normalized Cut
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Normalized Cut
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Normalized Cut
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Normalized Cut
Normalized Cut becomes
Normalized cut can be solved by eigenvalue equation:
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K-way Min-Max Cut
Intra-cluster similarity
Inter-cluster similarity
Decision function for spectral clustering
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Mathematical Description of Spectral Clustering
Refined decision function for spectral clustering
We can further define:
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Refined decision function for spectral clustering
This decision function can be solved as
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Spectral Clustering Algorithm
Ng, Jordan, and Weiss
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Motivation
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Given a set of points
S  s1,..., sn   Rl
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We would like to cluster them into k
subsets
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Algorithm
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Form the affinity matrix W  R
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2
|| si  s j || / 2
DefineWij  e
if i  j
nxn
Wii  0
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Scaling parameter chosen by user
Define D a diagonal matrix whose
(i,i) element is the sum of A’s row i
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Algorithm
LD
1/ 2
1/ 2
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Form the matrix
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Find x1 , x2 ,..., xk , the k largest eigenvectors of
L
These form the the columns of the new
matrix X
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WD
Note: have reduced dimension from nxn to nxk
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Algorithm
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Form the matrix Y
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Renormalize each of X’s rows to have unit length
Yij  X ij /( X ij 2 )2
Y  R nxk j
Treat each row of Y as a point in R k
Cluster into k clusters via K-means
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Algorithm
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Final Cluster Assignment
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Assign point si to cluster j iff row i of Y was
assigned to cluster j
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Why?
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If we eventually use K-means, why not just
apply K-means to the original data?
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This method allows us to cluster non-convex
regions
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Some Examples
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User’s Prerogative
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Affinity matrix construction
Choice of scaling factor
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Realistically, search over
gives the tightest clusters
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and pick value that
Choice of k, the number of clusters
Choice of clustering method
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How to select k?
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Eigengap: the difference between two consecutive eigenvalues.
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Most stable clustering is generally given by the value k that
maximises the expression
 k  k  k 1
Largest eigenvalues
of Cisi/Medline data
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λ1
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 Choose k=2
Eigenvalue
max  k  2  1
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λ2
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K
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Recap – The bottom line
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Summary
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Spectral clustering can help us in hard
clustering problems
The technique is simple to understand
The solution comes from solving a simple
algebra problem which is not hard to
implement
Great care should be taken in choosing the
“starting conditions”
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Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering
Spectral Clustering

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