modern methods of dinamic setting out in engineering

Uredjaj za merenje promene nagiba u
odnosu na horizont
 Princip trigonometrijskog određivanja
 Tačnost do 0.0001deg
 kamere, kompenzatori i drugi senori
 Praćenje dinamičkih promena
Modern trends in building constructions
Methodology for survey setting out of high rise structures
Such extremely high and thin constructions have become
a matter of prestige in the countries where they are built,
and became symbols of the cities where they are located.
Empire State Building – 381 m, 1931.
Petronas Tower in Malaysia – 482 m, 1998.
Taipai 101, Taiwan – 508 m, 2004.
Burj Dubai – 750 m, 2008.
Burj Dubai
Petronas Tower
Empire State Bulding
Geodesy as a vital segment in the process of design and
construction of such facilities must develop a new
technology of setting out and control of setting out that is
appropriate to the construction conditions.
It is primarily to detect and eliminate the influence of
wind, facade heating from the sun and dynamic
movement of structure due to the dynamic movement of
crane with different values of the load being lifted and
assembled at the asymmetric position on the platform at
the current level of construction.
Basic problems of dinamic setting out
Conventional methods of work are not giving satisfactory results in designing
and construction of high and thin structures, because at the time of setting out
and control of setting out at the platforms over 50 m high, structure is affected
by wind (different speeds and directions), asymmetric loads caused by different
loads lifted up or down by crane, as well as by variable heating caused by the
sun in the already built parts of the structure
Transmission of the axis of
structure during conventional
methods of construction
Schematic view of the external
influences on the position of
marked points
Long term displacement
Daily changes of position
Dynamic movements
Project of setting out the CMA Tower in Riyad, Saudi Arabia
By presenting the Project of survey setting out of CMA Tower in Riyadh
(Saudi Arabia), height 540 m, prepared by Leica Company expert team,
complexity of survey setting out of tall buildings is highlighted.
Local geodetic network is designed and
realized with accuracy of coordinates and
levels that must be in function of the
required accuracy of setting out
Setting out on lower levels
 Setting out on higher levels
Automated total station (TPS)
 Precision inclinometer
Concept of dynamic setting out, proposed and used by Leica experts for setting out of
characteristic points of high structures, is based on system that consists of minimum 3
GNSS receivers, with 360° prism under receiver’s antenna, positioned on the platform
on which setting out is carried, automatic total station (TS) whose coordinates are
determined by backsight crossing of minimum 3 GPS devices and which is used for
polar setting out of characteristic points of the structure on the level of the platform as
well as system of very precise inclinometers networked along the structure’s main axis.
Total stations provide the measurements of horizontal and vertical
directions and slope length to the points of active control network in
order to determine the definitive spatial positions of observation
station / total stations, which are pre-determined by GNSS
The role of GNSS relates to securing the spatial positioning of a
TPS by using the method of backsight crossing
Precision inclinometer is a device for very precise measuring of
structure’s main axis slope change referring to the designed vertical.
This device must be installed and in function during the entire
construction process, when the structure is exposed to all unwanted
outside effects.
Concept of dynamic setting out during
monitoring of construction of
CMA Tower in Riyadh
TPS – Automatic Total Station
Precise inclinometer (Leica NIVEL200 and
WYLER Zeromatic Inclinometer)
Each component must be calibrated and set-up on
place accordingly factory recommendations
System TPS/GNSS/precise inclinometer for the
construction of high-rise buildings
All components that are inter-acting will provide internal check to
ensure high confidence in the results. For instance the directions from
the Total Station to the 360° reflectors collocated with the GNSS
antennas will be controlled with the distances – as the coordinates of
the TPS can be derived by using the directions only (resection). That’s
the reason the coordinates for the TPS are computed with a strict Least
Square Adjustment process to consider all the observations
respectively weighted by their standard deviation.
Based on previously successfully completed buildings, such as the
Burj Dubai Tower, where in the construction process the concept of
dynamic setting out and control of the projected geometry were
used, integrated system of spatial positioning represent the trend in
the modern construction of specific types of structures.
The combination of GPS / GNSS measurements with conventional
measurements which are generated by automated total station, and
taking into account the data provided by precision inclinometers,
guarantees quality assurance of setting out and control of geometry
of different structural elements in the construction of high-rise

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