Hardware in the Loop (HIL) - Concurrent Computer Corporation

Report
Hardware in the Loop (HIL)
Simulation
Ken Jackson
Vice-President Real-Time
Agenda
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Why Simulation?
Software Modeling
Frequencies - ΔT
Integration: Software
with Hardware (I/O)
HIL Examples
HIL Components
RTOS & RT-Tools
Simulation Executive
(SimWB)
Why Simulation?
• Industry is constantly developing products
• Those products require designing & testing
• Software modeling & Simulation lower development cost
and improve time to market
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Design Issues
Hinge Friction
• Dimensions
• Hardware
• Materials
• Performance
• Mass
Y
W
Spring Force
X
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Z
Software Modeling
Rather than building
and testing
repeatedly, the door
and its components
can be modeled in
software.
This way, design
parameters can be
changed quickly and
easily while running
repeated tests

  d

t
dt
d d d 2 

 2
dt dt
dt
  lim
 d    dt   tdt
0
1 2
  0t  t  C2
2
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Fspring  kx
Frequency -
T
• Granularity
• Fidelity
1 Hz
t=0
T  1
t=1
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t=2
Frequency -
T
• Higher Frequency / Finer Granularity
• Higher Fidelity / Resolution
100 Hz
T  .010
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Integrating Software Model with
Hardware
• Hardware in the Loop
• Mate real hardware with
the software simulation
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Hard Real-Time HIL Applications
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Aerospace
FADEC Design/Test
High Lift Simulation
Missile Design/Test
Aircraft Design/Test
Guidance Design/Test
Weapons Design/Test
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Defense
Radar &Telemetry
Non-Aerospace Design/Test
Controller Design/Test
Weapons Design/Test
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Automotive
Powertrain Control Design/Test
Chassis Control Design/Test
Suspension Control Design/Test
Braking Control Design/Test
FlexRay Design/Test
M1 Tank
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
M1 Tank
How are HIL systems used?
Phalanx
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• Ford
– PCM (Powertrain Control Module) Testing
in the Virtual Powertrain and Control System
(VPACS) HIL Laboratory for current and future
vehicles (MATLAB/Simulink)
– Testing/developing ECU code for controllers, gas,
diesel etc. with lots of I/O in systems
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• Johns Hopkins
– Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) missile testing for the
US Department Of Defense (DOD)
• RedHawk used in classified HIL application
• Draper Labs
– Graphics processing in the simulation environment
– Trident Controls Development – HILS
• Sikorsky
– Selected for Blackhawk helicopter
engineering simulation
– Utilizes Concurrent RedHawk Linux and NightStar tools
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• Common Missile HIL
– Classified DAC application
• B1B bomber - Weapons control systems
– Mission critical EMUX performance required
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• Collins submarine
- Simulation/test of Sonar arrays
• Tomahawk missile program
– Real-Time Hardware-in-the- Loop (HIL) testing
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• Joint Standoff Weapon
(JSOW)
– Real-Time Hardware In
the Loop (HIL) Testing
• Small Diameter Bomb
(SDB)
– Real-Time Hardware-inthe-Loop (HIL) Testing
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• Airbus– HIL simulation A400M, A320, A340,
and A350 programs
– HIL Test stands for HLSS in Bremen
(SIMulation Workbench)
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• MBDA
– A world-leading missile systems company with
products from armor piercing land weapons to air-toair missiles use HIL simulators
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
• MHI Nagasaki (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries)
– HIL simulator for new G-RX6 torpedo
– High-performance homing system generates sound
waves & analyzes returns for multiple target
discrimination & location, destroyers, subs, decoys
Hard Real-Time HIL Components
• Real-Time Operating System
• Real-Time Development Tools
• Real-Time Simulation Environment
• COTS I/O
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Real-Time Technology
Real-Time Operating System
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Real-Time Operating Systems
Desirable Real-Time features:
– Guaranteed hard real-time response
– Advanced shielding features
• Easy-to-use API and GUI
• Processor, interrupt and local timer
– NUMA Performance Optimization
– UIO User-level Driver Support
– Real-Time Scheduler
– Optimized graphics I/O
– Lockless kernel trace
– User-level preemption control
– High Resolution timers
– Single-kernel solution
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RedHawk Advantages
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RedHawk Linux provides the following market strengths and
differentiators over proprietary embedded OS products and other
Linux distributions:
– RedHawk is an true Linux distribution (not micro-kernel)
– RedHawk Linux is optimized for multi-core platforms (SMP)
– RedHawk is fully compatible with the Red Hat user
environment
– NightStar tools provide superior functionality over competing
tool sets especially in multi-core applications
– RedHawk Architect GUI tool will provide a single, easy-to-use
tool for building an embedded solution
– RedHawk will easily address the needs of applications that
have both soft and hard real-time requirements.
– Extensive Concurrent experience in
supporting Linux
and Linux applications
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Real-Time Technology
Real-Time Development Tools
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Development Tools
Desirable Real-Time features:
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Minimally-intrusive multi-system, multi-process
debugging via a single interface
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Hot patched event points including breakpoints,
patchpoints, monitorpoints, watchpoints, and
tracepoints
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Application speed execution
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View of Linux kernel activity and user space
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Complete view of application threads running across
available CPU cores
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Automatic insertion of trace points
NightStar Tools
Optimizes multi-core environments
Reduces test time
Improves productivity
Lowers program costs
Accelerates time to market
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Real-Time Technology
Real-Time Simulation
Environment
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Simulation Environment
Desirable Real-Time features:
– Support both hand-written and autocoded models
concurrently
– Run multiple models at multiple rates concurrently
while sharing interdependent data
– Trace both types of models simultaneously
– Simple I/O to Model interface
– Real-Time Scheduler
– Easy to use GUIs
– Data logging and playback
– Real-time viewer with easy to use display tool
– Powerful COTS systems and I/O
Simulation Cycle
SimWB Scheduler Frame
Input Cycle
Analog
Input
CPU a
Test script
Cycle
(Optional)
Test
Script
CPU n
Digital
Input
CPU b
MATLAB/Simulink or Custom Model Cycle
Output
Cycle
In1
Data
Raw Input
Values
Output
Data
Gatherer
EU Values
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Meta Data
CVT
HMI
Sync Process
Async Process
Out1
Memory Resident RTDB
Analog
Input Device
Digital
Input Device
Model
CPU x,y,z …
CPU x
Data
Logger
CPU a
Analog
Output
CPU x
Digital
Output
CPU z
Analog
Output Device
Raw Output
Values
Input
Data
Gatherer
Data
Viewer
CPU b
Digital
Output Device
SIMulation Workbench
SIMulation Workbench Overview
• A framework which enables the cyclic execution
of simulation models in real-time.
• Connect the inputs and outputs of the models
with external hardware and interact with the
model signals and parameters via program and
operator interfaces in real-time.
• SimWB is based on Concurrent's Frequency
Based Scheduler (FBS) and fully supports
multiprocessor architectures.
Why use SimWB?
• Leverage Simulink and other tools for rapid
prototyping and HIL simulations
• Ability to change/tune input, output, and
parameters in real-time
• Capture, store, and visualize simulation data
• Leverage RedHawk real-time features including
CPU shielding and scheduling on multiprocessor platforms
More – Why use SimWB?
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COTS hardware
Thousands of I/O points
Multi-Core support
Multiple models on different cores
Run multi-rate Simulink model as threads on
different cores
• Support for
– 32 and 64 Bit MATLAB®/Simulink® Support
– 32 and 64 Bit real-time Linux environment
support (SimWB32 & SimWB64)
SIMulation Workbench Features
• Platform independent Control Panel (Java based
graphical user interface)
• User access control for resources
• Data logger viewer tool (DL Viewer)
• Execute multi-rate Simulink models on different
cores
• Change CPU affinity of multi-rate Simulink models at
run-time for improved CPU load balancing
• Simulink Model Referencing support
• ASAM support
Modelling & Simulation
Complete Integration & Test
System-Level Integration & Test
Subsystem Integration & Test
Implementation
Subsystem Design
System Level Specification
Define Requirements
SimWB in Model-Based Design
Integration & Test
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Rapid Prototyping
Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation
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Production Code Generation
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SIMulation Workbench can be used in these phases of Model-Based Design
Example SimWB Setup
SimWB Toolkit for MATLAB
MATLAB on
Windows/Linux
Real-Time
Workshop
Simulink
Optional
Toolboxes
SimWB Toolkit
Real-Time Host Interface
Localhost or Ethernet
Data
Recorder
SimWB on
Real-Time Linux Host
RTDB
I/O
HMI
Data
Viewer
SimWB Core Modules
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Model Ingest
Real-time Data Base (RTDB)
Scripting Language (Swm)
I/O Support
Data Recorder
Playback
Real-Time Viewer (RT Viewer)
Data-Logger Viewer (DL Viewer)
User Model Ingest
• Import a handwritten model into
the SimWB
framework
• Compile code and
create the
executable
• Transparently map
to the Real-Time
Database (RTDB)
and hook into the
real-time
scheduler
Simulink Model Ingest
• Use SimWB menu
in Simulink to
access the SimWB
Toolkit GUI
• Automatically create
RTDB for Simulink
model
• Automatically
generate SimWB
compliant code
using RTW
(Simulink Coder in
R2011b)
• No need for
hardware dependent
S functions
Real-Time Database (RTDB)
• Memory resident
• Map RTDB variables to physical hardware
channels
• Engineering unit conversion
• GUI panels for convenient remapping of model
parameters and I/O points
• Simulink model parameters (Gain, Constant,
Look-up table, etc..) are created at runtime and
mapped in the RTDB
RTDB I/O Mapping
Scripting Language
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Test management capabilities
Provides the environment to control a test run
Integrated environment to edit/compile test scripts
Extensive API to modify the RTDB in real-time and
control I/O devices (timing, pause/resume, etc.)
• Python, C, or Swm language capable
– Synchronous (runs as part of the scheduling loop)
– Asynchronous (via network client API)
• Automatically generate HTML test reports.
Embedded Editor
Data Logger
• All simulation data points can be recorded
individually and independently of the Simulink
modeling environment. There is no impact on
the model runtime.
• Hardware and engineering unit values, as well
as run-time flags and time stamps are recorded.
• Depending on the performance required, data
logging can be run on the real-time simulation
host or on a separate networked server.
Test Session Playback
• Provides the mechanism to take logged data
and write it back into the RTDB.
• The playback mechanism is synchronized via
RedHawk’s Frequency-Based Scheduler.
• Replay simulation data as it occurred for
analyzing and tuning.
• Test scripts can run simultaneously during
playback giving the operator the ability to
experiment with a portion of the simulation and
tune the results.
Advanced Playback Support
DL Viewer
• Visualize
SimWB RTDB
values that
have been
logged using
the SimWB
data logger.
• Save and
export to Excel
and MATLAB
MAT files.
RT Viewer
• Visualize
SimWB RTDB
values in realtime
• Visualize
scheduler info
• Get/Set CVT
and ALT values
Human Machine Interface
• Multi-platform Javabased HMI
• Display RTDB items
in real-time
• Show real-time plots
• Display logged data
• Display test
scheduling
information
• Lots of built in
widgets for creating
photo-realistic HMIs
Multi-Screen Photo-realistic
HMI Display’s
Multi-rate Multi-core Support for
Simulink Models
• Run multi-rate Simulink model as threads on
different cores.
• Visualize model statistics including multi-rate
thread statistics at runtime.
• Modify CPU affinity of different threads for
improved CPU load balancing.
Hard Real-time System With Multi-rate Tasks
Example: A Fly-by-wire Avionics model
Sensors
Conditioning
Gyros
accel
INU
1 KHz
GPS
GPS
20 Hz
Air
Sensors
Air data
1 KHz
Stick
Joystick
500 Hz
Control Laws
Pitch control
500 Hz
Lateral control
250 Hz
Throttle control
250 Hz
Actuating
Actuators
Aileron1
1 KHz
Aileron
Aileron 2
1 KHz
Aileron
Elevator
1 KHz
Elevator
Rudder
1 KHz
Rudder
Example: Simple Simulink Model With Multi-rate Tasks
Multi-rate Model in Single-tasking Mode
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Tasks with faster rates have
higher priorities
CPU4
CPU5
Real-Time execution of a single-tasking system requires a base sample rate
that is long enough to execute one step through the entire model. Assuming
each sub-rate in the model requires less than 1500us for execution, one step
through the entire model requires 6000us which is still less than the base
rate of 10000us. Thus, single-tasking mode works in this example but can
result in inefficient use of available CPU time.
Multi-rate Model in Single-tasking Mode – CPU Overruns
CPU1
CPU overrun in single-tasking mode
20000us
Safety Margin
Tasks with faster rates have
higher priorities
Unused CPU time
Avoid CPU overruns at the expense of unused CPU time and
slower simulation speed by decreasing the base rate
Real-Time execution of a single-tasking system results in CPU overruns if it
takes longer than the base rate to execute one step through the entire
model. Assume the Discrete 3 sub-rate requires 20000us for execution. To
continue execution in single-tasking mode, the base rate has to be
decreased to be greater than 20000us+1500*3us or the execution will result
in CPU overrun.
Multi-rate Model in Multi-tasking Mode on a single CPU
CPU1
a
b
c
Pre-emption by a higher priority task
a
+
b
+
c
=
Tasks with faster rates have
higher priorities
20000us
When running multiple tasks on the same CPU, the higher priority tasks
preempt the lower priority tasks. No CPU over run occurs, if all the tasks are
completed before they are run again. Occasional CPU overruns can occur
due to changing task execution times and context switching times resulting
in CPU idle times not being enough to complete the preempted tasks.
Multi-rate Model in Multi-tasking Mode
Multiple CPUs - The SIMulation Workbench Advantage
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
Tasks with faster rates have
higher priorities
CPU4
CPU5
With SimWB multi-rate multi-tasking support, tasks with different rates are
run in their own thread and these tasks can be run on different CPU’s
thereby preventing overruns.
Multi-rate Model in Multi-tasking Mode
CPU Load Balancing - The SIMulation Workbench Advantage
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
CPU4
CPU’s available for executing other Simulink
models, C/C++ user models, and I/O tasks.
Tasks with faster rates have
higher priorities
CPU5
CPU6
With SimWB not only can we run different tasks on different CPU’s but we
can also visualize the task execution time for different tasks and reassign the
tasks to run on different CPU’s for improved CPU load balancing.
Actual Screenshot of the RT Viewer for a Multi-rate Simulink Model
Support for Simulink Models Containing
Model References
• Model reference lets you break up the hierarchy into
separate models.
• These models can be simulated and built stand
alone, which means teams can independently
develop components in parallel.
• Teams deal with fewer blocks in their models.
• Simulate and unit test component models.
• Incremental update diagrams and code generation
saves time.
• SimWB now supports code generation for a
Simulink model containing model references.
MATLAB/Simulink Example of a Model Referenced System
Light Subsystem Stereo Subsystem
Blinker Subsystem AC Subsystem
Airbag Deployment System
Car Model Top Level
Team A
Model
Body Electronics
System
Powertrain
System
Team B
Model
ECU
model
Chassis System
Vendor D
Model
Vendor C
Model
SimWB can generate
compliant code for the
top level model and
automatically include the
referenced models.
Real-Time Technology
COTS I/O
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COTS I/O Support
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Analog Input and Output
Digital Input and Output
AFDX / ARINC 664
ARINC 429
CANbus
MIL-STD-1553
RVDT/LVDT
Resolver
Counter/Timer
FlexRay
Reflective Memory
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Serial I/O
Relays
Resistor simulator
Arbitrary waveform
generator
ScramNet GT 200
reflective memory
Square wave generators
DDS wave synthesizer
CCUR PWM 1012
RCIM Features
RCIM
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8 interrupt-generating real-time clocks
12 edge-triggered input external interrupt lines
12 output external interrupt lines
12 inter-CPU interrupts
Can sync to external time sources
GPS synchronization option
Inter-system connects
PMC,PCI or PCIe
External clock sync
RoHS compliant
Oscillator,
Down to
.01 PPM
Accuracy
(<1 sec/yr)
Interrupts
GPS option
Distributed Environment
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Use the RCIM to synchronize the distributed systems
Can sync to external time sources
GPS synchronization option
Use 10g Enet or Firewire to pass data packets
Data can be synchronous or asynchronous
Configuration only limited by timing contraints
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Questions?
Simulation, Training & Test Systems
Embedded Systems
Data Acquisition & Control Systems

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