The impact of international migration on destination countries

The 2013 International Metropolis Conference
Tampere, Finland, 9 September 2013
Jean-Christophe Dumont
Head of International Migration Division
Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs
Recent trends in high-skilled
migration to OECD countries
The increasing role of Asia
and foreign students
Inflows stabilize at relatively high levels
Inflows to OECD countries by destination (base 2000 = 100)
Source: OECD International Migration Database
Today’s immigrants are more educated
than those who came in the past
Percentage of high-educated among the foreign-born population,2000 and 2010
Source: OECD International Migration Outlook (2012)
New immigrants fuel the growth of the
highly educated labour force
Changes in tertiary educated labour force, 2000-10 by source, Thousands
Source: OECD International Migration Outlook (2012)
Between 2000 and 2010, immigrants represented 21/14/31%
of the increase in the tertiary educated labour force in the US,
European OECD countries and Canada.
Migrants from Asia make a large share
of skilled labour migration
Share of skilled migrants in selected OECD countries,
by permit programme, 2010-12, by nationality
Source: OECD (2012), “The Changing Role of Asia in International Migration”, International Migration Outlook, except Germany (2011) and
Denmark and Norway, pooled 2011-2012. DNK Asia includes only Bangladesh and Pakistan. NLD: Other Asia is Japan only. Sweden is based on
ISCO classification 1-2. Norway is geographical Asia, other countries exclude Southwest and Central Asia.
In 2010/11, more than 10 million tertiary educated
migrants in the OECD are originating from Asia
Immigrant stocks from selected Asian countries in AUS, FRA, UK and US, 2000-10
Preliminary data from DIOC
2010/11 (Database on Immigrants
in OECD and non-OECD
countries) show that, one in two
recent tertiary educated migrants
is originating from Asia
More and more students choose to
study abroad …
• Foreign students in the world and in the OECD area
Source: OECD International Migration Outlook (2013)
… and transition to work permits has
been eased in most countries
Maximum duration of job-search for post graduates schemes in
selected OECD countries, in months (2012)
Source: OECD International Migration Outlook (2013)
Outside of Europe, a large share of
international students are from Asia
International students from Asia (including Japan and Korea) in OECD
countries, 2009, thousands and percentage change from enrolment in 2004
Source: OECD International Migration Outlook (2012)
Policy framework
for high-skilled labour migration
Are models converging ?
Many policy initiatives to foster highly skilled
migration despite slack labour markets
• Major recent reforms of the labour migration system in selected
OECD countries
Sweden (2008) : pure demand driven labour migration system
Australia (2012) : skills select
EU (2009) : implementation of the blue card Directive
Germany (2013)
United States (?)
• Countries with a supply driven component
 AUS, AUT, CAN, NLD, DNK and NZL [until recently NOR and the UK]
• Countries using a point system to select skills in a demand driven
 AUT, CZE, JPN and the UK [possibly the US]
• Other policy changes
 International students (All), Investors (AUS, CAN, IRL etc.),
temporary workers (CAN, AUS)
Paradoxes and future challenges
in the global competition
for talents
The integration paradox
More and more
under-use of
migrants’ skill
Difference in employment rate of foreign- and
native-born populations by educational level,
2009-10, 15-64 (excluding persons still in education)
RFQ may pay
off but few
migrants get it
Overqualification of migrants aged 15+
in OECD countries, by origin countries’
income group, 2000 and 2005/06
Source: Dumont JC. And S. Widmaier (2011) ,
OECD SEM Working Paper 126
Source : OECD (2012), Settling In: OECD Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2012
The labour market paradox
Policy focus on
the best and
the brightest
Most skill needs
are observed at
intermediate level
Percentages of German employers who reported unfilled vacancies at the respective skill
level, out of all employers with unfilled vacancies, by company size and skill level, 2011
Source: OECD (2013), Recruiting immigrants. Germany
The migration policy paradox
Countries are
for talents
Distribution of skill levels by reason for migrating,
recent non-EU migrants, Southern Europe and
Northern and Western Europe, 2008.
 convergence
of migration
Less impact
 more role
for employers
Still few
of them try
to recruit
In practice, employers hire migrants
who are already in the country.
Future challenges
Respond to skill
Attract and retain
foreign students
Compete with a
larger pool of
potential destination
Promote skill dev.
and utilisation of
existing skills vs.
ease international
Courses in
international vs.
national languages
Selection vs.
attractiveness (e.g.
time/cost, visa
facilitation, RFQ,
Adopt a workable
selection criteria
for skills which
corresponds to the
“real needs”
Facilitate work
during studies and
vs. integrity of the
Increase policy
focus on harnessing
the skills of the
Tuition fees
mobility of skills
vs. brain drain
Ensure equal
access for SMEs to
foreign skilled
Thank you for your attention
For further information:
[email protected]

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