L1.1_Slides - Concordia University

Report
ASIC DESIGN
Asim J. Al-Khalili---Concordia
University
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
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Objectives
•What technologies are there?
•Why CMOS?
•Where are we?
•How far we can go
•What is the worldwide view of
microelectronics ?
•What are the different
implementation methods?
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The First Transistor
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1948
3
Milestones of IC
Development
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Beginning of Semiconductor Evolution 1948
Passive and Active Components from
Semiconductor Materials 1958
Planar Transistors 1959
Planar Passive and Active Devices 1961
Small Scale Integration (SSI)1964
Medium Scale Integration (MSI) 1968
Large Scale Integration(LSI) 1971
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) / Ultra Large
Scale Integration (ULSI) 1980s
System On Chip (SoC) 2000s and is continuing to
get larger and larger
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WORLD OF SILICON
DOGS EAT DOGS

IC applications are in
every aspects of our lives:

Computers
Toys
Consumer electronics
Household items
Automotive
Industrial equipments
Military
Communications
Advertising and Displays
Space and Exploration
Etc.
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Electronic Circuit Explosion
IC Technology Advances
MORE CIRCIUTS ON CHIP
LOW MANUFACTURING COSTS
MORE COMPLEX
MANY NEW PRODUCTS
ELECRONIC PRODUCTS
NEVER BEFORE POSSIBLE
NUMBER OF CIRCUITS TO
BE DESIGNED
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SKY ROCKETED
6
Emerging-in-car systems
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The Internet Big Bang
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EVEN ATMs
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The Incredible Shrinking
Transistor
1970’s
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1980’s
2000
2014
10
Reduction in Feature Size
Reduce transistor and wiring by 
Generalized
Physical parameter
ConstantElectric Field
Scaling Factor
Generalized
Scaling Factor
Channel length,
Insulator thickness
1/
1/
1/d
1/
1/
1/w
1


1/
/
/d
1/
/
/w


d
Area
1/2
1/2
1/w2
Capacitance
1/
1/
1/w
Gate delay
1/
1/
1/d
Power dissipation
1/2
2/2
2/wd
Power density
1
2
2w/d
Wiring width,
channel width
Electric field in
device
Voltage
On-current per
device
Doping
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Selective
Scaling Factor
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The First Computer
The Babbage
Difference Engine
(1832)
25,000 parts
cost: £17,470
Using finite difference it is possible to replace multiplication, division and subtraction
by addition, So in calculating the value of a polynomial we may use addition only .
Adding two numbers using gearwheels is easier to implement than doing it by
multiplication or division.
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Prentice Hall/Rabaey
ENIAC - The first electronic computer
(1946)
20,000 Vacuum Tubes, it cost $500,000
It could Add, Subtract and store 10-digit decimal numbers in memory
It weighted 27 tons, had a size of 80 ft* 8.5 ft* 3 ft, and it required a room of 680 ft2
Consumed 150KW
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Prentice Hall/Rabaey
BUT NOW, a small cell phone
By the millions, more powerful, more functions, less
weight, less power consumption, less heat generation
Intel 4004 Micro-Processor
1971
4-bit CPU
2,300 transistors
Area of 3 by 4 mm
Employed a 10 μm
silicon-gate
92,000 instructions/s
740 KHz Clock 16 pin
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Prentice Hall/Rabaey
Intel Pentium (IV) microprocessor
2002
A 'Northwood' core
Pentium 4 processor (P4A)
Northwood core at 2.2 GHz
2nd cache 512 KB 55
million transistors, 130 nm
Technology
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Prentice Hall/Rabaey
MOORE’S LAW
100
90
80
70
Double Logic Gates Every Two Years ( Moore’s Law )
Maximum Macrocell Size beyond 2005 ( 10 M gates )
Number of
Logic Gates
(Moore’s Law)
Logic Block
Area (Moore’s
Law)
Number of
Logic Gates
(Max = 10M)
Logic Block Area
(MAX = 10M)
1M
0.909
1M
0.909
2M
0.923
2M
0.923
4M
1.0
4M
1.0
8M
1.091
8M
1.091
24M
1.32
10M
0.55
64M
1.42
10M
0.22
192M
1.782
10M
0.09
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1990
2001
2003
2
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2005
Year
2008
2014
2011
17
Intel announces 14 new Ivy Bridge
Processors
May. 31, 2012 (8:31 am) By: Matthew Humphries In: Chips, Chips Picks, Geek Pick, News
Intel launched the 22nm Ivy Bridge processors that uses
quad-core chips
Since then it added another 14 processors to the line-up, only this time
the chips are mainly dual-core parts catering to a number of different
market segments and platforms. .
Of the 14 new processors, 6 are classed as desktop chips with power
use (TDP) ranging from 35-77 watts. These consist mainly of new
quad-core chips, but one dual-core desktop chip is also listed (i5-3470T).
CPU frequency ranges from 2.6GHz to 2.9GHz and maxing out at 3.4GHz
using Intel Turbo Boost on the Core i7 chip. .
IBM Creates New Memory Technology
100 Times Faster Than Flash
by Bryan Vore on July
01, 2011
IBM revealed its new phase-change memory (PCM) tech that
could drastically change computing and gaming.
IBM says that PCM is able to write and retrieve data 100 times faster
than Flash memory. It also lasts much longer, surviving 10 million
write cycles compared to the 3,000cycles of Flash that the average
consumer can use.
IBM claims that PCM will herald a "paradigm shift“ when it hits the
market in 2016. .
IBM Promises Internet 400 times faster
A new technology from IBM promises hyper-fast and energy
efficient connections to the Internet,as fast as 400 gigabits per second.
Scientists in IBM Switzerland just unveiled a prototype tiny chip for an energy
efficient analog-to-digital converter (ADC), that’s 5,000 times faster than the
average U.S. connection, or 400 times faster than Google Fiber.
This is fast enough to download a 2-hour ultra-high-definition movie (about 160
gigabytes) in seconds!
The latest version of the chip, developed by IBM with researchers from Ecole
Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, is only a prototype right
now and was presented at the International Solid-State Circuits Conference
(ISSCC) in San Francisco.
Latest New iTwin tech torrent onto our hard
drives and memory sticks 2011-12
Latest New iTwin tech torrent onto our hard drives and memory
sticks 2011-12 Stuck together, the iTwin twins look like a double-ended
USB flash memory stick. However, there’s no real storage available in
either. Instead, this natty gadget creates a sort of wormhole
through the internet, joining together the two computers that the halves
of the iTwin are plugged into
TOSHIBA
SD Memory
SD-GU064G2
SD-GU032G2
SD- GU016G2
Capacity
32GB
64GB
16GB
Maximum read speed
95MB/ sec
Maximum write speed
60MB/ sec
Shipped in April 2014, with
prices ranging from $120
to $300.
Toshiba develops, manufactures 19nm
generation NAND Flash Memory with
world's largest density and smallest die size
128 Gb capacity in a 3-bit-per-cell chip on a 170mm2 die
23 Feb, 2012
TOKYO—Toshiba Corporation (TOKYO: 6502) today announced
breakthroughs in NAND flash that secure major advances in chip
density and performance. In the 19 nanometer (nm) generation,
Toshiba has developed a 3-bit-per-cell 128 gigabit (Gb) chip with the
world's smallest[1] die size—170mm2—and fastest write speed[2]—
18MB/s of any 3-bit-per-cell device. The chip entered mass production
earlier this month .
What's the largest
memory stick that you
can buy?
It is 256GB. It is a Memory Stick/Flash
Drive/USB/Small Little Finger. It is
Very Expensive.
128GB$1,499.99
Item# SDCFXP-128G-A91
SanDisk Extreme® Pro™ CompactFlash®
128GB Card with VPG
Jun 19, 2012 SANDISK I
.
.
Kingston 1TB USB3.0
DataTraveler HyperX
$899 Valid from Aug 05, 2014
Is 14nm the end of the road for silicon chips?
• Atoms are very small, but they still have a finite size. The atoms used
in silicon chip fabrication are around 0.2nm. A human hair diameter
is around 150 micron. A transistor in a 14 nm is around 80 nm.
• A process that Intel use with Ivy Bridge — the high-κ dielectric layer
is just 0.5nm thick; just two or three atoms!
• NOW no manufacturing technique is so accurate, since a single, outof-place atom can ruin an entire chip, it is going to be extremely
difficult to manufacture circuits that are both reliable and cost
effective.
What is in store for us
Chipmakers are working hard to reach the 5nm node, but, the industry has several
challenges to overcome.
Presently, the leading transistor candidates for 5nm are the usual suspects— III-V
finFETs; gate-all-around; and nanowires. But the tunnel field-effect transistor
(TFET) is also considered for its low power and low voltage, about 0.5 –volt
Putting TFETs and finFETs into production is difficult and may need III--‐V
materials, nanowires and other complex technologies.
System Design Engineering community,
Wed, April 30 2014,
What foundary support is needed for any chip maker looking to develop 14/16 nm
finFET ? a discussion with Steve Carlson, Director, office of Chief Strategy Officer,
Cadence Design.
http://chipdesignmag.com/sld/blog/2014/04/30/deeper-dive-wed-april-30-2014/
CHALLENGES MOUNT FOR
INTERCONNECT> By Mark LaPedus
There are a plethora of chip-manufacturing challenges for the 20nm
node and beyond. When asked what are the top challenges facing
leading-edge chip makers today, Gary Patton, vice president of the
Semiconductor Research and Development Center at IBM, said it boils
down to two major hurdles: lithography and the interconnect.
ROUTING CONGESTION RETURNS
By Ed Sperling
Routing congestion has returned with a vengeance to SoC design,
feuled by the advent of more third-party IP, more memory, a variety of
new features, as well as the inability to scale wires at the same rate as
transistors.
Example of Industrial foundry
GLOBALFOUNDRIES provides advanced semiconductor
manufacturing excellence with leading-edge (28nm),
mainstream (65nm and 45nm) and mature (0.35um to
0.11um) technology, on both 200mm and 300mm wafers.
GLOBALFOUNDRIES has fabrication in Dresden, New York and
Singapore, with a network of design and support centers in
Silicon Valley, China, Japan, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan and
the U.K.
WWW.GLOBALFOUNDRIES.COM
LEVERAGING THE PAST
By Ann Steffora Mutschler
“It is easy to forget that not every design today is targeted at 20nm,
given the amount of focus put on the bleeding edge of technology.
But in fact a large number of designs utilize the stability and reliability
of older manufacturing nodes, as well as lower mask costs, by
incorporating new design and verification techniques,
3D design
3D design opens up architectural possibilities for
engineering teams to realize much better
performance and far less power consumption.
The greatest power savings in 3D designs are
achieved at the architectural level, and that may
mean jumping in at the deep end.
Hot topic: Thermal integrity's effect on 3D-IC design and analysis.
[email protected]>
What Comes After FinFETs?
By Mark LaPedus
The semiconductor industry is currently making a major transition from
conventional planar transistors to finFETs starting at 22nm.
The question is what’s next? In the lab, IBM, Intel and others have demonstrated
the ability to scale finFETs down to 5nm or so. If or when finFETs runs out of
steam, there are no less than 18 different next generation candidates that could
one day replace today’s CMOS-based finFET transistors.
Mayberry said the eventual winners and losers in the next-generation
transistor race will be determined by cost, manufacturability and
functionality. “The best device is the one you can manufacture,” he said.
In fact, the IC industry is already weeding out the candidates. In 2005,
the Semiconductor Research Corp. (SRC), a chip R&D consortium
, launched the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI), a group that is
researching futuristic devices capable of replacing the CMOS transistor
in the 2020 timeframe. NRI member companies include
GlobalFoundries, IBM, Intel, Micron and TI.
http://extensionmedia.c.topica.com/maapRorab9Upkcc03nbcaeht4A/
posted on April 28, 2013 byStaff Writer
Top FPGA Companies For 2013
http://sourcetech411.com/2013
/04/top-fpga-companies-for2013/fpga_market_262x193/
These two companies comprise approximately 90% market
share (Xilinx 47%, Altera 41%) in 2012 with combined revenues
in excess of $4.5B and a market cap over $20B.
posted on April 28, 2013 byStaff Writer
Top FPGA Companies For 2013
http://sourcetech411.com/2013
/04/top-fpga-companies-for2013/fpga_market_262x193/
These two companies comprise approximately 90% market
share (Xilinx 47%, Altera 41%) in 2012 with combined revenues
in excess of $4.5B and a market cap over $20B.
How about interconnect and Memory
New materials and processes for advanced interconnects
Although on chip interconnects have not been scaling at the same speed as other
parts of the chip, new capabilities enabled by graphene and CNTs, among other
materials, could soon change that.
http://marketing.electroiq.com/ct.html?ufl=b&rtr=on&s=x9w5u6,a0tz,5ke,km42,2w
dj,fvk2,ca13
3D memory for future nanoelectronic systems
3D memory will generally cost more than 2D memory, so generally a system must demand
high speed or small size to mandate 3D.
Communications devices and cloud servers need high speed memory. Mobile and portable
personalized health monitors need low power memory. In most cases, the optimum solution
does not necessarily need more bits, but perhaps faster bits or more reliable bits.
http://marketing.electroiq.com/ct.html?ufl=b&rtr=on&s=x9w5u6,a0tz,5ke,8tkl,1r3y,fvk2,ca13
When it comes to memory manufacturing, consolidation is king.
Today only three major DRAM manufacturers remain MICRON, SAMSUNG, and SK
HYNIX
Spectrum Jan 2014
Compound Semiconductors Join the race to sustain
Moore’s Law
Engineers at Imec and IBM have independently
developed processes for making the next decade’s
leading chips. The process involves using wafers and
certain exotic materials compound semiconductors with
ingredients from columns III and V of the old periodic
table . The mixing materials holds the key to
maintaining the traditional performance improvements
associated with Moore’s Law and the shrinking of
Transistors.
Spectrum IEEE Jan 2014
All optical transistors
“The Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has taken a step
towards devising the long-awaited optical transistor. The
technology could pave the way towards long-haul data
transmissions using an all-optical network.
Researchers from Max Planck have devised a type of optical
transistor using a cloud of ultra-cold rubidium atoms.”.
http://semiengineering.com/manufacturing-bits-august-5/
State of Semiconductor Revenue
Worldwide Semiconductor Revenue Grew 5 Percent in 2013,
According to Final Results by Gartner
• Intel Retained the No. 1 Position for the 22nd Year in a Row
Total worldwide semiconductor revenue reached $315 billion
in 2013, up 5 percent from 2012, according to Gartner, Inc.
February Semiconductor Sales Up 11.4 Percent Compared
to Last Year.
More Than One Fourth of Industry Wafer Capacity Dedicated
to <40nm Process Geometries.
Semiconductor Market Forecast to Contract by 0.1 Percent
in 2012 - First Decline in ThreeYears
• 
Graphene The wonder Material
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eh3dA8xnZ4Y
TED on Little Bits
http://www.ted.com/talks/ayah_bdeir_building_blocks_that_blink
_beep_and_teach
Electronic Building Blocks
http://www.ted.com/talks/ayah_bdeir_building_blocks_that_blink
_beep_and_teach
Personal Chip Implant
https://ca.finance.yahoo.com/news/microchips-implanted-healthy-people-sooner152916800.html
We have seen nothing YET the best days are still ahead
Brain Improvement
For millions, the brain has not changed, but how we use it is changed. BUT NOW :
• Genetically it is possible to alter the brain to create a super brain .
• The future comes with new innovation (brain power)
• We can upgrade our brain (With implants)
• Increase memory (with implants)
• Increase sensors (with implants)
• Communication between Brain-Brain directly rather than converting chemical –
electrical-sounds-pressure waves-mechanical (mouth)-pressure movements (ear) –
electrical- chemical, we should be doing it directly
• The most important development in the world has been technology start with steam
engine, ie replacing human muscle with machine, which is more powerful… So what
happens if we increase our brain power, then what we can do !!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8HeFNJjuj0
Smarter Devices
Digital Technology as it gets smarter is eating up our jobs ( example : copier.. translators,
Articles written by machines, driverless cars, trucks.. )
Economies do not run on energy, labor , or capital The future is with innovation
AIMs
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What the customers want:
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High Quality
Low Cost
Small Size/Weight
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What the Employer wants

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Design the:
Best
Cheapest
In shortest time
Follow the Spec or better.
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What you (chip designer) should do:
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Design a chip with:
High speed
Small area
Low power
Testable and reliable
Delivered in a short time
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Instructor Name: Asim Al-Khalili
Office: EV5.126
Tel:
514 848-2424 ext.3119, FAX 848 2802
Email [email protected]
Web http://www.ece.concordia.ca/~asim
Time: Mondays-Wednesdays 16:15-17:30
Class Room: MB- 1-301
Office hours: Wednesdays 2:00- 3:30
Course Outline
Reference Materials
Assignments
Lectures Information
Web Information
Announcements
Tools
Project
Useful Files
Important Dates:
Midterm Exam: ,Wednesday 15th Oct,2014
Final Exam: Exam: To be announced
Project Delivery: Monday 15th Dec. 2014, at 2:00 pm. To be handed to
me in my room or the Secretary at front desk.
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The following topics will be covered:
Week_1 Introduction to ASIC design and review materials.
Week_2 MOS transistor characteristics.
Week_3 DC analysis of CMOS logic family.
Week_4 RC time models, interconnect models.
Week_5 Transient analysis, propagation delay models.
Week_6 CMOS gates and Static logic families.
Week_7 Memory elements. Clocking strategies.
Week_8 CMOS process and layout generation.
Week_9 Layout techniques.
Week_10 I/O drivers and circuit protection.
Week_11 Circuit Optimization and secondary effects.
Week_12 Dynamic logic families.
Week_13 Design for Testability, Packaging, PLD, Synthesis issues.
Laboratory: H915. The lab is conducted as an open concept, with no schedule.
Information on lab usage will be provided in class.
Grading: 5% Assignment Midterm 15%
20% project, 60% Final Exam
Text: “CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits, Analysis and Design” (Recommended )
By Sung-Mo Kang and Yusuf Leblebici,3rd Edition, Published by McGraw-Hill
“Principles of CMOS VLSI Design” By N. H. Weste & K. Eshraghian
2nd Edition, Published by Addison Wesley
“ Application Specific Integrated Circuits”, By M. J. S. Smith,,Addison44Wesley
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Device
Physics
Device
Electronics
Transistor Circuits
Covered
in COEN
451
Combinational and
sequential Logic Circuits
Regular and irregular
Subsystems
System related issues including
reliability, DFT
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Course Project
The course requires:
•design, Design Verification
•Layout, Layout Verification, DRC
•Post Layout Simulation,
•Characterization
•IN/OUT placement
An example of students projects follows:
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Scientific Process or method:
Sir Francis Bacon
 Formulation of a question: Why the apple falls down and not up?
 Hypothesis: based on knowledge obtained while formulating the
question
 Prediction: This step involves determining the logical consequences of
the hypothesis
 Testing /experimentation: This is an investigation of whether the real
world behaves as predicted by the hypothesis.
 Analysis: This involves determining what the results of the
experiment show and deciding on the next actions to take
 Theory
Learning
If you're going to learn anything, you need two kinds of prior knowledge:
 knowledge about the subject at hand, like math, sciences, or programming
 knowledge about how learning actually works, ie understanding of the cognitive strategies
that allow people to learn well.
 Suggestions to help you learn:
 Force yourself to recall.
In your mind repeat what you have read and see if you can recall what you have just read.
Flashcards are useful in this, since they force you to supply answers.
 Connect the new thing to the old things in your brain.
When you do that you are creating new web-lines, in your web of knowledge(Connections
between Neurons) that will stick in your brain.
 Reflect.
At the end of your learning session reflect in your mind what you have learned.
Henry Roediger and Mark McDaniel, psychologists at Washington University in St. Louis and coauthors of "Make It Stick: The Science Of Successful Learning”
Life
• When passing a flower, stop and smell it and look at it and
appreciate it. Life moves on, so stop and look at the good things
around you.
• Be Happy with what you can do and ignore the things that you
did not succeed to do.
• Have a good social life and surround yourself with people that
have the same wave length and hobbies so that you can be
yourself amongst them .
• Keep your hopes alive and keep moving forward by looking
forward to what you want to achieve. Keep doing new things and
learn new things.
• Enjoy the present, consider every breath is a present
Tools
Cadence unveiled two new tools. The first is a rapid prototyping
platform that the company claims will shorten bring-up time by 70%,
with 4X improvements in capacity, with IEEE 1801 support for lowpower verification through its emulation platform.
The second is a single and multi-corner custom/analog extraction tool,
which it claims will improve performance by 5X. The tool has been
certified for TSMC’s finFET process.
The Future for Feature Size
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The Future of Junction Depth
Junction Depth (nm)
60
1999
50
2000
2001
40
2002
2003
30
2005
2004
2008
20
2011
10
2014
0
0
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100
200
300
400
500
Sheet Resistance (/sq)
600
700
800
52
Power density Evolution
Watts/cm2
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Feature size (µm)
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Power Consumption
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The Future for Supply Voltage
Volts
5
4
3
Gate
Over
Drive
Supply Voltage
2
1
Vth
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Year
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2010
2015
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Optical Communications
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A day made of Glass
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-GXO_urMow&playnext=1&list=PL00407EB774FA759B&fe
A Typical CHIP
Bus Control
Logic Unit
Control
Logic
Register
Clock Generation
Logic Unit
Memory
Bonding pads
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Design Abstraction Levels
SYSTEM
MODULE
+
GATE
CIRCUIT
DEVICE
G
S
n+
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n+
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Prentice Hall/Rabaey
CMOS System Design

Top-down Design:
Design starts at System Specification and works its
way to bottom, ie. circuit level

Bottom-up design:
Design starts at the basic circuits and works
upwards towards system level structure
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THE DESIGN FLOW
CREATION
Register-level
Floorplanning
Sequential Synthesis
RTL
DESCRIPTION
RTL SYNTHESIS
VERIFICATION
Simulation
RTL NETLIST
Logic Optimization,
Technology
Mapping, Test
Generation
LOGIC SYNTHESIS
Functional Verification,
Timing Verification,
Simulation
GATE-LEVEL
NETLIST
Physical
Floorplanning
Placement Signal
Routing, Clock
Layout, Power &
Ground Routing
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PHYSICAL SYNTHESIS
MASK-LEVEL
LAYOUT
Parastic Extraction;
Power Integrity, Clock
Skew, and Noise
Analyses; Peliability
Analysis
61
Verify at every step
ME
MO
RY
CP
U
Functional
Structural
Logic
Circuit
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Device
Layout
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Design Strategies

Hierarchy
– A repeated process of dividing large
modules into smaller sub-modules until the
complexity of sub-modules are at an
appropriately comprehensible level of detail.
– Parallel hierarchy is implemented in all
domains.
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A Structured Design
ÔRegularity
Divide the hierarchy in to similar building
blocks whenever possible.
Some programmability could be added to
achieve regularity.
l
l
ÔModularity
l
Well defined behavioural, structural and
physical interface.
l
Helps: divide tasks into well defined
modules, design integration, aids in team
design.
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ÔLocality
IC Design Methodology

Requirement specification
– most important function which impacts the
ultimate success of an IC relates to how firm
and clear the device specifications are.
– Device specification may be updated
throughout the design cycle.
– Main items in the specifications are:
 functional
intent: brief description of the device,
the technology and the task it performs.
 Packaging specification
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
– device port number
– package type, dimension, material
Functional Description
high-level block diagram: all major
blocks including intra block connections
and connections to pin-outs indicating
direction and signal flow.
Intra block signal function: description
of how blocks interact with each other
supported with timing diagram where
necessary.
· Internal block description of internal
operation of each block. Where
necessary, the following to be
included: timing diagram, state
diagram, truth table.
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Specifications
l
I/O specifications
· pin-out diagram
· I/O functional description
· loading
· ESD requirements
· latch-up protection
l
D.C. specifications
· absolute maximum ratings for: supply
voltage, pin voltages
· main parameters: VIL and VIH for each
input, VOL and VOH for each output,
input loading, output drive, leakage
current for tri-state operation,
quiescent current, power-down current
(if applicable)
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
Specification, continued
l
AC specifications
· inputs: set-up and hold times, rise and
fall times
· outputs: propagation delays, rise and
fall times, relative timing
· critical thinking
l
Environmental requirements
· operating temperature, storage
temperature, humidity condition (if
applicable)
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Device Specification
]
Functional intent: briefly describe the
device, the technology, and the circuits it
will replace as well as the task it will
perform.
^
Design concept
Î
Î
pin-out diagram: describe the device using a
block diagram of the external view of the chip basically, a box with all the I/O pins labelled and
numbered
I/O description: use a chart to define the I/O
signals shown in the pin-out diagram
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
Example:
Pin #
Pin Name I/O Type
P1
VDD
Power
Supply
P2
TXCLK
Input
P3
TXP1
Output
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
Function
Power
Supply, +5V
dc with
respect to
VSS
Transmit
Clock, 5.12
MHz rate
Transmit
output –
channel 1,
+ve polarity
Functional Specification
internal block diagram: draw blocks for
major functions, show all connections
including: connection to all pin-outs,
connections between blocks, and
direction of signal flow
Inter-block signal function: describe
how the blocks interact with each other
and support this with timing diagrams
where necessary
· internal block description: describe the
internal operation of each block. When
necessary, include: timing diagrams,
state diagrams, and truth table
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
Operating characteristics
Absolute maximum stress ratings.
Example:
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Max.
Storage T
Ts
-65
+150
O
O
Unit
C
Operating T
TA
-40
+85
Supply V
VDD
-0.5
7
V
Input V
VI
-0.3
VDD + 3
V
Supply I
IDD
5
mA
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C
Requirements
l
Operating power and environmental
requirement:
· power supply voltage
· operating supply current (specify
conditions, e.g., power up, power
down, frequency, output conditions)
· storage temperature
· operating temperature
· humidity conditions (if applicable)
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Input characteristics. Example chart:
(V reference is VSS = 0, temperature range is
0oC to 70oC)
Pins
Symbol
Parameter
Min nom Max Units
TXDAT2
TXDAT2
VIL
TXCK
TXFRM
VIH
Input
low V
Input
high V
Input C
to VSS
-0.3 0.4
2.0 2.4
ENB1
ENB2
ICK
LFPM
CSBL
CI
IIL
IIH
RX1N1
RX1N2
VIP
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
Input
low I
Input
high I
Input
peak V
0.8
VCC +
0.3
10
+/- 10
+/- 10
VDD +
0.3
V
V
pF
A
A
V
Comments
Imputs
protected
against
static
damage
Vin =
0V
Vin =
5.25V
AC
coupled
input
A Structured Design
ÔRegularity
Divide the hierarchy in to similar building
blocks whenever possible.
Some programmability could be added to
achieve regularity.
l
l
ÔModularity
l
Well defined behavioural, structural and
physical interface. Helps: divide tasks
into well defined modules, design
integration, aids in team design.
ÔLocality
Internals of the modules are unimportant
to any exterior interface.
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l
VLSI DESIGN LAB
Aim of CMOS system Design
 High
Density
 Fast Switching Time
 Low Power Dissipation
 Testable Design
 Regular and Modular Design
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System Performance
This is related to several factors
including:
 Algorithm design
 Design strategy
 Circuit implementation
 Floor plan
 Interconnect strategy
 Input/Output drives and coupling
 Clock distribution
 Interfacing

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Standard Devices
General purpose use --not optimized to a specific application
* Fixed or programmable
* Available in various complexities:
SSI, MSI, LSI, VLSI, and ULSI
* Function: standard logic, MPU, memories,
functions
DSP, analog
* Available in a variety of packages
* Technology: bipolar, nMOS, CMOS, BiCMOS, GaAs
* Occupy larger areas and consume more power compared to
other types of ICs
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Full Custom
HAND CRAFTED DESIGNG
* STRUCTURED DESIGN
HIERARCHIAL: TOP DOWN DESIGN,
BOTTM UP DESIGN
* EXTENSIVE VERIFICATION
* MIXED DIGITAL AND ANALOG
* TIME CONSUMING AND EXPENSIVE
* REQUIRES EXTENSIVE DESIGN EXPERIENCE
* COST EFFECTIVE FOR LARGE PRODUCTION
VOLUMES
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79
GATE ARRAY
CONSISTS OF TRANSISTOR ARRAYS
* CUSTOMER DEFINES INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN
TRANSISTORS
* VENDOR PROVIDES INTERCONNECTION
TOPOLOGIES TO FORM LOGIC FUNCTIONS
* 1 TO 6 LEVELS OF METALIZATION
* AVAILABLE IN DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES
* 2000 TO 5,000,000 GATE LOGIC COMLEXITIES.
* 2 TO 4 WEEKS DESIGN LEAD TIME
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80
STANDARD CELLS
*PREDESIGNED AND PRECHARACTERIZED CELLS
* AVAILABLE IN VARIOUS CELL COMPLEXITIES:
MACROCELLS --VARIABLE HEIGHTS
MICROCELLS--STANDARD HEIGHTS
* DESIGN PHILOSOPHY SIMILAR TO OFF THE SHELF COMPONENTS
* MORE EFFICIENT SILICON UTILIZTION COMPARED
* MEDIUM DESIGN TIME
* LOWER COST
* COST EFFECTIVE FOR LARGE PRODUCTION VOLUMES*
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81
CELL TOPOLOGY
STANDARD CELLS ARE AVAILABLE AS FIXED HEIGHT OR
VARIABLE HEIGHT.
*FIXED HEIGHT CELLS:
--MAJORITY OF CELLS ARE IMPLEMENTED USING
-- FIXED HEIGHT, BUT VARIABLE WIDTH LAYOUT
-- CELLS ARE STACKED IN ROWS
* VARIABLE HEIGHT CELLS :
--FOR MORE COMPLEX FUNCTIONS SUCH AS MEMORY, ALU,
MICROPROCESSOR
* COST EFFECTIVE FOR LARGE PRODUCTION VOLUMES
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82
-- Project of ASIC Design --
Instructor: Dr. A.J.AL-Khalili
Submitted by
Ji, Haiying
Zhang, Haiqing
Submitted Date: 29 April, 2002
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83
Overview
Logic Design Specification: exhibiting our logic design of every unit: half adder/subtracter,
one-bit counter, 4-bit counter. Logic circuit simulation result is presented. The stage mainly
worked on the Synopsys development platform within UNIX.
Circuit Design Specification: fully covering the most of our work about every CMOS logic
circuit unit: NAND and NOR gates, D flip-flop etc. All parameters of circuits are decided. And
there are some the circuit plots and waveforms generated by Cadence development tools that
test and verify every part of our CMOS circuit design.
Layout and Simulation: With Cadence layout tool, we drew the layouts of all circuit units
according to the design parameter from the last design stage. Perform DRC. Extract the design
and simulate it again and characterize the two gates. To perform DRC on the final design,
extract it and simulate it again to obtain the performance measures. The waveforms related the
design are shown and analyzed.
Packaging: The procedure to place and rout the complete chip including all I/O drivers and
PADs is presented.
Analyzing and Summary: The test results were analyzed carefully and helped us got
appropriate conclusion. Give a complete specification for the circuit. It is summary of our
work. It manifests our great gain of designing and developing work experience and important
realization from this course.
Appendix: this is needful supplement showing our coding work in logic design stage and
perfect layout picture drawn with Cadence layout tools.
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84
Logic Design
Port
clk
CLK
CLR
input
output(3:0)
4 –Bit
Up/Down
Counter
udctrl
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
brwcry
Function
DFF Driving Clock, 1-0: input output
clr
“1” clear all port
udctrl 1: up counting
0: down counting
input
1 or 0
sout
0000--1111
brwcry Borrow or carry signal; for up
linking
85
Up/ Do wn c o n t ro llin g-Half adde r an d s u bt rac t e r de s ign
Half-Adder and Half-Substracter function:
Sout =A’B+B’A
Carry=AB
Borrow=BA’
The Up/Down Control signal is added to the unit. It just controls which one should be output either the carry or
borrow.
Borcar=B(UD’A’+UD*A)
(UD: up/down control)
When UD=1, output carry, the unit works as a half adder. When UD=0, output borrow, it works as a half
substracter.
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
86
On e -Bit Up/ Do wn c o n t ro llin g Co un t e r de s ign
Combining a One-Bit D Flip-Flop, we implement the One-Bit Up/Down controlling Counter.
In1
Control
S
udcontrol
In2 Bor/Car
D
CLR
CLK
Q
Data i
Input
Bor/Car
The ‘Data i’ is the counter output; bor/car can be the input for next level to form the several
bits counter.
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
87
4 -Bit Up/ Do wn c o n t ro llin g Co un t e r Lo gic Circ uit Plan an d Sim ulat io n
Using four One-Bit Up/Down controlling Counters, we implement the 4-Bit Up/Down controlling
Counter unit shown as following figure.
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88
We tested and verified the design within Synopsys simulation platform on the Unix
(Sun-Solaris). The waveform is shown as Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
89
Circuit Design
D flip-flop circuit design
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90
Parameters for positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop.
Parameter
minimu
m
------
Typical
Maximum
Unit
------
1670
MHz
tPLH propagation delay time, low-to-high
output from clear
tPHL propagation delay time, high-to-low
output from clear
tPLH propagation delay time, low-to-high
output from clock
tPHL propagation delay time, high-to-low
output from clock
Width of clock or clear pulse, tw
------
------
------
Ns
0.1
0.1
0.1
Ns
0.18
0.2
0.22
Ns
0.17
0.2
0.2
Ns
0.3
0.3
------
Ns
Setup time, tsu
0.1
------
------
Ns
Data hold time, th
0.08
------
------
Ns
Supply voltage, VDD
------
3.3
------
Volt
fMAX maximum clock frequency
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
91
Timing waveforms of DFF
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92
Half Adder/Subtracter Circuit
CONCORDIA
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93
Half Adder/Subtracter Circuit waveforms
CONCORDIA
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94
Half Adder/Subtracter Timing parameters
Parameter
Typical
Unit
tPLH propagation delay time, low-to-high sout from data input
0.34
ns
tPHL propagation delay time, high-to-low sout from data input
0.38
ns
tPLH propagation delay time, low-to-high sout from udctrl
0.24
ns
tPHL propagation delay time, high-to-low sout from udctrl
0.26
ns
Sout rise-time, tr
0.1
ns
Sout fall-time, tf
0.1
ns
Borcar fall-time, tr
0.1
ns
Borcar fall-time, tf
0.1
ns
Supply voltage, VDD
3.3
Volt
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95
4-bit synchronous up/down counter design
4-bit synchronous up down counter implementation
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
96
waves feature for the 4-bit synchronous up down counter
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
97
Timing parameters for the 4-bit synchronous up down counter
Parameter
Typical
Unit
tPLH propagation delay time, low-to-high sout from clock input
0.34
ns
tPHL propagation delay time, high-to-low sout from clock input
0.43
ns
tPLH propagation delay time, low-to-high sout from udctrl
0.68
ns
tPHL propagation delay time, high-to-low sout from udctrl
0.60
ns
Sout rise-time, tr
0.38
ns
Sout fall-time, tf
0.36
ns
Borcar fall-time, tr
0.1
ns
Borcar fall-time, tf
0.1
ns
Supply voltage, VDD
3.3
Volt
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VLSI DESIGN LAB
98
Layout and Simulation
NAND Gate Layout
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
99
simulation waveforms of NAND gate
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
100
Simulation characteristics of the 2-input NAND gate in complementary CMOS.
DC characteristics
Active
area
Total
area
Static
current
VOH
VOL
VIH
VIL
NML
NMH
18.76
um2
132.5
um2
0
3.3
volts
0 volt
1.42
volts
0.87
volts
0.87
volts
1.88
volts
AC characteristics
tPLH
min
tPHL
min
tP
min
tPLH
max
tPHL
max
tP
max
tr
min
tf
min
tr
max
tf
max
Average
power
Peak
Power
0.15
ns
0.03
ns
0.09
ns
0.18
ns
0.05
ns
0.115
ns
0.15
ns
0.14
ns
0.176
ns
0.15
ns
0.43 mw
0.5
mw
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
101
NOR Gate Layout
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
102
Waveform of the 2-input NOR gate in complementary CMOS.
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
103
Simulation characteristics of the 2-input NOR gate in complementary CMOS
DC characteristics
Active
area
Total
area
Static
current
VOH
VOL
VIH
VIL
NML
NMH
24.87
um2
148.32
um2
0
3.3 volts
0 volts
1.57
volts
0.95
volts
0.95
volts
1.73
volts
AC characteristics
tPLH
min
tPHL
min
tP
min
tPLH
max
tPHL
max
tP
max
tr
min
tf
min
tr
max
tf
max
Average
power
Peak
Power
0.18
ns
0.05
ns
0.115
ns
0.2
ns
0.07
ns
0.135
ns
0.2
ns
0.15
ns
0.24
ns
0.16
ns
0.45 mw
0.6
mw
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
104
Transmission Gate Layout
CONCORDIA
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105
Inverter Gate Layout
CONCORDIA
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106
DFF Layout
CONCORDIA
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107
Half Adder/Substrater Layout
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
108
4-bit synchronous up/down counter layout
CONCORDIA
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109
Simulation waveforms of 4-bit synchronous up/down counter layout
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
110
Simulation characteristics of 4-bit synchronous up/down counter layout
DC characteristics
Active
area
Total
area
Static
current
VOH
VOL
VIH
VIL
NML
NMH
Input
leakage
current
2685
um2
16000
um2
0
3.3 volts
0
volt
1.5 volts
0.9 volts
0.9 volts
1.8 volts
2 uA
Prerequisite for switching function
Maximum
frequency fma
Minimum
CLK width
Minimum
CLR width
Set up time
tsu uctrl to
CLK
Set up time tsu
CLR to CLK
Hold time th
uctrl to CLK
Hold time th CLR to
CLK
280 MHz
3.5
ns
1.6
ns
0.8
ns
0.3
ns
0
ns
0.15
ns
Switching characteristics
tPLH
tPHL
0.7 ns
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
0.7 ns
tPudctrl to output
0.7 ns
tPLH
0.665ns
tPHL
tPCLK to output
0.72 ns
0.693 ns
tPLH
--------
tPHL
tP CLR to output
0.8 ns
111
0.8 ns
Package
I/O structure of the 4-bit synchronous up down counter.
Ø
Input pads
In our chip we have three input pads:
CLK, CLR, and udctrl. We use the pads of
PADINC in hcells library, then make the
connection with the correspondent input in
the counter circuit using metal1dg layer.
Ø Output pads
In our chip we have five output pads:
output<0>, output<1>, output<2>, output<3>,
and brwcry (borrow carry). The first four
outputs are the counting results, and the
brwcry output pad provides a function of
forming cascaded counter using this counter.
Notes: -udctrl-- up/down control signal; CLK-- clock
signal; CLR-- clear signal -CLR is a high- active
signal, so there is no tPLH from CLR to output.
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
112
Pad Layout of the 4-bit synchronous up down counter.
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
113
Analyzing & Summary
From the three development stages, logic design, circuit design and layout simulation, we are
able to acquire the conclusion easily. The logic design simulation is the ideal wave that we want
to get. The circuit design simulation verifies our logic design correct and in this stage it also
help us decide the appropriate parameters. The layout is based on our circuit design parameter.
Its simulation result proves to our design work successful.
What should be advanced is the fact that there is some discrepancy between the two results
from circuit design simulation and layout simulation. As the shown in the
Figure 5-5 and Figure 4-10, all the time performance parameters from layout simulation are
higher those from circuit design simulation. Actually it is just right result that we have
predicted. The layout is closer to real product. However, the circuit design mainly simulates the
ideal model; some effect resulting from whole circuit can not be calculated accurately.
In short, our work is proved to be significant. Through the project we have learned more
system development knowledge and strengthened the ASIC design skills. The achievement from
that also manifests our team is successful and cooperative.
In addition, we understand the challenge projects in the future work and how to face and solve
them.
Again, we express our appreciation for our tutor Dr. A.J.AL-Khalili.
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
114
Verify at every step
ME
MO
RY
CP
U
Functional
Structural
Logic
Circuit
CONCORDIA
VLSI DESIGN LAB
Device
Layout
115

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