Adult_Learning_and_PD - CTE - Online Learning Management

Report
Targeting Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning,
Learning Styles, and Professional
Development Strategies
Week 5
Designing and Delivering
E-Learning Environments
Table of Contents
I.
Principles of Adult Learning
I.
Adult Learning and Learning Styles
II.
Adult Learning and Professional
Development Strategies
Targeting Your Learner
Questions to Consider:

Describe effective teaching
strategies and practices that you
use in your role as a professional
developer.
 How can you address adult
learning principles and learning
styles as you design online
professional development?
 How can you align the
Maryland Teacher Professional
Development Standards to
your online professional
development and to Adult
Learning Principles?
Keep these questions in mind as your review this content presentation.
I. Target Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning

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School cultures have not traditionally honored the principles of adult learning.
The clearest way to contrast adult learning (often called andragogy) with
pedagogy (instructor directed learning) is to note that adult learning usually
involves the learner in activities which match that person's interests, needs, style
and developmental readiness.
 According to “Adult Learning Theory: A Resource Guide”Compiled by
Teresa Crafton, Indiana State University, there are two fundamental
beliefs:
1) The learner may make choices from a rich and varied menu of
learning experiences and possibilities.
2) Learners must take responsibility for planning, acting and
growing.
“If we shift school cultures to support adult learning, professional
development is experienced as a personal journey of growth and
discovery which engages the learner on a daily and perhaps hourly basis.
In the best cases, andragogy includes an emphasis upon self-direction,
transformation and experience. One learns by doing and exploring . . . by
trying, by failing, by changing and adapting strategies and by overcoming
obstacles after many trials.”
Source: http://sapphire.indstate.edu/~craftont/adultlrn.html
I. Target Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning

Online Learning has become a viable option for professional development
for teachers as adult learners.
Consider some of the advantages of online learning:
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Anywhere/anytime
Just-in-time
Active & independent learning with reflection
Ease of access to experts
Time for reflection (can return to discussions and build on comments/postings
later)
According to the research study, Identifying Student Attitudes and Learning
Styles in Distance Education,

“The last ten years have seen the widespread development of digital processing
and communication coupled to networked computing. This has opened up a
broad set of teaching and learning opportunities, allowing a new emphasis on
interaction and concept exploration.”
Source: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf
I. Target Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning
According to the study, the positive aspects of
online education that learners identified
included:
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Flexibility and Convenience (time-shifting and
associated advantages of time management)
Access/Interaction with Instructor
Better Performance of learners/Teachers/Materials
Collaborative Learning Environment
Positive Learning Experience
Source: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf
I. Target Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning
According to the study, the negative aspects of online
education that learners identified included:
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Limitations on Interactivity (text-based
communications, asynchronous timelag vs.
synchronous)
Technical Problems
Increased Workload
Lack of Logistical Support (administrative and
technical)
Costs (equipment, online phone charges, etc.)
Source: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf
I. Target Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning
Teaching Teachers as Adult Learners – from NCREL:
 "Adults will commit to learning when the goals and objectives are
considered realistic and important to them. Application in the 'real
world' is important and relevant to the adult learner's personal and
professional needs.
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Adults want to be the origin of their own learning and will resist learning
activities they believe are an attack on their competence. Thus, professional
development needs to give participants some control over the what, who,
how, why, when, and where of their learning.
Adult learners need to see that the professional development learning and
their day-to-day activities are related and relevant.
Adult learners need direct, concrete experiences in which they apply the
learning in real work.
Adult learning has ego involved. Professional development must be
structured to provide support from peers and to reduce the fear of judgment
during learning.
Source: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/
I. Target Your Learner:
Principles of Adult Learning
Teaching Teachers as Adult Learners – from NCREL:
• Adults need to receive feedback on how they are doing and the results
of their efforts. Opportunities must be built into professional
development activities that allow the learner to practice the learning and
receive structured, timely, helpful feedback.
• Adults need to participate in small-group activities during the
learning to move them beyond understanding to application, analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation. Small-group activities provide an opportunity
to share, reflect, and generalize their learning experiences.
• Adult learners come to learning with a wide range of previous
experiences, knowledge, self-direction, interests, and competencies.
This diversity must be accommodated and respected in the professional
development planning.
• Transfer of learning for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated.
Coaching and other kinds of follow-up support are needed to help adult
learners transfer learning into daily practice so that it is sustained.
Source: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/
II. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Learning Styles
Adults typically have different motivations for learning than children such as
those pointed out by Cantor (1992, 37-38):
What motivates Adult Learners?
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Maintain social relationships
Meet external expectations--the boss says you have to upgrade skill X to
keep your job
Learn to better serve others -- managers often learn basic First Aid to
protect their employees
Professional advancement
Escape or stimulation
Pure interest
Instructors should be aware of the possible motivations behind their
participants' enrollment to better shape the instructional activities.
Source: http://www.cyg.net/~jblackmo/diglib/styl-a.html#What%20motivates%20adult%20learners?
II. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Learning Styles
Cantor also points out that adults have different barriers than children on
their way to learning. (1992, 39)
What Are the Barriers to Adult Learning?

Other responsibilities such as: families, careers, social commitments
Lack of time
Lack of money
Lack of child care
Scheduling problems
Transportation problems
Insufficient confidence
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Having to learn, if told by boss, county, state, but not interested or ready
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Source: http://www.cyg.net/~jblackmo/diglib/styl-a.html#What%20motivates%20adult%20learners?
II. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Learning Styles


Learning styles research has given educators new directions for making changes in
their classrooms. The single most widespread change has been to open classrooms
to more than one approach to intellectual work. Different social groupings, alternative
activities, more complex projects have all been introduced as efforts to create
opportunities for students to use their various strengths in dealing with course
material.
Despite the wide range of models, the concept of learning styles has gained growing
attention from educators because it provides a stable-enough characterization to plan
pedagogical strategies. These strategies appear more responsive to students’ needs.
They seem to provide better learning opportunities. They give fresh direction to
alternative teaching. And, especially, they describe middle-level models for
progressive educators engaged in student-centered, experiential philosophical
positions. Listed below are some general conclusions for teachers that seem to cut
across the various models:
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Students will learn better when using preferences in which they're successful.
Students will be better learners when they can expand their preferences.
When teaching accommodates various preferences, more students will be successful.
Teachers can construct activities that include specific (& multiple) learning preferences.
This can be done by adding alternatives or, completing learning cycles that incorporate all styles or,
by utilizing wholistic, complex tasks.
Source: http://www-isu.indstate.edu/ctl/styles/learning.html#LSTEACH
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies

The Maryland Teacher Professional Development Standards are derived
from the National Staff Development Council’s (NSDC) Standards for Staff
Development. Click on the following links to reach each of the two
organization’s websites. The following slides will give you more information
about Maryland’s standards.
The Maryland Teacher
Professional Development
Standards

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National Staff Development
Council’s (NSDC) Standards for
Staff Development
Like the NSDC standards, the Maryland Teacher Professional Development
Standards rest on several fundamental assumptions about contextual
factors that are critical to ensuring that professional development is
effective.
The NSDC standards were developed in 1995 and revised in 2001. The
Maryland Teacher Professional Development Standards are derived from
the 2001 version of the NSDC standards.
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies
From Maryland Teacher Professional Development Standards
Frequently Asked Questions:

1.
Why do we need standards for teacher professional development?
Standards can serve a variety of important functions. First, they provide a clear
vision and definition of high-quality professional development. Second, these
standards and the related indicators can guide design, planning, implementation,
and evaluation of professional development. These standards can also inform
decisions about allocating resources for professional development, and they can
support quality control and accountability systems.
2.
Who articulated these professional development standards?
These standards were developed by the Maryland Teacher Professional Development
Advisory Council, a 26-member group of distinguished K-16 educators, community
leaders, and representatives from the business community. The State Superintendent
of Schools convened the Council in January 2003 and charged the group with
recommending a practical, policy-relevant definition of high-quality professional
development. Following an extensive review of research on professional development,
as well as numerous sets of standards set by other state departments of education,
districts, local and regional reform initiatives, and professional associations, the Council
articulated these standards for Maryland.
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies

Context for High-Quality Teacher Professional Development in
Maryland:
Professional development is most effective when it takes place in
vibrant professional learning communities.

These learning communities take various forms, but they all value
ongoing learning by teachers and students. They encourage individual
and collaborative experimentation, practice, and reflection. They foster
collegiality and problem solving, and they emphasize continuous
improvement in classrooms and schools.

Think about: How will your school project help to establish a learning community?
How will it encourage collaboration? Reflection? Problem solving? Continuous
improvement?
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies

Context for High-Quality Teacher Professional Development in
Maryland:
Professional development is most effective when there are strong
leaders.

These leaders recognize the value of high-quality professional
development, encourage and facilitate teacher participation, and
communicate about the benefits of professional development to key
stakeholders (e.g., parents, school boards, county commissioners).
Ideally, leadership for professional development is distributed among
teachers, principals and other administrators, district staff, MSDE, and
institutions of higher education, and various cultural organizations. At
the same time, no single formula defines the appropriate distribution of
leadership.

Think about: How will your school project encourage participation? How can you ensure that
your experience is viewed as beneficial not only by the participants but also by the
stakeholders?
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies

Context for High-Quality Teacher Professional Development in Maryland:
Professional development is most effective when there are adequate
resources.
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Resources include money, people, and time. Just as leadership should be
distributed, resources (people and money) can come from a variety of sources,
with no single organization or stakeholder group expected to shoulder the whole
burden. Careful analysis of how time is used in school schedules, district
calendars, negotiated agreements and other policy documents can lead to more
time for teacher learning. All of these resources will be used most effectively
when allocations are coordinated and when there is careful assessment of the
returns on investments in professional development. As with leadership, no
single formula defines the adequacy of resources. Instead, resources are
adequate when they ensure that all teachers can study, practice, and implement
the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective with their students.

Think about: How will you make adequate use of resources when developing your
school project (teacher’s time, district money)?
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies

Context for High-Quality Teacher Professional Development in
Maryland:
Professional development is most effective when there is consensus
around clear expectations for what teachers should know and be able
to do to help all students learn.

These expectations are shared among all stakeholders and district and
school leaders work to build understanding and consensus around them.
The expectations are reflected in negotiated agreements, job
descriptions and assignments, performance appraisal systems, systems
of rewards and incentives for teachers, and in the design and content of
teacher professional development.

Think about: What expectations will you set for your school project? Who will you
consult with to ensure that expectations reflect a consensus?
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies

The Maryland Teacher Professional Development Standards are made
up of Standards and Indicators that Define High-Quality Professional
Development
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6 Content Standards: The first six standards define the content of professional
development. Specifically, the standards address (1) mastery of academic
content aligned with Maryland standards and quality instruction, (2) using
research to inform practice, (3) professional collaboration to improve instruction,
(4) mastery of knowledge and skills to meet diverse learning needs, (5) teachers’
skills in providing safe, secure and supportive learning environments for all
students, and (6) mastery of skills necessary to communicate effectively with
parents as partners in their children’s learning.
3 Process Standards: The next three standards concentrate on the processes of
planning, organizing and designing professional development. These standards
call for (1) examining disaggregated student data to determine the content, (2)
using rigorous, ongoing evaluation to assess results for teachers and for
students, and (3) incorporating best practices in adult learning into the design.
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies
Maryland Teacher Professional Development Content Standards
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I. Content knowledge and quality teaching - Effective professional
development deepens all teachers’ content knowledge and the knowledge and
skills necessary to provide effective instruction and assess student progress.
II. Research-based - Effective professional development ensures that all
teachers have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to apply research to
decision making.
III. Collaboration - Effective professional development ensures that teachers
have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to collaborate with others to improve
instruction.
IV. Diverse learning needs - Effective professional development ensures that all
teachers have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to meet the diverse learning
needs of all of their students.
V. Student learning environments - Effective professional development ensures
that all teachers are able to create safe, secure, and supportive learning
environments for all students.
VI. Family involvement - Effective professional development ensures that all
teachers have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to involve families and other
community members as active partners in their children’s education.
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies
Maryland Teacher Professional Development Process Standards
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I. Data-driven - Effective teacher professional development relies on rigorous
analysis of data.
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II. Evaluation - Rigorous evaluations assess the impact of professional
development on teaching and student learning.
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III. Design and teacher learning - Effective professional development content
and process reflect best practices in workplace learning and in-depth
understanding of how and why adults learn.
Source: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
III. Target Your Learner:
Adult Learning and Professional Development
Strategies
As you plan for your school e-learning project, remember you need
to TARGET THE LEARNER!
Maintain a clear vision of your learner. Keep in mind….
Adult Learning Learning Styles
Theory
Professional
Development
Standards
Resources

“Adult Learning Theory: A Resource Guide” Compiled by Teresa Crafton, Indiana State
University
http://sapphire.indstate.edu/~craftont/adultlrn.html

North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/
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“Identifying Student Attitudes and Learning Styles In Distance Education”
http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf

Maryland State Department of Education
http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/instruction/prof_standards.htm
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Indiana State University, Center for Teaching and Learning
http://www-isu.indstate.edu/ctl/styles/learning.html#LSTEACH
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Telecommunications for Remote Work and Learning
http://www.cyg.net/~jblackmo/diglib/styl-a.html#What%20motivates%20adult%20learners

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